HISTORY FORM ONE TOPIC 3 & 4: DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AND THEIR IMPACT



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HISTORY FORM ONE TOPIC 3: DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AND THEIR IMPACT
 The main focus in this topic is about development of different economic activities in Africa. The African they used their environment to conduct different activities for economic development. These economic development based on agriculture and technology.
Environment: Is total surroundings of man include man-made and natural features.
Land, water bodies, atmosphere, mountains, hills, Infrastructures i.e buildings, roads, etc.
 Technology: Is the scientific knowledge used to design and make tools.
Development: Refer to progressive changes from low to high standard of living.

HANDCRAFT INDUSTRIES AND MINING IN PRE-COLONIAL AFRICA.
Handcraft industries: These were industries of which man used hands and skills to produce tools and weapons.
Industries-Is the place where raw materials are processed into finished goods eg cotton-cloth

Specialized handcraft industries in Africa.
Salt making industries
Iron working
Copper mining
Gold mining
Pottery making
Spinning and weaving industries
Bark –cloth industries
Canoe making industries


1. Salt making industries 
- These are industries which engaged in production of soil in pre-colonial Africa.
Uses of salt
It is used for adding flavor taste for the food in the kitchen.
It is used for preservation of food like fish and meat.

Methods of obtaining salt
1. From different reeds
Reeds were collected ,dried and burned, the ashes would be filtered while the ashes remain liquid would be evaporated and residue would be used as salt.
Places: - Near Lake Victoria, Kyoga, and Albert, among Baganda and Bahaya tribes and among Mang’anja people near shores of Lake Nyasa.
2. Boiling and evaporating method
Sea or ocean water put into pans and left to evaporate, the salt crystals would be collected and used as salt.
Places: around coastal areas.
3. Salt mining
Salt was mined under neath rocks.
Places: At Taghaza, Bilma around lake Chad in western Sudan.
Near lake Bangwela and river Luapala in central Africa.
4.Water by fire
Spring water containing salt was boiled and finally salt was obtained.
Places with salt; in uvinza salt spring along river malagarasi in central Africa.
Uses of salt.
1. Salt is used as an ingredient in cookery.
2. Food preservation.
3. It is used as medicine i.e. on freshly cut wounds
4. It was used as a medium of exchange (trade exchange).
5. Animal hides were cured using salt before used to make cloth.
6. In Egypt salt was used to preserve a dead body. (mummification )

IRON INDUSTRY
By the beginning of the 19 th century, most of the African societies were able to produce their own iron. The famous blacksmith in Africa was able to produce their own iron. In Tanzania there were iron deposits in Itewe near chunya, liganga, and Uluguru Mountains.
Nubian of Sudan along the river Nile.
People along Futa djalon and Niger river in West Africa.
The Mang’anja people of Malawi.
The Venda people of northern Transvaal.
The Mashona of Zambia.
There were also deposits in Algeria, Tunisia, morocco, Liberia, Sieraleone Angola, and Zimbabwe.
- In Ethiopia blacksmiths were not allowed to inherit land or even to inter marry with other people.
Uses of iron.
1. Iron was used to make agricultural tools.
2. iron was used to make weapons i.e. spears, swords etc
3. Iron was a medium of exchange, some people used iron bars or hoes as taken when paying bride price i.e. the Sukuma in the northern west Tanganyika.
4. Iron was also a measure of wealth, people who had more iron than others were considered wealthy.
5. Iron was an important trade commodity i.e. Masai traded cattle for iron weapons from the pare and the Kikuyu.
6. Some objects used in religious ceremonies were made of iron i.e. Yoruba and fon made iron objects to honour Ogun (the God of iron and war).


COPPER MINING AND THE PROCESSING INDUSTRIES.
The production and use of copper In pure colonial Africa was wide spread. Pure copper from the earth’s surface. By 300 BC, The Egyptians were already producing cooper. Ibo and Yoruba in Nigeria. Central Kafua River and the Gwai River in Zambia. South Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo formerly known as Zaire.
Uses of cooper.
1. It is used to make ornaments such as bangles and earnings for example Ndebele women wore cooper and brass neckless, rings as a symbol of representing their husband’s wealth.
2. Used to make pots, pans and other utensils.
3. Used to make weapons such as daggers and knives.
4. Bars of copper were used as a medium of exchange and measure of value.
5. Copper was used as trade commodity.

Gold was one among the 1 st metals to be used in Africa. It was easy to find gold near the earth’s surface. In most parts of Africa, gold was found in the river bed, gold was obtained by washing gold bearing rocks for example river sabi and river Zambezi. in Ashanti and Gyain in Ghana and Meroe in Sudan.

Uses of gold.
It is used to make various types of ornaments for example rings, earrings, necklace and bracelets (made funery masks for the pharaohs in Egypt).
Gold used to make weapons for example knives, handles especially for important rulers.
Gold was used in making utensils such as plates, cups and spoons for the rich.
In Egypt gold was used to make coins.
Gold was an important trade commodity, in East Africa the town of kilwa became prosperous due to gold trade.
Gold was used as a currency as well as measure of wealth.
Rich people used gold to decorate buildings.
Other hand craft industries

POTTERY MAKING.
Pottery was practiced in areas where there was clay soil. Famous people where; Akamba, kisii, Batwa, Gisu and Pare.
Advantage of pottery.
1. Enables communities to make containers for cooking food.
2. Produced containers for storing water, milk, beer and grains.
3. Pottery produce items or goods for trade for example massai exchange cattle for pottery.
4. Pottery containers were used for serving food and drinks at homes.


WEAVING AND BASKETRY INDUSTRY.
Some people were skilled n making various items by weaving. The required raw materials included grasses, leaves and fibers. In East Africa the Lou were experts in basketry and Nyakyusa were experts in making mats.
Advantages of weaving and basketry.
1. Some communities built houses and boats.
2. Supplied communities with items such as beds and mats.
3. Provided items for trade.
4. Provided containers to carry loads easily, for example Kikuyu and Kamba(Kenyans).
5. Woven fish troops and nets.
6. Provided storage for agricultural produce.


TEXTILE PRODUCTION/CLOTH MAKING INDUSTRY.
Textile production is the making of cloth from different materials. Bark cloth was made from tree barks among the Nyakyusa, Buhaya and Buganda. Silk production was mainly in Nigeria and Madagascar.
Wool obtained from sheep, goat, and camel. Cotton was mainly grown by the Yoruba in Nigeria and in Guinea. A among the Fipa, items were made textile including prepared blankets, carpets and clothes.

AGRICULTURE 
Agriculture is the domestication of plants and animals. Agriculture began over 10000 years ago. In Africa agriculture began in the Nile valley in Egypt around 7000 B.C
Factors that contributed to the beginning of agriculture.
1. There were plants and animals.
2. Increase of human population, natural environment could not provide adequate food.
3. Changes of climate i.e. drought or occurrence of drought.
4. Competition for food between the humans and the animals.
5. People searched for goods far away from their homes.
There were mainly three types of agriculture practiced in ancient Africa:
1. Pastoralism
2. Crop cultivation
3. Mixed farming

Crop cultivation.
 Different types of crops were grown in various regions of Africa depending on the natural resources.
Crop cultivation was divided into two
1. Shifting cultivation
2. Permanent cultivation

Shifting cultivation
In this system land was cultivated and planted for sometime for example about three years, then the farmers would shift their farming activities to a new area. This farming practice was to allow the land to regain its fertility and control diseases and pests. In Africa shifting cultivation was common in the central, western and southern Tanzania (miombo wood land) and Eastern Kenya). This system was possible where the area was low populated (moderate climate/average amount of rainfall), soil was light and fertility was easily hausted.

Permanent crop cultivation.
Permanent crop cultivation was adopted in areas or regions with dense population. There was no extra land to move to availability of rainfall, also irrigation, terracing and fertilizers(manure) were applied. Examples of these areas where permanent cultivation was carried out include the following:
1. Egypt.
2. Cambrai region in the north eastern Togo.
3. Among the Chaggas on the slopes of mountain Kilimanjaro.
4. The Lozi of Zambia.
5. The Akamba of Kenya.
6. Slopes of mountain Meru, southern highland of Tanzania and central Kenyan highland.
7. Indian Ocean coastaline, North west of Lake Victoria.

2. Mixed farming.
This was kind of agriculture which includes crop cultivation and animal keeping, mainly in glass land areas with seasonal rainfall
The glass land areas were goods for growing crops and postures for animals
-The crops grown was such as
Sorgham Maize Cassava Beans Millet
-Animals kept were:-
Goats Donkey Cattles Horses Sheeps
-This kind of agriculture was common among the Waha, Nyamwezi,Fipa,Hehe,Kikuyu etc

PASTORALISM
Pastoralism is the practice of keeping livestock such as cattle, sheep, camels and goats. One important factor in the spread of pastoralism in Africa was the presence or absence of the tsetsefly.These flies caused sleeping sickness to human and trypasonomiasis to domestic animals.The pastoralist avoided tsetsefly infected areas especially in the moist low-lying valleys and thick forest regions.Examples of pastrolists in Africa are:
The Fulani of west Africa
The Gaua and Somali of North-East Africa
Masai of East Africa
Barabaig, Karamajong of East Africa
There are two types of pastoralism
1. Nomadic pastoralism
2. Sedentary pastoralism

Nomadic pastoralisim.
Is the seasonal movement of people with their livestock in search of water and pastures. Many nomadic pastoralists lived on meat, milk and blood. They occupy the scrub land and the savannah regions. Those areas get little rain fall.
examples of nomadic pastoralists include:
Tourane’s
The Fulani
The Barbeigr
The Omomo
The karamajong
The maasai.

Sedentary pastoralism.
Sedentary means staying or living in the same area. Sedentary pastrolists did not move from place to place. Examples are the agriculturalist maasai (kwavi), the animals kept by such communities are fewer than those kept by nomadic pastoralists.
How agriculture changed man’s life.
1. It led to the production of more food in these societies.
2. Agriculture forced people to settle down in one place.
3. It encouraged social and political organizations.
4. It led to the expansion of exchange trade due to surplus.
5. It encouraged specialization of work in the society, for example people begun to practice medicine, priestly duties and different crafts.
6. Some people became wealthier than others in the society due to the presence of more land and animals.
7. The agriculturists were forced to come up with new religions that could save their animals or livestock, For example new Gods.
8. Agriculture led to the introduction of science and technology. For example in Egypt, there was need for irrigation.


TRADE IN THE PRE-COLONIAL AFRICA
Trade is the process of buying and selling of goods and services between people. There was need to trade in order to get all things needed by the communities. Trade tends to develop in any society where there is surplus production.
METHODS OF TRADE.
1. Barter trade is the exchange of goods for goods, for example exchange of pots for goats or maize.
2. A currency method of trade is where money is used. In pre-colonial Africa iron, hoes, rolls of cloth, copper rods, salt and gold were used as money.

LOCAL TRADE. 
Refers to the kind of trade which is conducted within the same geographical area.
In local trade goods are exchanged between people living in the same geographical area, such as a town or village. Local trade was not for profit making but just to obtain essential goods. i.e. pastoral communities like the Maasai needed vegetables and grains from cultivators like the Nyakyusa and the Chaga.
Impacts of local trade.
1. Local trade united people within the same area.
2. Communities obtained goods such as tools, weapons, food stuffs and medical herbs.
3. Transport routes were improved.
4. Some important market centers emerged along the market routes.
5. Local trade encouraged communities to expand production.

REGIONAL TRADE.
Regional trade refers to trade conducted from one region to another (Trade conducted between two different geographical regions). Regional trade involved a wider variety of goods compared to local trade. It was not for profit making. For example regional trade were Trans Sahara trade, Long distance trade of East Africa and Central Africa. Regional trade in the pre-colonial Africa took place in 19 th century.
THE KAMBA. The Kamba were leading the long distance trade through northen route in the 19 th century. They Kamba caravan brought ivory, guns, hides and beeswax from the interior. From the Coast they obtained cloth, salt, copper, cowrie’s shells and jewellery.
THE YAO. The Yao traders got beads and cloth from Kilwa. They also captured and sold slaves from neighbouring communities, Yao chiefs such as Mpanda, Mataka, Machemba and Mtalika dominated the Southern route during the long distance trade.
THE NYAMWEZI. The Nyamwezi dominated the central routeconducted trade between the interior of Tanganyika and the coast. The Nyamwezi sold slaves and ivory, hide rhinoceros horn.

 Nyamwezi traders succeeded because of the following reasons.
1. The Nyamwezi leaders such as the Msirikazi, Nyungu ya Mawe and Mirambo supported the trade.
2. Nyamwezi were centrally placed on the route to the coast.
3. High demand for trade items such as ivory and slaves.
4. There was existence of variety of trade items such as ivory and gold.
5. Zanzibar needed slaves and ivory in the 1800 AD.
By the 1830 AD there were three main trade routes i.e.
1. The Southern route: controlled by Yao.
2. The Central route: controlled by the Nyamwezi.
3. The Northern route: controlled by the Kamba traders from the coast brought cloth, beads, wire and guns.
-from interior goods were ivory and slaves.

Impacts/ effects of regional trade.
Positive consequences/impacts.
1. Some traders became very rich.e.g Mirambo and Isike.
2. The communities were able to obtain new commodities e.g guns, clothes, beads, ivory, etc.
3. The rise of trade centers such as Saadans, Pangani, Bagamoyo, Tabora,Ujiji, Voi, and Taveta.
4. The rise of trade routes.
5. The rise of powerful Empires/Kingdoms such as Nyamwezi.
6. New food crops such as maize, rice and cassava were introduced.
7. Spread of Islam by the Arabs to the interior Tabora and Ujiji.

Negative impacts.
1. The rise of inter-tribal wars in Oder to get slaves.
2. Many elephants were killed as there was high demand of Ivory.
3. It led to depopulation and under development in some areas.
4. Slave raids caused insecurity and loss of innocent lives.
5. Foreigners used trade routes to reach to the interior.
6. Exploitation of African wealth by Europeans and Asians.
 7. Decline of local industries in Africa.

LONG DISTANCE TRADE.

Long distance trade was the trade  carried out long distance as people/traders had to move for long distance going on exchanging goods with other societies and the major aim was to get profit for example a salt traders was exchanged salt foe hoes not because he wanted to use hoes but he wanted re sell them at a profit later.
The following is an example of long distance trade.

TRANS SAHARAN TRADE
Trans Sahara trade was the trade conducted across the Sahara desert. It involved the people of Northern Africa and the people of Western Sudan. This trade started long time ago between 3000BC to 2000BC. It became important in the 1 st century AD after the people of West Africa to discover the use of camel and led to formation of many trade routes. The Trans Saharan trade was known as dumb trade because there was no common language which was used.
People who involved in the trade
1. West Africa
2. North Africa
3. Savannah Region

MOVEMENT OF TRADERS.
People (traders) organized themselves in groups known as CARAVANS
Goods involved in the trade
Kola nuts, gold, salt, food stuffs, Ivory, clothes, gold, bee-wax, slaves and ostrich feathers goods from West. And from North Africa salt and animal skin. Goods from Europe and Asia were cotton and silk cloth, swords, guns, metal pans, horses and Arabic books.
Trade routes :
1. Western route- From Sijilmasa, Fez in Morocco passed through Taghaza, Taodeni, Walata, Audaghost, and Kumbi Saleh to Timbuktu.
2. Central route- This passed Tunis, Ghat, Ghamese, Kano, Gao and Hausa land.
3. Eastern route- This began in Tripol, Marzul and Bilma.

FACTORS THAT LED TO THE GROWTH OF THE TRANS-SAHARAN TRADE
The following are some of the factors that contributed to the growth of the Trans Saharan trade:
(i) Stability of the communities: Both North African and Western Sudan zone were politically stable. For example leaders like Sundiata Keita and Mansa Musa collected taxes and established guides on trade routes. This enabled the people to conduct trade without fear. Up to the end of the 15th century AD many traders were motivated to come to Western Sudan for trade.
(ii) Western Sudan provided goods needed by traders from Europe. These goods included gold, ivory and slaves. Through trading Western Sudan exchanged her own commodities with goods from Western Europe and Asia. In turn, she got clothes, guns and other commodities. The surplus production in Western Sudan was adequate to sustain demand for products such as kolanuts and gold, hides, ivory slaves, whereas Taghaza produced enough salt to meet the needs in Western Sudan. The high production capacity in the region enhanced the growth of the Trans Saharan trade.
(iii) Honesty: The Berbers of North Africa and the African traders of Western Africa trusted each other. Traders brought in commodities without fear of theft and robbery, enabling the trade to flourish.
(iv) The use of camels for transport suited the desert conditions and facilitated the development of the Trans-saharan trade. These animals could not only carry more commodities than horses and human porters, but also endured desert conditions. Camels can survive without water for a longtime. This convenient means of transport strengthened the development of the Trans-saharan trade.
(v) Geographical location of the region: The location and climate favoured the production of kola nuts and other foodstuffs that were needed in the community, especially the forest region to the south. The region of Western Sudan had no impassable forests because many areas were covered by short grassland. This enabled traders to cross the desert without fear or any difficulty.
(vi) The invention of a medium of exchange contributed to the growth of the Trans Saharan trade. At the beginning, only the silent barter system of trade was practised. Later on, cowrie shells were introduced as a convenient medium of exchange. This in turn facilitated the development of the Trans-saharan trade.
(vii)From the nothern part,the Berbers provided capital to many traders who used to cross the sahara desert.
(viii)Removal of language barrier: This was attained after Arabic language became the trader’s medium of communication. This in turn facilitated the trade by making communication between the traders easy.
(ix) Absence of competition for trading activities in the region: There were no regular ships that visited the coast of West Africa. As a result, what was produced from the forest zone was peacefully transported to North Africa through the Saharan desert.
(x) Scarcity of commodities like gold and salt.
(xi )Introduction of horses, which were used in conquest and expansion.

Effects of the Trans Saharan Trade in Africa.
1. It led to the growth of empires like Ghana, Mali etc
2. It increased development of Agriculture.
3. It led to the introduction of Arabic Islamic religion cultures.
4. Formation of mixed races example half cast
5. Growth of town and cities eg Jenne, Timbukutu, Gao and Walata.

THE DECLINE OF THE TRANS-SAHARAN TRADE
By the second half of the nineteenth century, the volume of Trans-saharan trade started to decline. A number of obstacles or problems have been identified to explain the decline. These are:-
i) Strong desert winds: The traders could not withstand the hazards of sand storms. Many abandoned the trade as a result.
ii) Traders faced the danger of getting lost in the desert because the routes were not clear. Once traders got lost, they would wander in the desert for a long time and eventually die of thirst and starvation.
iii) Traders were subjected to attacks by desert robbers who made their living by stealing from trade caravans. In the process, traders lost their lives and goods. This discouraged traders from participating effectively in the trade.
iv)The extreme climatic conditions were unfavourable to traders. The heat and high temperatures during the day and every low temperatures at night due to the absence of cloud cover discouraged traders.
v) Traders faced the danger of highly poisonous desert creatures whose bites could result in death. These included snakes and scorpions.
vi) Traders faced language difficulties. This hampered communication during trade. As such “silent trade” had to be used initially.
vii) The development of the Trans-Atlantic rout across the Atlantic Ocean to Europe: commodities like ivory and slaves were transported quickly to the coast of West Africa from where they wer transported to Europe. Thus the trade routes shifted from the Saharan desert to the Atlantic. Instead of the direct route to the North, they went via the coast of West Africa.
viii) Commodities obtained from Western Sudan such as salt and gold faced competition from similar goods from other America cheaply. As result, the volume of Trans-saharan trade decreased because Western Sudan could no longer clain a monopoly in production of certain commodities like salt and gold. Also gold from Zimbabwe via Sofala port by the Portuguese ended up in Europe.
ix) The abolition of slave trade contributed to the decline of the Trans-saharan trade. Slaves were the main item of trade. When slave trade was abolished, trade started to decline.
x) Shortage of water also led to the decline in trade. The oases in the Saharan desert provided water seasonally but they sometimes dried up. This made it difficult for the traders to cross the Saharan desert.
xi) Wars: The war in Morocco and the one between Christians and Muslims disrupted the smooth running of the trade. The Moroccan invasion of western Sudan in 1591 AD disturbed the growth of the trade by taking gold at Wangara.

Finally, the Trans-saharan trade collapsed in the 16th century. From this period onwards, west Africa witnessed the expansion of European occupation on the coast of West Africa.

HISTORY FORM ONE TOPIC 4: DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SYSTEM

Before the coming of colonialist Africans they had their own social and political system of administration, African administration system was interrupted after the interaction with colonialist in 19th century. There fore in this topic we explain Development of social and political system of Africa.


THE CLAN ORGANIZATION
Clan was the organisation  which involved combination of several related families with a common ancestor. clan organization combined with both the matrilineal and patrilineal societies. In the patrineal societies clan heritage was based on the father, in the matrilineal clan heritage was based on the mother examples of this society were Mweras, Kambas and Kikuyus whom others are patrineals. The main economic activity in the clan organization was agriculture. clan is controlled or ruled by the clan’s head. More examples of matrilineal societies; The Ngindo, Zaramo, Makua and Matumbi.

DUTIES OR FUNCTIONS OF THE CLAN HEAD
1. To distribute land to the communities or clan members.
2. To preserve traditions and customs of the clan.
3. To preserve land belonging to the clan.
4. To settle disputes and quarrels.
5. To find wives for boys and husbands for girls.

Types of clan organizations in agricultural societies.
 There are two types of clan organizations in agricultural societies;
1. Matrilineal
2. Partrilineal

Matrilineal clan organization
This is a society where by the husband moved to the wife’s family and children of the new family belonged to the mother’s (wife’s clan). As a result clan heritage was based on the mother’s clan. Uncles have to make all the important decisions concerning the children and the nephews of their sisters. Matrilineal age in Africa was practiced among the Makonde, Makua, Mwera and the Yao of Tanzania and the Kamba of Kenya.

Patrilineal clan organization societies
This is the system of organization in which the clan heritage was based on the father’s line and all children bared the name of the father. The husband had to pay substantial bride price in different forms such as cattle, goats, etc in Oder to get the wife, the bride price could be stored as wealth, in this system all the children of the new family belonged to the father’s clan.
By the 18 th and 19 th century clan system changed to chief train ship after several came to be controlled under one leader.

CHIEFDOM ORGANISATION
Chiefdom or Chieftain Organization  system was adopted by many societies that were under clan organisation. This included the Sukuma, Chagga, Nyakyusa, etc. The functions of a chief in these societies were similar to that of the clan leader the difference is the chief had a larger area.
AGE SET ORGANIZATION.
This kind of socio-political organization based on age and sex. In order for one to fit in the society one was required to fulfill certain obligations. Often the main productive activity was based on the harsh environments. Such as arid grass land and semi arid, in these areas poor soil could not support agriculture economy but vegetation could be used for animal husbandry.
Age set organization was the determinant form of organization in pastoral societies. The best example of these societies were the Maasai , Nyakyusa of East Africa, Hausa in West Africa and the Khoi Khoi of South Africa. The division of responsibilities and duties was based on age and sex and was usually done during intuition ceremonies. Youth were taught special responsibilities. Age set covered a specific group of years for example;
a. Children group aged 0-8years were regarded as non producers group. They were not directly involved in production.
b. Youth group 8-18 years their main responsibility was to graze animals, trading young animals and milking cattle they were assisted by women.
c. Moran group ( people between youth and adults aged between 35yers) and above these were soldiers of the society and the main responsibilities of the Moran were as follows;
i. To protect the whole society as trained soldiers.
ii. To protect live stock against dangerous animals and raiders
iii. To increase the number of animals through raiding their neighbours
iv. To travel with their herds in search for water and pastures.
d. Laibons this is the group of elders aged 40years and above it consisted of elders who were divided in groups namely;
Junior elders
Elders
And senior elders

Responsibilities of elders :
1. To control live stock and all the properties on behalf of their communities.
2. To enable norms and ethics to govern the society.
3. They were top overseers of all the spiritual and political matters of the community.
4. They were responsible for counseling other members of the society.
5. To settle disputes among the society members 6. They were regarded as retired producers of the society but their ideas and skills were highly appreciated.




NTEMISHIP :
Ntemi comes from the word “kutema” which means opening up of new land. It also means finding a locality.Ntemi was the name given to a leader who organized the action of opening up new land and controlled the people, Ntemiship was being practised in Unyamwezi by 1300 AD. It then spread in the neighbouring such as the Sukuma, Sangu, Hehe, Kimbu, Gogo and Bena of Tanzania. There were about 300 Ntemiship in Tanzania in the 18 th C. Among the Sukuma, the ruler in Ntemiship organization was called Ntemi. He became Ntemi because he was the founder of the locality. He was chosen by a counsel of elders choosing a person to become Ntemi depended on his wisdom courage and experience.

Responsibilities of the Ntemi :
1. He was the top authority in the political and judicial matters provided overall guidance in the community.
2. He enforced proper uses of resources such as land, water, forest resources etc.
3. He was the overseer of the community food reserve.
4. He settled disputes in the community.
5. He had the religious power. He led the people in his community in performing religious ceremonies and offering sacrifices to the spirits.
6. To collect tributes from his subjects.
7. He provided over all guidance in the society.

Factors for the rise of the Nyamwezi Kingdom:
Nyamwezi who lived in central Tanzania area group of the Bantu societies. Each of these societies had their own settlements headed by a chief and titled Mtemi(Ntemi).
Ntemiship (chiefdom) was composed of people of shared background or kingship and believes. Each of the Nyamwezi kingdoms had a Ntemi at the centre who was helped by a council of elders the Wanyampala in administration.Towards the middle of 19 th century more dynamic political structure developed among the Nyamwezi under Fundikira, Nyunguyamawe and Mirambo. This led to the institution of the Ntemi becoming one of the most powerful positions; the several Nyamwezi settlements were united under one senior Ntemi.

Factors for the rise of the Nyamwezi kingdom or chiefdom can be explained below as follows;
1. Ngoni invasions- the Ngoni invasions in Western Tanganyika made the Nyamwezi people to unite in order to resist the Ngoni attackers.
2. The expansion of real trade into the Regional trade/ Long distance trade due to emergency of wealthy traders like the Mirambo who made the effective use of Ruganga.
3. Penetration of the Europeans into the coastal interior trade.This introduced new trading patterns to the Nyamwezi traders who joined together to effective resist European pressure to stop slave trade.
4. The rise of Mirambo as trader and leader used their influence to unite the Nyamwezi land.
5. The use of the gun and gun powder by the Mirambo’s solders; this caused the weakening of watemi submissive to his rule.
6. Growth of the towns Example: Tabora and Ujiji.
7. Population growth.
8. Unity among the people.

STATE ORGANIZATION.
State is a community occupying a certain given territory and living under full control of its government and therefore it is independent form of external control. State in East Africa mostly started to emerge in the 18 th century AD due to the rapid spread of agricultural communities and improvement of science and technology. Clan which possessed a deliquate labour and land resources or had better skills of iron use became dominant clan and leader of the community or village; they were respected and obeyed by other clan members. Those who disagreed with them migrated to other lands. In this way leader of the dominant clan assumed political and spiritual or ritual functions. Kings and queens were state leaders. Village heads who were leaders of many clans in villages were under state of kings or queens also had their court to deal with judicial matters.

GENERAL FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION.
1. Conquest- some powerful states conquered the weaker societies and therefore making them strong and expand. For example Buganda conquered Bunyoro in the interlacustrine regions.
2. Trade-trade such as the Long distance trade enabled the society concerned to become strong and powerful after acquiring commodities of different types including weapons which were used for strengthening their societies. Baganda got guns from the East Coast to defend and expand. The empire of the Mali, Ghana and Songhai got metal and hoes from north Africa to strengthen their military.
3. Good climate and fertile soils(soil fertility) It led to the increase of food and assurance of feeding which led to population increase, a factor which was very important for the state formation. For instance heavy rainfall and fertile soil enabled production of more food and surplus in Buganda.
4. Good leadership- some African rulers were strong and ambitious to expand their empire so they organized their people and got support from them for example: Kabanga of Buganda.
5. Availability of iron- iron promoted agricultural products and was used for making war weapons which in turn became most important for conquering other states.
6. Migration-this was a complimentary factor it happened that some people migrated to other states and brought with them new technology and skills which were used to expand and strengthen the new societies concerned.
7. Size of the kingdom- kingdoms that were small in size such as Buganda and Ghana were easier to organize,to administer effectively and to defend unlike the larger kingdoms like the Bunyoro; the effective control was impossible.

State formation in Africa Environmental factor
Location of a place e.g. in trading while some of the African States were near to the trading towns as they obtained tax and commodities.
Iron technology in Africa also helped in the development and rise of Africa states e.g. By Iron they made weapons like spears, Arrows, guns etc. weapons were useful on conquering small states eg. Buganda conquered Bunyaro-Kutoro, Nyankole.
Some states had good leadership and they were able to organise their states e.g. Shaka Zulu, Mirambo of Nyamwezi, Mkwawa of Hehe. Tunkumanin of Ghana, Sunsiata of Mali etc.
Men belonging to African societies were involved in long and short distance trade which led to:
  • Outbreak of wars and migration
  • Formal governments
Prime minister, council of elders, Provision chief, general commander and others like Abakungu, Abalangira.
Some states rose up due to the influence of the Islamic religion e.g. through the use of Jihad while states were turned into Islamic states. For instance in West Africa we see the Sokoto caliphate (under Uthman Dan fodio) who managed to conquer several states in the forest zone.
Some of African tribes had strong armies and had improved weapons for conquering other states. It is said that before the White man’s intrusion, Ghana had about 20,000 experienced soldiers and Mali had 10,000 soldiers.
Fall of some states in Africa
  • Increase in size of states led to poor organisation and state management e.g. Ghana and other states.
  • Wars and conquest while some of the states were conquered by strong states e.g. In Mfecane war about 100 states were conquered by Zulu.
  • Slave trade in Africa also affected a lot of weak states while strong states managed to conquer small states e.g. Fulani in West Africa declined due to this.
  • The system of obtaining leaders through heritage did not lead to the development of states but the fall of states that were following this system.
  • The conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims in some societies while non-Muslimsocieties being conjured by the Muslim societies.
  • Weak leaders in some societies failed to organise their states leding to their decline.
STATES ORGANISATION TYPES OF STATES IN AFRICA
Each of the colonial African societies had a system of government that means each society had a set of rules, laws and traditions sometimes called customs that established part of a larger group. There were two dominant states emerged Africa and the varied more from one place to another;
1. Decentralized state(non-centralized) or stateless political societies
2. Centralized kingdoms and empires
  1. Decentralised states (Non centralised)
  2. Centralised states.
These emerged as a result of one powerful family to control other classes in domination of wealth and political power.
DECENTRALIZED (NON CENTRALIZED STATE) OR STATELESS POLITICAL STATE.
These are societies that did not have well defined and complex or centralized system of government. These emerged as a result of one powerful family to control other clan to dominance of wealth and political power.
Characteristics of decentralized states:
1. Most of them are small in terms of population and geographical areas.
2. Stateless political societies in Africa were usually made up of a group of either neighboring towns or villages that had no political connection with a larger kingdom as a nation.
3. They are characterized by politically autonomous villages. That is each village was politically separated and not connected to the neighboring village also no hereditary chiefs.
4. These were religious organization structures of kinship ties lineage groups and secret societies that provided regulations.
5. They did not have a system of chiefs, it showed position of chief was weak and was not hereditary.
6. Chiefs were usually selected by a group of elders and not based on their family connections.
7. Some decentralized societies did not have chiefs they were organized by a council of elders which comprised of many elderly people in the community. 
CHARACTERISTICS OF DECENTRALISED STATES
  1. Most decentralised societies were small in terms of population and area.
  2. Decentralised states had no political connection with a large kingdom.
  3. Each village was politically separated and was not politically connected to neighbouring villages.
  4. Most decentralised societies did not have a system of chiefs.
  5. Council of elders were religious leaders . Organisational structure of kinship ties lineage groups.
CENTRALISED KINGDOMS AND EMPIRES
These are large kingdoms or empires that developed in a complex system of government. These large empires governed by kings who had near absolute power such as Ancient Egypt in north Africa, Ghana, Mali and Songhai in West Africa, Zimbabwe(southern Africa), Bunyoro, Buganda, Karagwe, Ankole and Toro of East Africa. These kingdoms were similar to those empires in Asia and Europe that were in existence during the same time/period. MansaMusa of Mali and the Sunni Ally of Songhai had near absolute power and there were no separation of power. The political control such as executive, legislature and judicial functioning were centralized in the hands of the few people.Political societies refer to these societies as centralized.
Some African societies were large empires governed by kings, who had near absolute power. For Example:
  1. North Africa – Egypt, Nubia, Axum in North East
  2. Ghana, Mali, Soghai and Kaneroi Burnu in Western
  3. Buganda, Karagwe, Ankole and Tero in East Africa
CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRALISED POLITICAL SYSTEMS
  1. Presence of a king or queen.
  2. The clan had to pay tribute to the monarchy
  3. Availability of enough food to feed the settled population
  4. The centralised authority was responsible for solving social disputes.
Example: Ancient Egypt
Origins: According to archaeological evidence, the Egyptian state arose between 1500 and 500 BC. The evidence also show that by this time there were already villages of self sufficient producers who grew wheat, barley and kept animals. These producers formed permanent settlements as they increased in population.
REASONS FOR THE RISE OF THE EGYPTIAN STATE
  1. The development of agriculture and pastoralism
  2. Specialization of labour
  3. The rise of Nemes who united the upper and the lower Egypt
  4. Development of local industries
  5. Taxation
  6. Strong Army
  7. Development of productive forces
Therefore any one with the following rose to power:
  1. Anyone who could control disasters by rituals and charms
  2. Anyone who had experience and stored knowledge of floods
  3. Anyone who had knowledge of predicting floods
CLASSES IN THE EGYPTIAN STATE
  1. The ruling class- Consisted of the Pharaoh who was at the top followed by the nobility, priests, court officials and other officials- Followed by administrators of the people called the Vizier.
  2. The working class
  3. The peasants and slaves
ETHIOPIA
Ethiopia started as a small kingdom known as Axum, was founded near the red sea coast by a dynasty of Sabean from the other side of the Red Sea. The Ethiopia arose around 1000 BC
FACTORS FOR THE GROWTH OF THE ETHIOPIAN STATE
  1. Strong leadership
  2. Agriculture
  3. Unity among the people
  4. Growth of local industries
  5. Strong army
  6. Taxation
  7. Christianity
CLASSES IN ETHIOPIA
  1. Feudal Lords
  2. Peasants (tenants and serfs)
  3. Slaves.
Feudalism was consolidated by the introduction of Christianity during the 4th AD and King Ezana was the first to be converted. King Zangwe built 30 churches. A descendant of King Solomon and Queen Sheba.
Expansion done by 3 emperors (leaders):
  1. Zangwe Dynasty – 12th C – 13th C
  2. King Theodire – 19th C – 1855 – 1868
  3. Menelik II – 19th C – 1889 – 1913 Menelik II made Addis Ababa his Capital
THE KINGDOM OF NUBIA
Nubia lay in the area that cut across the borders of modern Sudan, Egypt, and Ethiopia. The Nubian State arose around 200 BC. It was called Kush and its capital was Napata. In 3rd C the capital shifted to Meroe.
FACTORS FOR THE RISE/GROWTH OF THE NUBIAN STATE
  1. Agricultural activities
  2. Trade
  3. Availability of valuable goods e.g. Gold and Ivory
  4. Development of local industries
DECLINE OF NUBIA
  1. Feudal lords were against the peasants
  2. Attacks by Muslims
  3. Disunity
WESTERN SUDANIC STATES
The early State in western Sudan was established in the region between the Sahara desert and the forest region of the South. The most important states are Ghana, Mali, Songhai and Kanem Bornu
GENERAL FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF WESTERN SUDANIC STATES
  1. Geographical location
  2. Iron technology
  3. The growth of population
  4. Development of local industries
  5. Taxation
  6. Trans - Saharan trade
  7. Availability of valuable goods e.g. gold
  8. Good centralised government
  9. Capable leaders
  10. Strong army
GHANA EMPIRE
During its rise Ghana had two main towns, one occupied by Muslims and the other by Pagans. The rulers and the people were Soninke speaking group. The word Ghana as the King title emerged in 5th AD. The capital center of administration was Koumbi Saleh.
FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF THE GHANIAN EMPIRE
  1. Agricultural activities
  2. Availability of valuable goods e. g gold
  3. Trans – Saharan trade in gold and salt
  4. Good leadership and efficient system of government.
  5. Common language.
FACTORS FOR THE DECLINE OF GHANA EMPIRE
  1. Almoravids constant attacks
  2. Disunity among people
  3. Jihad wars
  4. Lack of stable system of royal successions
  5. The rise of rural kingdoms e.g. Mali
MALI EMPIRE
Early in the 3rd C Ghana fell apart as a result of the war between Samangwa the king of Ghana and Prince Sundiata Keita the king of Kagaba. Ghana was defeated and Ghana fell under Sundiata’s rulership. Sundiata formed a large kingdom known as Mali the capital was Niani and the title of the ruler was Mansa.
FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF THE MALI
  1. The fall of Ghanaian empire
  2. Control of gold fields of Bure
  3. Strong army
  4. Agricultural activities
  5. Trans – Saharan trade
  6. Strong leadership of Sundiata Keita and later Mauna Kan Kan Musa
  7. Islamic faith which promoted libraries and Islamic universities.
DECLINE OF THE MALI EMPIRE
  1. Weak leadership after the death of Mansa Mahmud IV
  2. Empire became too large to control
  3. Lack of unity and the empire was divided into three spheres of influence and they foughtagainst each other.
  4. Attacks by Tuaregs
  5. Civil wars
  6. The rise of Songhai empire
SONGHAI EMPIRE
In the late 15th Century the Songhai empire originally the Gao, conquered neighbouring states under the leadership of Sunni Ali and formed the large empire of Songhai. Gao became its capital at around the 11th C and remained the capital under the empire. Its famous leaders were Sunni Alli, Askia Mohamed and Askia Daud.
FACTORS FOR THE GROWTH OF SONGHAI EMPIRE
  1. Agriculture activities
  2. Strong army
  3. Trans – Sahara trade
  4. Good administration
  5. Taxation
  6. Islamic faith
DECLINE OF THE SONGHAI EMPIRE
  1. Weak leadership after the death of Askia Daud
  2. The Moroccan invasion
  3. The empire was too large to control
  4. Religious hostility between Islamic and traditional beliefs
  5. The shift in orientation of trade towards the Atlantic
FOREST STATES
THE BENIN EMPIRE
Benin empire was a very small state made up of the Edo speaking people. The highest authority at the time were chiefs known as Ogiso which meant the ‘Kings of the Sky’ and the administrative centre was Ubinu. Between 1388 – 1431 there was a series of civil wars which divided the Edo. After the death of the last Ogiso, his son Prince Ekaladerhan left for exile and established himself in Ile-Ife, so when the Edo people requested his return, he sent his son, Prince Oranmiyan who took up the throne.
EXPANSION INTO CITY-STATE EMPIRE
By 15th C the empire expanded into a city-state under the leadership of Oba Ewuare the Great
REASONS FOR THE RISE OF THE BENIN EMPIRE
  1. Some of capable rulers the greatest of whom was Ewuare
  2. Good centralized system of Government
  3. Trade
  4. Unity
  5. Development of Handicraft Industry
DECLINE OF THE BENIN EMPIRE
  • Introduction of slave trade
  • Trans- Atlantic trade
  • Firearms introduced through European trade caused tribal wars that led to the finaldecline of the Benin Empire.
THE EMPIRE OF OYO
Oyo empire began in the late 14th C or early 15th C likely 1388 – 1431. The people of Oyo were Oranmiyan, their capital was Oyo-Ile and the King of Oyo was called Alaafin. The Bashoran was the leader of the army.
REASONS FOR THE RISE OF THE OYO EMPIRE
  1. It had organised political system headed by a number of great Alafins
  2. Strong organised army
  3. Agricultural activities
  4. Development of local industries
  5. Slave trade
  6. Dahomey tributary
DECLINE OF THE OYO EMPIRE
  1. Conflict between Alafin and Basharon
  2. Conquest from the Fulani and Dahomey
  3. Civil wars and disunity
DAHOMEY EMPIRE
Dahomey rose after the decline of Oyo in the 19thC. it was founded by the Fon people. It had good leaders such as King Agaja and Houegbadja who built the Royal Palaces of Abomey.
THE RISE OF THE DAHOMEY EMPIRE IN THE 18th C
  1. Growth of centralised and powerful monarchy
  2. Boyul succession system was effective
  3. Strong army
  4. Good leadership of King Gezo and later Aguja
  5. Control of slave trade
DECLINE OF DAHOMEY
Dahomey declined after the arrival of the French.
ASANTE EMPIRE
Asante or Ashanti empire was found as a result of emergence of several cities in the region of Kumasi. The people of Asante were Akan ruled by the Oyuko clan. The King was Obiri Yeboa who was Osei Tutu. The capital city of Asante or Ashanti was Kumasi. The symbol of Asante union was a Golden stool. The ruler of Asante was known as Asantehene.
FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF ASANTE
  1. Agricultural activities
  2. Development of local industries
  3. Some of its capable rulers e.g. Osei Tutu
  4. Well organised political system
  5. Trade
DECLINE - The state declined after the arrival of Europeans.
CENTRALISED STATES OF CENTRAL AFRICA
Example: Onya empire, it was founded in the 14th C. The head of the kingdom took the title of Munikongo or Mwekongo means lord of Kongo. The capital was Mbaza which the Portuguese later baptised Sutrador.
FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF KONGO EMPIRE
  1. Technological development e.g. Iron technology
  2. Trade
  3. Taxation
  4. Development of local industries
  5. Emergence of traditional leaders with a strong belief in spiritual and magic power
DECLINE OF THE CONGO EMPIRE
  • The arrival of the Portuguese
  • Slave trade
  • Weak leadership after Manikongo Mingo Mkuwa who acquired up an Embassy inPortugal. His son Mzingo Mbemba was baptized as Dan Alfonce. He was a puppet of thePortuguese and caused civil war in Kongo.
MWENEMUTAPA KINGDOM
This Kingdom was created under the leadership of Mutola. Mutola conquered Tongu and Torura of the Zambezi valley. He acquired the title of Mwenemutapa which means ‘Master of conquered lands’. He was a political, military and religious leader. Mutola died in 1450 and his son Matope inherited, after Matope’s death in 1480 Changamire took over in 1490.
REASONS FOR THE RISE OF MWENEMUTAPA
  1. Agriculture activities
  2. Good leadership of Mutola
  3. Availability of valuable goods e.g. copper, iron and gold
  4. They controlled trade routes
  5. Trading centres
REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF MWENEMUTAPA
  1. The arrival of Portuguese who monopolized the gold trade
  2. The kingdom became divided into two parts Mutapa and Ruzwi
  3. Rebellion from local people
After the death of Matope, his son Nyahuma took over. He was younger than the other chief who wanted power so that chief rebelled and caused civil war.
THE LUBA STATE
This state is found between the tributaries of river Kongo. The Songiye people migrated from Katanga led by a leader from the Kangolo clan. The united Kaniok and from Luba kingdom, Ilungambila married into the Kangolo clan. This intermarriage gave rise to the Luba lineage of Kalala Ilunga, the founder of Munza as capital of Luba.
REASONS FOR THE RISE OF THE LUBA STATE
  1. Centralised system of administration where the kingdom had final say in wars and external trade
  2. The development of trade
  3. Agricultural activities
  4. The presence of iron technology
THE LUNDA STATE
The centre of the empire lay in the valley of Nkala river. The Luba kings took the title of Mwanta. It began as a simple village and their first ruler was called Mwantagaand. Ilunga Tshibinda who came from Luba married a princess from the area and their son became the first paramount ruler of the Lunda State.

FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF LUNDA STATE

  1. Iron technology
  2. Development of local industries
  3. Agriculture activities
  4. Good leadership
  5. Trade.

FACTORS THAT GAVE RISE TO CENTRALIZED SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
1. Existence of strong leadership for example among the Baganda, strong and able rulers such as Kyabagu, Suna and Mutesa 1 were able to unite the Baganda people and govern them.
2. Permanent cultivation and dense population.
 3. A long period of war with neighbours encouraged the people to form one united state for the sake of security such as among the Sambaa and Baganda. \
4. Strong army helped to conquer new areas and force the people to accept the ruler of one leader. E.g Chief Mirambo of Unyamwezi.







TOPIC 1: SOURCES AND IMPORTANCE OF HISTORY

TOPIC2: EVOLUTION OF MAN, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

TOPIC 4: DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SYSTEMS

OTHER TOPICS FOR A'LEVEL
1. FORM SIX.
HISTORY FORM SIX TOPIC 8 
HISTORY FORM SIX TOPIC 7 
HISTORY FORM SIX TOPIC 6 
HISTORY FORM SIX TOPIC 5 
HISTORY FORM SIX TOPIC 4 
HISTORY FORM SIX TOPIC 3 
HISTORY FORM SIX TOPIC 2 
HISTORY FORM SIX TOPIC 1 




2. FORM FIVE
HISTORY FORM FIVE TOPIC 7 
HISTORY FORM FIVE TOPIC 6 
HISTORY FORM FIVE TOPIC 5 
HISTORY FORM FIVE TOPIC 4 
HISTORY FORM FIVE TOPIC 3 
HISTORY FORM FIVE TOPIC 2 
HISTORY FORM FIVE TOPIC 1 




1 comment:

  1. Well well, notes zimeshiba. Ahsante sana kwa mchango huu kwenye walimu

    ReplyDelete

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