CIVICS          COMMERCE             ENGLISH 



Listening is the most important skill to language and for learning new information. Listening and hearing are disserunt
- Hearing is the sense through which sound is received this physical process is the first in the learning process.
- Listening is a mental process that requires the receives active participation. Hearing on the other hand is passive process. No one has to think to hear
E.g. many people like back ground noise from a radio or tape or to when they work around the house
- Actual listening involves
a) Concentration
b) Interpreting them
1. Listening for enjoyment- for example listening to an amusing story, jokes, music, movie, or play
 2. Listening for information
When you listen or informative speech e.g. news. This requires more concentration than listening for enjoyment you need to learn the main idea of the speaker
3. Critical listening –refers to an active process it involve listening for information and eventual that information. This skill help to determine how information heard in speech can affect a person. It is important to take notes and later ask the speaker question about his/ her items
4. Precision listening-refers to the exactness or ability to distinguish clearly listening with precision gives due to a speaker talks of changing in the volume of the speakers voice can help determine what is most important to a speaker
5. Emphatic listening –Emphatic is the ability to put yourself in another place. It enable you to understanding why a person feels, believes and acts in a certain way when you listen to speaks it is often important to understanding why the express certain ideas such as understanding will help you to determine evaluate the information you hear more completely.
-Empathy helps respect the speaker even if you disagree with what he/ she says. To achieve this level of listening you must listen for information you must evaluate critically and you must listen to emotion as well as words. Emphatic listening is considered as the most difficult level to master it requires only great constetoation but also you / see back skills.
Causes for poor listening can be categorized into two types namely physical barriers and mental berries
a) Partial hearing
b) Noise or other physical destruction creates barriers to good listerning
c) Speaking too softly
d) Is not speaking Clearly
e) Listeners physical condition eg tiredness illness or uncomfortable
a) wondering mind b) In attention c) Negative attitude eg If you have negative attitude (dislike ) about the speaker then it will make you become difficult to listen attentionaly.
d) Listeners’ knowledge especially when there based on familiar words
 e) Selective listening when people by selecting black out what they do not want to hear.
a) Making concentration – Try to block out destructions think about what you hear
b) Practice-use every opportunity you can on what you hear. Watch news and other information programs on TV. Also spend quiet time and concentrate on what speaker says.
c) Prepare yourself to listen be read to listen and sit where you can see and hear the speaker
d) Listen to keywords- speaker of tuil gives clues about what is important most important things or in summary are help you to organize the information you hear.
e) Take notes: It is not necessary to write down every word but just outline important ideas. Also listen to keywords and summarize.

i. When does the celebration take place
ii. Where did it take place
iii. Who was the guest of honour
iv. What social and cultural activities colored the occasion
v. What make you remember the day
vi. What is the significance of this celebration
vii. Why is honoured and upheld in our nation
viii. Mention other kind of holiday celebrated in our nation
ix. If this celebration want be conducted what will happen
It is celebrate on Dec 9th each year last year independence day celebration took place at the Dar es salaam National Stadium.
The President of the United Republic of Tanzania his Excellence Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete was the guest of honour. The celebration started at around 8:30 in the morning. The other invited guest in the celebration were ambassadors, Ministers, government official and one president of Zanzibar.
The was colored by various activities such as traditional during, comedy, national anthem the pared by national defense and security soldiers,
I remember this event because it mark the government day on which our national obtained her independence. Also this was among having rain fall in the history of our nation, also it to lose on this day that I saw the president of Zanzibar for the first time. The day on which our country became free from Colonial domination.
Every nation in the world honour and uphold the day which they got their freedom because it is like the birthday of this country. It is on this day that our nation came into during.
Other kind of holiday celebrated your by our nation include, revolution day, Union day, Sabasaba, Nane Nane, Nyerere day, Karume Day, Workers day, Maulid, Christmas, Easter, Id, New year
If this celebration wont be conducted nothing wrong really will happen, but it is a great day and country use to remember it, so it must be celebrated to honour our national.
Write a story about “Terrible accidents” you have ever seen. Use guidelines below.
i. What is the title of your story
ii. Where did it occur
iii. How many cars were involved? Were there pedestrians on cyclists
iv. What caused the accident
v. What damage did the accident cause
vi. What should be done to reduce accidents
vii. What are your opinions
The accident occurred along Morogoro road at that place called Manzese. Two cars were involved in this accident, one push car, furrari which was leading to town and daladala town bus coming from Kariakoo, going to Ubungo.
This accident is said to be caused by careless among the drivers, also the town bus had serious mechanical problems, the driver us the Ferrari was heavily drunk the place had hardly any road safety sign, road safely regulatory were not observed one of the drive had no driving license, high speed also is claimed to be the reason so this terrible accident which took away life of many people.
The accident caused loss of life and properly, passengers were seriously injured some lost important organs of the bodies two cars were severely damaged. Other damages registered include destruction of road lights signs, one bicycles completely crushed.
Measures to reduce the rate of accidents should be put into action for instant, installation of road signs the drivers who break road safely regulations should be severely punished speed governors should be used. Thus please to be educate about road safety. Drivers should be skilled and traffic officer should inspect all cars and buses.
Generally speaking cars have become dangerous be taking away peoples life maliciously . I am of the opinion that road safely education should be given the same emphasis as AIDS education
It was celebrated on 15 th November 2002. It first take palace on the community church then later on it was celebrated at Sea cliff Hotel.
My Uncle, Mr. Dennis was the guest of honour. Therulebration started at around 10:30 in the morning. The other guest were aunt, Neighbors, best friends also some neighbors.
The event was coloured by a very big confirmation cake, taskey food, lost drinks and other drink which people liked, also the some traditiona dance and music colored the event
I remember this event because this was my first time to get confirmation and it was something which was thought. I remember this event because Polycap Cardinal Pengo was confrimunting so also got a chance to see him for the first time. So also got a chance to see him for the first time.
In Christians, especially in Roman Catholic every child should get confirmation so as to become a good Christian.
Other kind as celebration are communion, baptism, confirmation and others
If the ceremony is not given to a Christians he or she will not be a good Christian like is supposed to be.

Talking about shopping
Mussa: Can I help you / what can I do for you ?
Ali: Yes please, how much is the flower
Mussa : Two hundred shillings
Ali : Can I have it?
Mussa : There your are
Ali : Thank you
Mussa : You are welcome
Imagine you are in the hotel. How would you order some food
And drinks?Write a short conservation between you and the waiter
Waiter Excuse me sir, can I help you?
Customer: Yes please, how much is a cup of tea?
Waiter: There you are
Customer: May I have some food too?
Waiter : What kind of food you need?
Talking about reservation
Booking tickets
You want to travel to Mwanza by train, write a dialogue between you and booking office attendant.
Attendant: Can I help you?
Customer: Yes please, I want a ticket in first class
Attendant: It is 20,000/=Tshs
Customer: I have 19,000/= Tshs
Attendant: OK
Customer; Here is your money
1. → Making telephone calls
Language use
Using the phone
In today’s world, most people use the telephone for quick answer the questions.
1. Look at the following telephone conversation and answer the questions:
a) Which conversations are personal?
b) Which one are business?
c) Which callers did not speak to the people they wanted to talk with?
d) What happened in phone call No.3?

The important terminologies used
i. In front ix. Around ii. Behind x. Close to iii. Adjacent to xii. The left hand iv. Never xiii. The right hand v. Beside xiv. North vi. Opposite to xv. South vii. A long xvi. West viii.Across
1. Where is the dinning hall?
The dinning is
-In the left of our class
-Adjacent to the boys’ dormitory
-Western side of the basket count
-Close to the water resource
-Beside the kitchen
-Opposite the boys dormitory
Where is the church
The church is
-Is the eastern side of our class
-Is beside the school gate
-Is behind the car park
-Adjacent to the Goba road
An affirmative statement take a negative question tag
a) They are doing their home work. aren't they?
b) I am going now. aren't i?
c) John goes to school. doesn't he?
d) Children went home late yesterday. didn't they?
e) You should go soon. shouldn't you?
A negative statement take a positive question tag
a) She is not going to school. is she?
b) He won’t play tomorrow. will he?
c) Doctors did not demonstrate last week. Did they?
d) Will she come earl? She won’t?
If you ask a question in which you expect Yes answer they question tag will be negative
a) You like trouble don’t you?
b) You are a student aren’t you?
c) She studied had. didn’t she?
d) Will she come early?she won’t?
If you expect the answer no the question tag becomes positive
a) You are not Mruma?are you?
b) You are not soldiers. are you?
c) He is not a thief. is he?
We can change a story command into request form by addition of infirmity. a) Shut up! will you? b) Lets us move now, shall we? c) Open the window, will you? d) Comes here, will you/e) Stand up, will you?
Suppose you have met a guest at Mwenge Bus stop tell him / her the way to go ST.Joseph Sec School
Go along the Bagamoyo
Turn left to kawe Road
Pass through NTUWEMA ST
Then on your left hand side to TANGANYIKA PACKERS

I. Define information
II. a) what is factual information
b) Explain characteristic of the factual information
IIi. a) What is non-factual information
b) Point out the characteristic of non factual information
IV. Mention the different between factual information and non factual information
I. Information –are event, incidents, stories, about what is giving on the society which can be factual or nonfactual information is transmitted
through the media such as Television Newspaper, Magazine, poster etc
Ii. Factual Information- Is the type of information which based on data has evidence, has the source of information, it is systematic argument reality
I. Can be scientifically proved
Ii. It has source
Iii. It base on data
iv. Argumentative reality
v. SystEmatic
vi. No propagandas
Vii.Has evidence
Viii.Based on statistics
Ix.It is objective
iii.a) Non-factual information- Is the type of information which does not base on data, can not be proved scientifically their no source
I. Subjective does not have a source
Iii. Cannot be provided
Iv. It is not systematic
v. Cannot be researched
Vi. It based on propaganda
vii. Cannot be researched
vii.It is marked by words e.g. Perhaps, I think, maybe

- Talking about games.
One day I went to watch a long waited for volleyball match between Azania sec school and Tambaza High school teams. A larger crowd gathered at Benjamin stadium. The captain of Azania secondary school team was the first to hit the ball and the match begin.
The volleyball match is played by twelve players, each team with six players. Each players has to rotate through six positions
The player at the center received the first ball from the rival team. He / She receive the ball with arms closed together. He/ She hit the ball to the settler or the speaker. The settle stands between two speakers close to the net. The spikes are the ones who receive the third ball so as to smash it to the rival team. Then interfered by asking him how can one score a goal. He continued when the ball from one team falls on the rival teams side it is counted as a point. Also when it is smashed from one side to another and if players of the rival team fail to return the ball or when it goes out after being touched ball or when it goes out after being touched by one of the players it is counted as point. The reference counts fifteen (15) points. It is normally the teams that decide to play three or five rounds. The winning team must win two (2) rounds.
He stopped for a while; He then continued The referee should stand on the chair or table near the net so as to clearly see each ball smashed towards any of the two teams. In addition there should be two referees use sigh language and whistle for any communication with the players.
When I was about to ask him another question spectator from Tambaza High school entered the playground and started to stone the referee , claiming that he was not fair consequently our school sports master decided to tell the referee to end the match as the situation was he becoming worse . Then the referee ended the match as he was as advised. After that the students of each school were ordered to board their school Lorries which took them to their fast arrived at Ihungo at 19:30hrs
Comprehension Question
Answer the following questions
1. Which schools competed? 2. Which team won the match/3. How many players needed for each team? 4. How many rounds are played in a volleyball 5. How do we get points in the volleyball match?
Construct five (5) sentences from the substitution table below.
There are two ways of reporting which are
1. Direct speech 2. Indirect speech
i. Simple present becomes simple past
ii. Present continuous becomes past continuous
iii. Present perfect becomes past perfect
iv. Present perfect continuous becomes past perfect continuous
v. Simple past remain unchanged/past perfect
vi. Future simple becomes conditional
vii. Future perfect becomes perfect conditional
viii. Future continuous becomes conditional continuous
Other changes
- I becomes he/she
- We becomes they
- You becomes him/her/them
- My becomes his/hers/yours
- This becomes that
- These becomes immediately/ then
- Ago becomes before
- Me becomes him/her/them
- Today becomes that day
- Yesterday becomes the day before/the previous day
- Tomorrow becomes the following day/next day
- Last night becomes the night before the previous night
- At once becomes immediately
- Trust becomes so
- Come/bring becomes go/take
i. Present simple becomes past simple
Direct: “I study French every evening,” he sai
Indirect: He said that he studied French evening
ii. Present continuous becomes past continuous
Direct: “I’m study French at the moment,” he said
Indirect: He said that he was studying French then
iii. Present perfect becomes past perfect
Direct: “I have studied French for three years,” He said
Indirect: He said that he had studied French for three years
iv. Present perfect continuous becomes past perfect continuous
Direct: “I have been studying French for three years”, he said.
Indirect: He said that he had been studying French for three years.
v. Past simple usually remain unchanged or past perfect.
Direct: “I studied French last year”, he said.
Indirect: He said that he had studied French previous year
vi. Past continuous can remain past continuous or become past perfect continuous
Direct: “I was studying French last year,” he said.
Indirect: He said that he had been studying French previous year.
vii. Future becomes conditional.
Direct: “I shall study French next year,” he said.
Indirect: He said that he would study Frenchthe following year.
2. Pronoun and possessive adjective changes
Direct: “I have left my book in your car,” may tell her brother.
Indirect: Mary told her brother that she had left her book in his car.
3. Demonstrative adjective changes
Direct: “I borrowed this pen from my brother,” John said.
Indirect: John said that he borrowed that pen from his brother.
OR, Direct: "I borrowed pen from my brother," John said. Indirect: John said that he borrowed pen from his brother.
4 .Adverb changes / Adverbial phrase or time changes as follows:
Direct: “I’ll bring you the photo tomorrow,” he said.
Indirect: He said that he would take the photo the next day.
More examples.
5. Commands We make the usual changes but in addition, the verb is changes into To Infinite
Direct: “Take the book to the office,” the clerk said to me.
Indirect: The clerk told me to take the books to the office.
Direct: 'Come here,' Mushi ordered me. Indirect: Mushi ordered me to go there.
Thus, we can use verbs like told, ordered, commanded after the subject in indirect speech.
Example of direct: "Release those prisoners once," said Captain
Indirect: The Captain ordered them (him/us) to release the prisoners at that moment.
6. Questions
Direct: “Why have you locked the door?” the teacher asked me.
Indirect: The teacher asked me why I had locked the door.
Rules: 1. The questions mark is dropped 2. Questions not beginning with interrogative words like who questions (why, who, when, what) require the addition of: a. Whether b. If
DIRECT INDIRECT Today -That day Yesterday -The day before
Tomorrow -The next day/ the following day previous day Last night -The night before/ the previous night At once -At that moment Here -There Ago -Before Next week -The following week Thus -So Tonight -That night Come/bring -Go/take
7. Exclamation
In order to exclamations an exclamation in indirect speech. It is necessary to use an expression which will give the idea of the original
Direct: “Never! I will never agree to such proposal,” he said.
Indirect: He said that he would absolutely never agree to such a proposal.
Direct: “Good gracious! I have never heard of such a thing,” he said.
Indirect: He was very surprised and said that he had never heard of such a thing.
8. Speeches containing not only statements.
Direct: “I’m going to Nairobi Have you ever been there?”.
Indirect: He said that he was going to Nairobi and asked if l had ever been there.
If a speech contains not only statement but also a question, or command or exclamation more than one reporting verb will be necessary in the indirect speech.
Direct: “Yes I’ll come and see you soon,” he said.
Indirect: He accepted that he would come and see me soon.
REPORTED SPEECH We use indirect speech (reported speech) when we are telling someone what other person says or said.
Direct: “I can talk to the headmaster,” he said.
Indirect: He said that he could talk to the headmaster.
We (i) remove all quotation marks.
(ii) We normally use expressions such as he said that without putting comma between.
Indirect speech can be introduced by a verb in a simple present tense
He says that …………… the following
(i) Reporting a conversation which is going on
(ii) Reading a letter and reporting what it says .E.g. .He says that he is coming on
(iii) Reading instructions and reporting them.
(iv) Reading statements that someone makes very often.
E.g. Marlow says that he’ll never smoke cigarette.
When reporting permanent states facts or habits, there will be no change tense.
It is felt that what was said is still true when it is reported.
Thus we can keep the tense of original speech.
E.g.: Reporting a scientific fact.
Direct: “water freezes at 0 0 c,” the teacher said
Indirect: The teacher said that water freezes at 0 0 c.
Direct: “Magnet attracts iron,” the student told us.
Indirect: The student told us that magnet attracts iron.
(i) Otherwise when this and that are used as demonstrative adjectives these usually changeto the
E.g.: Direct: He said, “i bought this for you.”
Indirect: He said that he bought the pen for me.
(ii)These sometimes them
E.g. Direct: He said, “we discuss this tomorrow.”
Indirect: He said that they would discuss the matter the next day.
(i) We can use verb such as TOLD ORDERED, COMMANDED after the subject in reported speech.
E.g.: Direct: “Release those prisoners at once”, said this captain.
Indirect: The captain ordered them (him/ her) to release the prisoners at that moment.
WOULD, COULD, MIGHT, OUGHT TO also remains unchanged in speech in all combination.
E.g.: Direct: “you ought to slow down a bit,” the passenger told the Daladala (city bus) driver.
Indirect: The passenger told the Daladala driver that he/ she ought to slow down a bit.
Direct: “would you have tea or soup,” the waiter asked me.
Indirect: The waiter asked me whether life we could leave the next day.
If the question starts with WH item if / whether should not be used.
Direct: “who caused the accident,” he asked me.
Indirect: He asked me who had caused the accident.
Direct: “where are you going,” he asked us.
Indirect: He asked me who had caused the accident.
Direct: “where are you going,” he asked us
Indirect: He asked us where we were going.
WH + subject + verb

Expressing opinions, beliefs and doubts
1. We also practiced supporting or opposing opinions certain adverbs can be used to express the strength of the agreement or disagreement
I completely/totally agree that smoking should banned in public places
I absolutely I wholly disagree with your opinion that alcohol is evil.
2. When we are not sure of something in argument or a debate. We can express our doubts.
I’m doubtfully that marriage parties are a good idea.
Think about each of the following topics. Prepare you opinion or point of view and then express it to your partner should then agree or disagree with your opinion or may be express doubt
Secondary school fees Smoking marijuana. School students having love affairs.
II. Distinguish between facts and opinions
1. What is the difference between a fact and opinion 2. What help you to recognize an opinion?
Examine the following sentence. Decide whether they are making a statement of fact or just giving an opinion. Making each sentence with either F for fact O opinion
a) Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system.
b) People who do not get jobs are just lazy and do not want to work
c) Boiling water prevents the spread of diseases
d) Modern music is destroying our traditional culture
e) The selous Game reserve is the biggest in Africa.
Structure and Grammar
1. Hardly …….. ……………when 2. Scarcely ………………... when 3. No sooner ……………… when 4. Seldom .................. less often
A) Seldom –less often
i. He often did not think of his responsibilities
Begin seldom did he think of his responsibilities
ii. Up country train is usually late during the rain season
Begin seldom does the up country train on line during the rain season
ii. Mutasa does not visit her aunt always
Seldom does Mutasa visit her aunt
iv. She did not listen much to her parents
Seldom did she listen much to her parents
v. I had little time to read novels then
Seldom did I have time to read novels then
vi. He does not go to beer parties often
Seldom does he go to beer parties often
vii. She does not play when the teacher is teaching
Seldom does she play when the teach is teaching
B) No sooner…. Then
i. As soon as he left the boss called him
Begin: No sooner had he left them the boos called him
ii. Humbya had just finished writing the letter when arrived
Begin; No sooner had Humbya finished writing the letter then arrived
iii. Dr.Numbi had just performed the operation then the patient died
No sooner had Dr. Numbi performed the operation patient died
iv.The moon had barely appeared when it was obscored by the cloud
No sooner had moon appeared then it was obscured by the cloud
v. He had just returned from shamba when his uncle called him
No sooner had he returned from shamba then his uncle called him
vi. The accused was during when he was rearrested
No sooner had the accused left then he was rearrested
C) Hardly ….. When
i. The plane had almost touched the run way when it burst into flame
Hardly had the planet touched the runway when it bursts into flame
ii. The sun had nearly set when it rained
Hardly had sunset when it rained
iii. The farmer had just complete sowing their fields when there was receives heavy down pour
Hardly had the farmer completed sowing their fields when there was heavy down pour
iv. He was completing his novel when he fell sick
Hardly had he completed his novel when he fell sick
v. Tatu was early seven years old when she started learning how read
Hardly was Tatu seven years old when she started learning how to read
vi. Mutasa was beginning to settle down when her relative died
Hardly Mutasa begun to settle down when her relative died
D. Scarcely………. When
i. Darkness had not set when we arrived
Scarcely had darkness set when we arrived

1. Read the following passage carefully and then answer the questions which follow:
The number of children seen loitering in cities and towns increases day after day. Between 1960 and 1970, very few of these were seen in Tanzania. However, from 1970 to date, their number has drastically increased. There are many questions we should ask ourselves concerning street children. For example, why do we have them?Where do they come from?Do they have parents?How do they live in the street?
Some of the questions are not easy to answer. However, there are some reasons why we have street children. One of the reasons could be the death of parents or guardians. The course of death nowadays could be AIDS. Due to ignorance some relative refuse to live with such orphans for fear that they may infect them with the disease. Other relatives are reluctant to add children to their families and see them as a burden. There are also relatives who do not want responsibilities. The unfortunate children, therefore, end up in the streets.
There are many other reasons that make children run away from into the streets. Some parents are too strict or cruel. They punish their children severely for even the slightest or mistakes. In order to escape this torture and brutality, the abused children run away. Other parents are just irresponsible and do not fulfill their children’s needs and rights. Such parents may not be poor, so they do this through negligence. When children discover that their parents cannot meet their needs and deny them their rights they flee to the streets.
Separation or divorce due to drunkenness, harassment or other misunderstandings may be another reason for street children. The children do not get parental love and care and decide not to stay with either of their parents.
Inadequate knowledge on family planning could also contribute to having street children. As the family keeps on growing, parents fail to sustain and provide for their children
Such children miss their basics necessities and decide to go to the streets to fend for themselves.
Lastly, there are stubborn children who, whatever their parents do to them mentally, physically and materially, are never satisfied. They desire to live like children of rich families. As they are not satisfied, they go to the street just to search for “better lives”. These children are just rebels.
There are many other reasons why some children find themselves living in streets. What the community should do to limit the number of street children is: First, to educate the parents on family planning. Second, parents should know that children have the right to be loved and taken care of, the right to education and to be listened to. Children also should know that they have to obey their parents and elders.
2. Choose the best answer
(i) Street children are__________.
(a)Children born in the street
(b) Homeless children
(d) Children without parents.
(ii) Where are street children mostly found? In________.
(c) Big cities
(iii) The word “loitering” simply means ____________.
(a) Walking fast in busy streets.
(b) Walking about doing nothing.
(c) Dancing in the street.
(d) Playing in the streets.
(iv)Which of the following statement is true according to the passage?
(a)Parents should not punish children
(b)Street children suffer from AIDS
(c)Street children are all orphan
(d)Irresponsible parents neglect their children
(v) A child whose parents died of AIDS __________.
(a) Can become street child.
(b) Must become a street child.
(c) Also suffer from AIDS.
(d) Does not need other people’s love.
(vi) Children whose parents died of AIDS_____________.
(a) Their parents are not strict.
(b) Their parents give them their rights.
(c) Their parents do not have money.
(d) They miss parental care and love.
(vii) All street children ____________.
(a) Have been mistreated by their parents.
(b) Have disobeyed their parents.
(c) Are orphans.
(d) Were forced into the streets by different problems.
(viii) Who is to blame for the condition of the street children ____________.
(a) The AIDS disease.
(b) The parents or guardian.
(c) The children themselves.
(d) All the three above.
(xi) One way of reducing street children suggested by the author is to____________.
(a) Assist parents’ separation.
(b) Encourage parental negligence.
(c) Educate parents on family planning.
(d) Punish the children.
(x) Suggest a suitable title for the passage ____________.
(a) Orphans.
(b) Homeless children.
(c) Children in cities.
(d) Village children.
3. With reference to the passage you have read, answer the following questions:
(i)Give one reason why relatives refuse to live with children who have lost their parents through AIDS.______________________
(ii)Mention two reasons why some children run away from home to live in the streets_____
(iii)What can the community do to help street children? Give one solution.____rf

Literature is a creative work of art which uses creative language to reflect social realities
Key terms
Creative work of art
Creative language
Reflect society: - Political
- Economic
- Cultural
- Social
Types of literature
- Oral literature
- Written literature
Oral is a type of literature which use the word of mouth to reflect social realities
E.g. myth
Written is a type of literature represented by means of writing
- Educate the society
- Criticize the society
- National and cultural identity
Examples of oral literature
Myth – Story from ancient times told to explain natural events describe the early history of people related to supernatural power Fable – Traditional short story that teaches a moral lesson especially one with animal’s character Legend – Story from ancient times that may or may not be him Ballad – Is a long song/poem that tells a story mostly about an love Riddles – A question that is difficult to understand and has a surprising answer that you ask somebody as a game Proverbs – As well known phrase or sentence that gives advice or says something that is generally true Idiom – An expression whose meaning is different from the meanings of the individual words that you sing Songs – Short piece of music with words that you sing Poems – Short writings with chosen words from their sounds and image they are written in lines or stanza Lullabies – Gentle song that make a child to sleep Short story – Is a story which is usually about imaginary character and events that is short enough to be read from the beginning to the end without stopping Tongue twisters – A word or phrase that is difficult to say quickly or correctly
Example of tongue twisters
1. Kantai is a Massai boy kantai can tie and untie a tie. If kantai can tie the tie and untie a tie why can’t I tie and untie a tie like kantai who can tie and untie a tie?
2. Four fools in form five fighting for food
3. She sells shiny sea shells at the sea shore but the shiny sea shells she sells are not sea shore shells
4. God made man made money made man mad
5. The pots that Peter the porter makes are portable pots which Paul the porters son carried to portal
6. Betty Better bought some butter, but she said this butter is bitter if I put it in my butter it will make it will make my butter bitter. So a bit of better butter will make my butter better than butter and she put it in her batter and the butter was it bitter. So Betty Better bought a bit of better butter.
Example of fable
Once upon a time in the forest there live a lion mother rat and her children and other animals. One day as the lion was walking around the forest looking for something to rat cried and begged “please don’t eat me spare me for my children are waiting for me to bring them food at home help me and I may also help you one day!”
The lion thought about the rats words and tried to imagine if it was possible for the rat a very small animal to help a very big animal like him since the rat insisted the lion decided to let her go
The next day the lion was moving around the forest as usual unfortunately he stepped on a trap and was therefore trapped luckily mother rat was passing nearby when she saw the lion
As her promise she went and started cutting the trip because it was made of nets by using her teeth she succeeded in helping the lion out of the trap and the lion was so happy and thankful. The lion was happy and glad that the rat kept her promise
Types of written literature
-Verse - writing that is arrange in lines often with a regular rhythm or part of thyme
-Stanza – a group of lines in a repeated pattern that form a unit in some types of poem
-Rhymes – a word that has the same sound are ends with the same sound as another word
Example of a poem
Beautiful hands are those that weave
Bright threads of joy in lives that grave
Beautiful feet are those that run
On errands of merry from sun to sun
Beautiful lips are those that spread
To comfort the mourner
And hearten the weak,
Beautiful eyes are those that glow
With the light of a spirit pure as snow
Beautiful faces are those that seem,
With the very love of God to beam,
Beautiful forms are those that grace
With gentle service the lowliest place
Beautiful live are those that beat,
For other lives their burden of care,
Beautiful souls are those that show,
The spirit of God where they go
Types of poem
Traditional – strictly follows the rules of rhymes and meter Modern – do not follow the rules of rhymes and meter
Characteristics of poem
- Uses short lines/verse
- Use of stanza
- Use mostly figurative language
- Multiple meaning
i. Educates the society
- Transformation of knowledge
ii. Criticize the society
iii. National and cultural identity
iv. Entertain the society
v. Develop and improve the language use
Examples of proverbs
- One man’s meat is another man’s poison
- A stitch in time saves nine
- Hurry has no blessings
- Too many cooks spoil the broth
- An apple never falls far the from the tree
- An apple a day keeps the doctor away
Examples of riddles
I have no wings but I can fly. An aeroplane.
The important things to consider when reading a story
1. Heading / Tittle: Mabala
2. Writer/ author: Richard S. Mabala
3. The most important characters as Mabala
The story is centred on him. The main character he appears in every chapter of our book.
4. The character you like most and why?
Sekulu - He is kind
- Hard working
5. The character you dislike most and why?
Mabala – He is why
- Careless with his money
- Greedy
6. What is the story about?
-Laziness is unacceptable in the society because it cause poverty
7. Will you advice your friend to learn the story. Gives reason
_because the story eg laziness in real sense laziness is unacceptable.
_because the book emphasize that hard working is a key to success
8. What lesson do you get from the story?
From the story I learn that if some one is laziness will never succeed in doing anything
Reading literary works
Write a letter to your friend John who lives Nairobi tell him about the story book you have read. Sign name Bahati P.o. Box Dar es salaam. Use the guide lines
-What is the tittle of the book?
-Who is author writer of the book?
-Which character do you like most (give reason)
-Which character do you dislike most (give reason)
-What important lesson do you learn?
-What is book about?
-Would you advice your friend John to the book why
Conditional sentences can be grouped into three
i. Conditional type one(LIKELY)
ii. Conditional type two (UNLIKELY)
iii. Conditional type three (IMPOSSIBLE)
Conditional is formed by two causes
1. If I eat too much I will get stomachache 2. I shall call you if I know 3. If she studies French, she will go to Paris 4. I will go to school, if I pay 5. If she studies too much, she will go mad 6. If I write my easy the afternoon I will go out 7. I will play basketball, if I get the ball 8. I will be kill the master, if I get the ball 9. I will be the first, if I study hard
Unless -> if not
I. Unless I get the ball, I wont play basketball
II. Unless she studies French, she wont go to London
III. The harvest will fail unless it rains
IV. Unless I study hard, I wont be the first
V. I will be the first, if I study hard.
VI. Unless they come late, they will find me.
a. If he wake up early he (catch) the bus
- If he wakes up early he will catch the bus
b. If he speaks English, he will go to London (use unless)
- Unless he speaks English, he will go London
c. If they comes late, they wont find me (use unless)
- Unless they come late they wont find me
d. If he does not play, he will study(Begin with Unless)
- Unless he plays, he will study
I. If i played crack, I should be a soldier. II. If he wakes up early, he would catch the bus. III. He would go to London, If he spoke english. iv. If i run fast, I would be the winner.
Also called impossible is made up with two clause
I. They would have collected, if they had written the work
II. Had I gone to pemba, I would have got a lot of money
III. Had I come could have celebrate.
Contrastive conjunctions
Contrastive conjunction include word such as
- Although
- Though
- Inspite of
- Despite
- Despite the fact that
- Even if
- Even though
I. Although
a. I. John woke up early
II. He missed the morning train
-Although John wake up early in the morning train
b. I. Fidelis has eaten some food
II. He is hungry
- Although fidels has eaten some food he is hungry
c. I. He has gone to school
II. He does know how to write and read
- Although he has gone to school he does know how to write and read
d. Although he was in our group he is not same like us
e. Although I had I gun, I did not shoot him
a) Though he sought, he was killed
b) Though it was wrong he resist that it was right
c) Though he has two cars, he walk on foot
d) Though she resisted rapper she was rapped
i. She did not write the competition although she was beautiful
- She did not win the competition inspite of her beaut
ii. Though they ran fast they did not finish the race (inspite or)
- Inspite of ruining fast, they did not finish the race
iii. They called him bad name, He was not angry (use inspite to join)
- Inspite of calling him a bad names he was not angry
iv. He is intelligent, he failed to answer the question
- Inspite of his intelligence he failed to answer the question
v. He was sick, he came to class
- Inspite of his sickness he came to class
IV. Despite
1. Despite his poverty, he went to school 2. Despite her beauty ,she sold flowers 3. Despite his poverty, he bought a car 4. They passed the exam, despite of studying hard 5. They failed their exam, despite of studying 6. They passed the exam, despite the problems
V. The fact that
1. Despite the fact that he was rich he failed to pay school fees 2. Despite the fact he was tall he ran fast 3. Inspite of the fact that he worked hard he did not get good harvest 4. Inspite the fact that he was drunk, he saw the snake
Re-write the sentences below according to the instruction given after each
1. Although she speak French she does not go to Paris
- Inspite of speaking French she did not go to Paris
ii Despite the success they did more practices
- Though they success they did more practices
iii. I did not stop I saw the thief
- Despite the fact that I saw the thief I did not stop
iv. If I had gone early I would have been seen him
- Had I gone early I would have been seen him
v. He (die ) if their car had been envolved in the accident
- He would have died if their car had been envolved in the accident
1. Purpose clause 2. Result clause 3. Relative pronouns
1.Purpose clause
Purpose clause include the following words
1. So as to 2. In order to 3. In order that
So as to
1. I come to school so as to get education 2. He does a lot of physical exercise he want to became a good play (Join so as )
- He does a lot of physical exercise so as to became a good player
3. He studies biology so as to became a doctor 4. I read many story book so as to improve English 5. The plans is designed so as to motivate the employees
In order to
1. I go to school in order to meet my friends 2. I bought a house in order to live with my family 3. I joined the way army in order to fight for my countries
So that
Model auxiliary verb
Will – would
Shall –should
Can – could
1. I read many story book I want to became an author (join using so that)
- I read a many story book so that I can became an author
II. Jesus sacrificed himself so that our sin can be forgiven
III. He goes to school so that he can help his parent IV. I played judo so that I could be Tanzanian Ninja
In order that
Model auxiliary verb
Will- would
Can- could
May- might
1. I go to town in order I can meet my relative 2. They study in order that they can communicate with foreign 3. He work hard in order that I can pass my exams
Re write the sentence according to instruction given after each
1. The students went to Bagamoyo so as to observe historical remaining
- The student went to Bagamoyo so that they could observe historical remain
II. They play football. He want to became the professional player(in order that) - The boy plays football in order he can became the professional player
Iii. He goes to London. He wants to see the queen (so as) - He goes to London so as to see the queen
IV. They study day and night. They want to be experts(in order ) - They study day and night in order to be exper
V. John read many story books. He wanted to became flunting English
- John read many story so that ha can became fluenting English
Relative clause include such word as who, whom, which, whose, that, what
A)WHOSE; ( Possessive relative clause)
i. A boy is my friend. His mother is a doctor( join using whose )
- A boy whose mother is doctor is my friend ii. The girl whose leg was injured yesterday is coming iii. The boy whose book is lost is crying iv. The house whose doors is red is burned v. The boy whose hi father accused Mr. Richmond is here with us
i. The book which I read is very interesting
ii. The pen which I bought is not writing iii. The story which we listening is very horror iv. The love they have is strong v. The book which is used is very expensive
i. The boy who come here yesterday is my friend ii. The women who is boarding a bus is my mother iii. The woman who taught you sports is my mother iv. The woman who was caught cheating on her husband is divorced v. The boy who was caught with the girl is in form three
i. The man whom I saw is not here
ii. He is a person to whom I gave the book iii. They are people whom she said
Complete the following sentence with a suitable expression from the alternative
a) Jane is the girl whose father work at IPP media
b) I have been waiting for his examination for four years now
c) I traveled to Kilosa by train
d) Simon is a tall, Jangala is a taller than him, but Muhugo is the tallest
e) All the children have eaten their meal
2. Re write the following sentence according to instruction given after each
a) Had you been careful you could have come first in her examination
b) Dotto was nervous kurwa was equally nervous
- Dotto was as nervous as Kurwa
c) Lillian does not speak as much as English as her brother (rewrite than)
- Lillian does not speak English more than her brother
d) Tina has never seen a lion on her life(never)
- Never has Tina seen a lion on her life
e) I saved some money in order to TV
- I saved some so that I could by TV
3. Supply question to tag to the sentences
a) She does well in all her exams Does she?
b) They do not know what they are doing Do they?
c) Could you use phone. Couldn't you?
d) He know what will happen. Didn't he?
e) You never come early. Do you?
f) The police helped us a lot. Didn't they?
4. Change the sentence below into passive voice
a) I am studying history and English
- History and English are being studies by me
b) They have written the story to the D.C
- The letter has been written to the D.C by me
c) They where beating the dog
- The dog was being beaten by them

Cards are written pieces of information we send to our parents, relatives or friends.
They help us to invite our friends or relatives to parties or any other social functions. Cards are also used for giving information about a variety of events like deaths, sickness and the like. In addition cards are used for exchanging greetings and expressing certain feelings to our friends or relatives. Such feelings include sympathy when friends are in trouble or congratulations when they succeed in a variety of life stages. Events like death, birthday, wedding, graduation and Examinations are the one for which cards are mainly written. Unlike in letters, the information written on Cards should be short and clear.
There are several kinds of Cards. But we can categories them into three major types which are post cards, greetings and invitation cards.
Are these one which people normally send to their friends or relatives to invite them to certain functions or parties. Below is an example of an invitation cards.
1 st November, 2006.
Dear Mr. Juma,
Thank you very much for your kind invitation to the graduation ceremony on Saturday 3 rd .
I have pleasure to tell you that I will come on that day I do not have any other commitment
Your sincerely
A.A Jamii
The following is a layout of an invitation cards.
Writing messages
Messages are immediate information we send to our parents, relatives and friends. Messages are usually shorter and clear than other forms of conveying information like letters. Messages do not offer online conversation instead the information is communicated in written form.
The sender of the message must indicate clearly, where the message is from and to who it is sent. Therefore, the words or phrases like from …… to …. Date …., to me …. Signature. …… etc.
Message layout
Leaving a written note message
Written messages are especially important in organizations or working places like offices, schools and hotels. These messages are equally.
Important at homes. Most often we leave messages or notes to let people know about our whereabouts when we happen to be absent.
Short messages are written to quickly pass information notify somebody of something or to make arrangement for something. You can put at an open space, on the table on the door or anywhere you think your addressee can easily see and read it.

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