FORM FOUR ENGLISH STUDYNOTES ALL TOPICS.














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OTHER ENGLISH STUDY NOTES 
ENGLISH FORM ONE
ENGLISH FORM TWO
ENGLISH FORM THREE
ENGLISH FORM FOUR

Topic 1: EXPRESSING ONESELF
OBJECTIVES:
- By the end of this chapter you should be able to.
1. Express your feelings, ideas, opinions, views and emotions comfortably. 2. Defend your position in an argument.
SECTION 1: EXPRESSING ONE’S FEELINGS
People feel differently because of various reasons. For example, if one has lost his/her parent, he will feel very grieved (sad); but if one has won a lottery, he will feel excited and happy.
Note:
1. When you say: “I feel or I am ……………………………… (Followed by and adjective like: happy, said, embarrassed, overjoyed, etc) you are expressing a feeling.
For example:
2. If “I feel” is substituted for “I think” then you are expressing a thought
E.g. I think you are right/ wrong (a thought)
SECTION 2: STRUCTURE
If……… and Unless…………
The uses of If………
Listed below are examples, uses and formation about If……… Conditionals.
A Conditional is something that has to be fulfilled first before something else could happen.
Example: If you don’t pay school fees you cannot write English exam (It means you must pay school fees so that you can be allowed to write English exam)
Words used in conditional sentences are
i. If: If the rain stops, we will be able to work hard.
ii. Unless: Unless you work hard, you will not pass your exam (Unless means if not)
iii. Provided that: You can come to the party provided that you bring with you your own drinks.
iv. Incase: Incase he comes don’t leave the door open i.e. (If he does not come, you can leave the door open)
TYPES OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
(Using …………If)
Conditional sentences are usually divided into three basic types referred to as:-
TYPE 1 = Likely
TYPE 2 = Unlikely
TYPE 3 = Rejected
Examples
TYPE 1: If she finishes work early, she will go home
TYPE 2: If she finished work early, she would go home.
TYPE 3: If she had finished work early, she would have gone home
As it is seen above, the type one use simple present tense in the dependent clause and future simple in the main clause.
The use of type 1 Conditional Sentence implies that these is a BIG CHANCE for conditions to be fulfilled. TYPE1 is also called probable, likely or open.
TYPE 2
The Verb in the dependent clause should be in the past tense and the main clause should be in the conditional tense.
Example: If I had some money I would lend it to you.
TYPE 2 is used where there is unlikelihood of something to happen.
TYPE 3
We form type 3 conditionals this way: Tense in the dependent clause is normally used with had + verb in past participle and in the independent clause we normally use would have.
OR: If we had left at 8, we would have been there by now.
Type 3. Conditional is purely HYPOTHETICAL. If shows that all things are in the past and nothing can be done at the moment. Hence type 3 is called REJECTED. The possibility here is zero (o) since everything is in the past and already completed.
For example: If I had studied hard, I would have passed the exam.
i.e. I didn’t study hard and therefore I didn’t pass the exam.
UNLESS
Unless is used in negatives, unless means the same as if …….. not. Like if,it is followed by a present tense, a past tense or a past perfect.
- Unless is used in conditional sentences of all types.
- Unless is negative, so do not use another negative word in the sentence.
Examples of the uses of unless.
TYPE 1: (Unless + Present)
i. You’ll be sick unless you stop smoking = (You will be sick of you don’t stop smoking)
ii. Unless you change your mind, I won’t be able to help you.
TYPE 2: (Unless + Past)
i. Unless he was very tired, he would be driving
ii. I wouldn’t wash those clothes, Unless they were very dirty.
TYPE 3: (Unless + Past perfect)
i. I wouldn’t have cooked Ugali, Unless you’d suggested it
ii. They would have killed him, Unless he’d given them the car.
EXERCISE
Fill in the spaces provided with either if or unless
i. Just let her go ………… you don’t want to be involved in any argument.
ii. ……………She moves to another country, it will probably be to India.
iii. Sign the document only …………… You read it carefully.
iv. …………… They do well in the interview; they won’t be accepted in the Bachelor Degree Programme.
v. …………..We learn from our mistakes, we may repeat them.
vi. I’ll go to the beach with you ……… It rains this weekend.
vii. …………… You buy the tickets in advance; you won’t be able to see that concert.
viii. ……… You don’t understand the exercise, I’ll try to help you
ix. You won’t be able to describe the picture ……………you look it carefully.
x. …………… You change your mind, I won’t be able to help you


















Topic 2: LISTENING FOR INFORMATION
OBJECTIVES
By the end of this chapter you will be able to
i. Respond appropriately to instruction.
ii. Give effective and sensible instructions.
iii. Listening to main ideas and taking notes
iv. Make summaries
v. Write down what you hear correctly
LISTENING TO INSTRUCTIONS
Skills on listening to instructions will help you to understand exactly what you are supposed to do either in examination or in other daily activities.
- Failure to understand exactly what the instructions need you to do may even result into death suppose you see a sign which reads “CROSS HERE” when lights ARE GREEN and you cross when the lights are red and car is coming what would happen.
Listening for information from different sources
Listening for purpose
In order to benefit from any listening activity, you need to do two things.
i) Pay attention: Ignore all other signals and focus on what the speaker is saying .Take note of how the voice changes, the facial expressions, the gestures and other body movements.
ii) Have a reason: You need to focus on specific information so that you can be able to answer the questions.
Reading
I: Reading skills: Skimming.
In your secondary school course you are required to do a lot of reading, either for pleasure or for study.
-You should learn to read a text within the shortest time possible, and with maximum understanding .One useful reading skill is skimming
This involves reading text quickly in order to pick out the main features including:-
i) The general nature and purpose of the text.
ii) How it is organized.
iii) Key points of information and opinion.
How to skim a book
i) Reading the cover review and the information about the author.
ii) Read the table contents.
iii) Read through the section and subsections heading if there are any.
iv) Read the first and last sentence of each paragraph .They often contain the major points.
v) Read through any tables, diagrams and other illustrations in the text.
vi) Take note of names of persons, place and events
COMPREHENSION AND SUMMARY
Answer all the questions in this section
Read the following passage and carefully answer the question that follow.
Naki is 15 years old. Three months ago she woke up in the morning feeling very tired. She could hardly walk. She went to the toilet when she was in the toilet she started coughing blood. Naki started crying because she knew now what was wrong with her like her mother who had died few months earlier she had TB.
Naki’s going life had not been early. Her father was an HIV/AIDS victim and died when she was eight years old. There had been little money for the family to manage on. Naki had to leave school when her mother became ill and diagnosed with TB, Naki has her younger bother to look after as well as her grandmother life become very complicated with Naki’s father around things might have been with different. Naki’s mother was feeling bitter and she.
QUESTIONS
1. What is the story about? 2. Naki’s father died when she was ............. years of age. 3. What made Naki leave school?
SECTION B:
PATTERNS AND VOCABULARY
Answer all questions in this section
1) Fill in the blanks with one of the words given in the brackets
i) A mother who has last a child becomes sad ( worried, sad)
ii) When sadiku passed exam she becomes so excited (amuse, excited)
iii) Seeing ghost is a frightening experience ( carrying ,frightening)
iv) Ohlso you’ve come in glad to see (glad ,joyful)
v) John was so angry with the bus conductor because he had no away with his change(sad, angry)
2) Complete the following sentences by underline the correct words from the choral given
i) The new bridge was rain forced using heavy steel (steel/ steal) bans.
ii) Everybody is sweating except you, are poor pores (paws/pores) blocked.
iii) Had he left earlier ,he (will have arrived /would has arrived ) in time for the meeting
iv) You cannot see (sea/see) the HIV viruses with poor naked eyes.
v) Telling lies is a great sin (scene/sin)
3) Supply the question tag to the following
i) You want eight books
- Don’t you?
ii) I will come this evening
- Will wont I?
iii) We shall meet you to day
- Shouldn’t we?
4) Rewrite the following sentences according to instruction given after sentences.
i) John scored three goals for his team (Begin three goals)
- Three goals were scored by john for his team
ii) He walked very had. He was paid very little (begin Despite)
- Despite he worked hard he was paid very little.
iii) John is intelligent. He can pass the examination. Join using ----------enough to -------
- John is intelligent enough to pass the examination.
iv) She reads so fast. She can finish two books in a daddy. join using ----so -------that
- She reads so fast that she can finish two books in daddy.


SECTION C
5) Re –arrange the following sentences in logical sequence to make a meaningful paragraph by writing the corresponding letter in the box provided.
A) As a national language it plays an important role in social life education political and international communication
B) It is used in Europe ,America , Australia, Asia, and Africa
C) English is an international language
D) As the second language ,it still has some important roles to play
E) In some countries ,English is a national language while in others it is a second language
6) Match the word in column A with the meaning given in column B in the box provided below.
COLUMN A
i) Role
ii) Medium
iii) Public
iv) Conversing
v) To acquire
COLUMN B
a) Not private
b) To get
c) Place for meetings
d) Language used for teaching
e) To arrive at
f) Concern
g) Talking
7) A) write a short composition of 300 words on “How can we make life in rural areas enjoyable”
B) Write the composition ending with not all that glitters is gold
C) Write a letter to the editor
The Daily News P. O. BOX 3000 Dar es Salaam
Discuss how to minimize the issue of pregnancy among school girls in Tanzania
D) Your mother has asked you to take a responsibility for the evening meal for the family. This means you can make your favorite meal. First make a list of all the ingredients you need and explain exactly how to make the meal.
Dear Editor,
18-07-2013
Daily News,
P. O. BOX 3000,
Dar –es –salaam.
Mad/ Sir
REF: TO MINIMIZE THE ISSUE OF PREGNANCY AMONG SCHOOL GIRLS IN TANZANIA
Refer to the heading above. Dear Editor the issue of pregnancy among school girls in Tanzania is very big. So should minimize that problem by providing education to the student and pupils also parents should take care with their children by giving them their basic needs such food, shelter, and clothes because if a children fair to get those needs they influence them in bad behavior . If you will accept I will be joyful.
Your Faithfull
A) Rural areas are areas enjoyable where by people live in the village. The life of rural areas is very hard but we can make the life to be enjoyable.
Therefore the following are the things which can make the life of rural areas enjoyable.
By providing education should be given having all people of the rural areas. Also there should have a material support in the schools in order to make the people life better. So by doing this we can make the life of rural areas to be easier or enjoyable.
Explain the participation of the characters with evidence from the book.
Characters are the person in a story. Also denote the belief habits of mind, moral, choice and motivation which distinguish one functional person from another.
The following are characters and their participation with evidence from the book PASSED LIKE A SHADOW written by BERNAD MAPALALA.
ADYERI: is a father of Atwoki and Abooki, He is a husband of Amoti also He is a uncle of Vicky. He was the former head master of St. Luis high school. He becomes hopples drunkard and womanizer after leasing his job. He was irresponsible father of the family. He resorts to beat his wife and children on any slight provocation as a book says…………… poor me ………. Poor me what kind of children had god blessed me…………. This shows that Adyeri was stubborn man in the family and because of his womanizer he died with HIV/AIDS.
AMOTI: Is a wife of Adyeri she is a mother of Atwoki and Abooki. She was responsible mother of the family. She protects the children against the cruel father as a book says”……………..what type of man are you………….. You want to kill a boy …………….” Also Amoti died with HIV/AIDS which transmitted by her husband Adyeri.
ATWOKI: He is a son of Adyeri and Amoti. He is a brother of Abooki. He Vick’s cousin. He is educated person. He later becomes a famous footballer by the time he is in high school. He falling love with a girl in Kampala called Edda. Despite his awareness of AIDS as results he becomes a victim of the disease.
VICKY : She is a cousin of Abooki and Atwoki who get HIV/AIDS because she forced by her husband Aluganyira to go to the witch doctor in order to find a child so she share a knife for cutting tattoo to the witchdoctor for the coming of getting a child as a book says……….. The witch doctor make prides on Vicky’s stomach and tattoo………….. Through this Vicky died because of HIV/AIDS.
ABOOKI: Is Amoti and Adyeri daughter she is therefore, the sister of Atwoki. She is a kindness girl she is the one care her father, mother and brother when their sick. She unexpectedly false prey to the hypocrite boy called John who breaks her virginity without her concert. She only one who left in her family as a book says “………….. A whole family died with HIV/AIDS ……. Only one member left (Abooki) ……. “ father more ,we see how close Abooki was close to acquire the HIV/ virus because of ever- trusting her friend, John ,who was a product of poor upbringing from the rich family as he drugs Abooki drink and later on got her to the bed unwillingly.
Due to all above is the participation of the character with the evidences from the book PASSED LIKE A SHADOW.
Kunihira Tusime Alganyira David
Explain the participation of the characters with evidence from the book of UNANSWERED CRIES.
Characters: Is the person in a story. Also denote the beliefs habits of mind, moral, choice and motivation which distinguish one frictional person from another.
The following are characters and their participation with evidence from the book UNANSWERED CRIES written by OSMAN CONTEH.
Olabisi: She is a main character. Makalay and Ade’s daughter, She is fourteen years old. She is educated girl, Oyah step daughter. She sex several time, Eddy’s girlfriend. She brought Makalay to the court. She ran from circumcised. She is uncircumcised person. As a book says “…………………… you are a Gborka……………………….. Uncircumcised! ……………….” Makalay provoked to her daughter Olabisi. This shown that how character participation from the book unanswered cries.
Makalay: Mother of Olabisi. Dauda’s wife, she is circumcised person, Traditionalist, school teacher, she is get birth with Ade, she brought to the court, harsh mother. As a book says”……………Makalay grabbed the Olabisi’s left ear and twisted it ……. Harsh like a driver Twisting the ignition key of a stubborn car………………..” Through this Makalay show that is not a good mother because she is the one who forced Olabisi to be circumcised.
Oyah: She is Olabisi aunt also she is kindness, she is the one who going against circumcised since she is circumcised. She is a lawyer; she is a friend of Ade but the end Oyah get marriage to Ade. As a book says “………… if your father marries me ….. Do you think I will be a good mother to you?………” So that Oyah is a good mother to Olabisi.
Eddy: Boy friend of Olabisi, He is educated man. He had sex two times with Olabisi.
Dauda: Makalay’s husband, He runs to follow Olabisi. He is step father of Olabisi.
1) Change the following friend later into invitation card
Mipigi Magohe S S, P. O. BOX 12, Dar-eSsalaam. 20-11-2013
Dear John
It is my hope that you’re fine and continuing well with your daily activities
The purpose of writing to you is just to welcome you to my wedding ceremony of my beloved son Alex that will be done on 23/11/2013 at Mbezi inn Hall from 2:00 pm to 6:00 pm
You’re warmly welcome.
Note: If you want come contact Mr. Zayumba
No 0755 111213
Yours
Shemhilu shemdoe
2) From question NO. 1 write a card to request that you will not attend the ceremony
3) Write briefly the different between poem and poetry from the other literal gender
INVITATION CARD
Dear Mr. Shemhilu Shemdoe.
I appreciate the honor and respect of being invited to join in your part of your son Alex Semhilu Shemdoe.
But I want to inform you that on that day I will not be in Dar es Salaam because on 22/11/2013, I will go to visit my parents in Kenya then I will be able to attend on that wedding.
I wish you nice day and happy ceremony and please convey our congratulation and blessing to the bride and groom
My best regard to you and your family
It’s me
Mr. John
Pretend you’re suddenly asked to attend an interview of the work you applied few days ago write and leave written Note to inform your mother that you will be after 3hrs
Mother I have suddenly asked to attend interview of the work that I have applied few day ago . So I would to inform you that now I am going to attend it and I will be back after three hours to come.
















Topic 3: READING LITERARY WORKS
INTRODUCTION TO LITERATURE
Literature – is the artistic expression of people’s ideas which reflect social realities done through the use of language either in written or spoken.
OR
Is a product of human imagination employing language creativity to reflect human realities.
The key terms in defining literature includes;
. Creativeness
. Imagination
. Language
TYPES OF LITERATURE
. Oral literature
. Written literature
ORAL LITERATURE
It is normally handled from one generation to the other through narrations, songs, poems, stories.
TYPES OF ORAL LITERATURE
LEGEND (Stories of historical truth) -They deal with accounts of personally and events that are considered to be so memorable and deserved to be talked again and again.
MYTHS -These are viewed as religious stories because they explain the organ of people, customs and tradition example gods, GCD.
FABLES -These are short stories based on incurable lessons and main characters are animals. E.g.: hares, rat, elephant, bears etc.
RIDDLES -These puzzling questions, statements or description intended to make the audience use their brain/mind.They require two people or two groups to be operated.
PROVERBS -These are short well known saying that states a general truth or give advice.They are most widely respected genres of African oral literature.
WRITTEN LITERATURE
Is a type of literature through writings.
Types of written literature
i. Novels ii. Plays and short stories iii. Poetry
NOVEL
Is a book written under serious imagination of a certain issue reflecting social realities.The writer creates imagination through characters, themes, symbols etc.
PLAY
Is the literary work which is written in form of conversation or dialogue.The play writer uses actors and actress to convey messages.
POETRY
Poetry refers to the imaginative expression of strong feelings about a certain issue/ topic under consideration.eg. The wonderful surgeon.
FUNCTIONS OF LITERATURE
-To educate the society
-To entertain the society
-May improve the language
PARTS OF LITERATURE
FORM
- Character
- Setting
- Plot
- Style/Technique
- Language
- Figures of speech
CONTENT
- Theme
- Message
- Conflicts
- Philosophy
- Relevance
1. FORM
A. FIGURES OF SPEECH
These are devices used in literary works in order to add creativity in the history by using language.
They are meant to entertain, educate and make good presentation of the work of literature.
Figures of speech includes;-
- Similes
- Metaphors
- Hyperbole
- Personification
- Proverbs
- Repetition
SIMILES
Is a device which compares two things using conjunctions like “as” or “like”
E.g. Like father like son, as black as coal, he is like a lion in battle.
METAPHOR
Is a literary device which compares two things without using conjunctions.
E.g. She is a lioness, among her people he has a heart of stone,you are a lazy rat, she looked flower beautiful with a snow white dress.
HYPERBOLE
This is a language device which is used to exaggerate facts beyond their realities.
E.g. He called you a thousand of times, she cried an ocean of tears
PERSONIFICATION
Literary device which gives ability to the inanimate.
E.g. Cats made a plan of taking over the world
REPETITION
Is a language device which uses the repetition of words or sentences for making emphasis on a particular point.
E.g. they attended a harsh meeting I took large gulps of water.
PROVERBS (Refer to types of literature)
B. SETTING
Refers to geographical location of the story time period or daily lifestyle of the characters.
Types of settings
- Geographical
- Historical
- Social
Geographical setting
It can be in a specific country town place
Historical setting
Refers to time when the story was made includes background in a particular time about something the author wants to explain about e.g. century you etc
Social setting
Includes social activities or customs and traditions e.g. marriage
C. PLOT
-This is the serial arrangement of events or ideas. It is the arrangement of all events in the story.
-Plot must have the beginning middle and end.
-Plot of dramas is divided into “acts” and “scenes”.
D. STYLE AND TECHNIQUE
Includes the following;-
Point of view
This is when a writer tells a story
- First person pronoun point of view
This indicates that the main character is telling a story.
-Third personal pronoun point of view
This directs that the narrator is telling the story.

E. CHARACTERIZATION
-This is the method of conveying information about characters.
-Character is a person or sometime animals who take part in the story.
Types of characters
-Main character is the person who plays a large part in the story.
-Minor character is the person who helps a main character to develop the story.
. Protagonist is the main character.
. Antagonist is the minor character that opposes the main character.
Foreshadowing
Is a style or technique which explains about what will happen later in the story. This encourages the reader to go on and find out more about the event that is being foreshadowed.
Flashback
Is a style which explains about what happened before in the story.
2. CONTENT
A. THEME -A Theme refers to the central topic/topics which are meant to be known and taken as subjects of learning presented by the writer to the audience.
-Themes can reflect life, reality experience and society as a whole.
B. CONFLICTS
These are misunderstandings among characters in the story.
Types of conflicts
. Internal conflicts
. External conflicts
Internal conflicts
This is the conflict within a person (character).
External conflicts
Refers to misunderstanding between or among characters. Misunderstanding between characters can be;
-Between two characters
-Group against group
-Group against person

C. MESSAGES
-These are lessons and teachings we get in the story.
-These lessons are mostly obtained from themes.

ANALYSIS OF THE NOVEL
TITLE: UN ANSWERED CRIES
AUTHOR: OSMAN CONTEH
SETTING: SIERRA LEONE
TIME: 2002, place of publications: Macmillan writers prize for Africa
INTRODUCTION
"Unanswered cries" is a modern novel where by the author presenting a moving story of Olabisi who is under pressure to be, circumcised in order to realize the reality as a woman
As we reflect the message delivered to us by the author, substantial questions before us are:
a) What exactly before us are?
b) Is the process safe?
c) What are the effects to those who undergo the experience of the knife?
d) What are the struggles against the art?
COVER OF THE BOOK
Question: Is the cover relevant to the story?
Answer: Yes, the cover is relevant to the story. It portrays the cultural dressing of the women in Sierra Leone and Africa as whole. It also shows how the girl discussed in the book is feeling by showing a fare of oppression, sadness and loss of hope.
TITLE OF THE BOOK
The title of the book is DIRECT
It makes a person want to know more about a story of the girl who is seen on the cover, why does she look so sad, oppressed and hopeless. These are questions that would be ringing in a person’s head and can only be answered by flipping open the cover and read what is within the book.
STYLES AND TECHNIQUES USED
The style used by the author includes the following
i) point of view
This is when a writer tells a story in the novel “ Unanswered cries’’ the writers used the third person point of view to narrate the story about characters.
Example: Chapter one (page 5)
" She caught hold of the hem of her films/ skirt".
" she sat up listening like a dog sensing an intrudes".
ii) Flashback style
. Chapter 8, when Dr.Keroma explained about what happened when her daughter underwent circumcision (Pg 72)
. Chapter 9, the dialogue between Makalay and Oyah reminded Makalay about her past life (Pg 83,84)
. Chapter 1 Olabisi remembered about circumcision of the baby boy Durusemi,’’ (Pg 13)
iii) Foreshadowing
When Olabisi imagined about what will happen in the court
"It was as if she was trying to read the future" Chapter 7 (Pg 51 -52)
iv) Conversation style
- Conversation between Oyah and Olabisi (Pg 35),Salaam Sesay and Olabisi (Pg 56),Salaam Sesay and Dr. Koroma (Pg 71) and the conversation between Oyah and Yah Posseh (Pg 76) etc
Arrangement of events
The writer arranged events into chapters 1 – 9 whereby each chapter contains a picture which gives information about what is in that chapter

CHARACTERIZATION
1. OLABISI
- Is the main character in the novel.
- She is against bad cultural practices (circumcision)
- She is courageous
- She is Eddy’s girlfriend
2. MAKALAY
- Mother of Olabisi
- She is conservative she wants Olabisi to be circumcised
- She is a primary school teacher
- She is Dauda’s wife
- She has negative attitudes to her husband
- She is humble and caring
3. ADE JONES
- He is Olabisi’s father and Oyah’s husband
- He is against Female Genital Mutilation
- He loves Olabisi
- He is Caring
4. YAH POSSEH
- Is the Digba Sowey the head of female circumcision
- She is a witch (she believes in superstitions) -She has two daughters
- Has two daughter (Salay and Rugiatu)
- Feared by people
5. EDWARD COLE
- He is Olabisi’s boyfriend.
- He betrayed Olabisi.
- He taught Olabisi how to protect herself.
6. DAUDA
- Makalay’s husband.
- Olabisi’s step father.
- He was strict in his house.
7. Dr. Asiatu Koroma
- She is professionally a doctor
- She is against female genital mutilation
- She is responsible in her job
8. LANSANA KANU
- Is a judge.
- Is a fair and courageous.
- Is responsible.
- Is strict in his job.
9. PAH AMADU
- Hunter
- A corrupt person
10. SALAAM SESAY
- Makalay’s lawyer
- Supports female genital mutilation
- Not civilized.
THEMES
MAIN THEMES
Female Genital Mutilation. This is the process of cutting a clitoris part of a woman due to tribal beliefs and for the reason of reducing sexual appetite of a woman.In the novel, Olabisi was under pressure of being circumcised by the Bondo women and Makalay (her mother) in order to prove that she becomes a woman but Olabisi was strong and courageous to go against bad practice because it is an illegal and unsafe activity. Other characters who undergone the process includes Oyah (the lawyer), Dr Asiatu Koroma, Makalay,Yah Posseh, Rugiatu and Salay.
OTHER THEMES
1. RESPONSIBILITIES
This signifies the situation of being accountable in life. In the novel, the following characters was very accountable in the seminal delivering. Oyah (lawyer) was very responsible to help Olabisi not as her step daughter.
Also Lansana Karme (the judge) took full responsibility to judge the case. Apart from these two, also Dr Asiatu Koroma took full responsibility as a doctor to explain the effects of female genital mutilation.
2. LOVE
Love is a strong feeling about somebody or anything in the reflection of respect, tolerance, trust and acceptance. In the novel, we see love emanating in different ways.We can see the love of daughter to mother (Olabisi and Makalay), the love of father and daughter (Olabisis and Ade), also the love of husband and wife (Oyah and Ade Jones).
3. POVERTY
This is the state of being unable to obtain basic needs or inability of someone to meet the basic demands like food, clothes and shelter. In the novel, Makalay’s kitchen in the village was made of rusty corrugated iron sheets which could almost fall by the blow of the wind.This can also be portrayed when Salay and Rugiatu were walking bare footed from the well.
4. MORAL DECAY
This is the desolation of good morals and people in the society.In the novel, moral decay is shown when Olabisi involved herself in early sexual relationships while she was just fourteen years of age. Also when Olabisi replied back Makalay (her mother) as it was a peer.
5. BETRAYAL
This is the act of being disloyal to someone who trusts you.in the novel, the situation is experienced by Makalay when she was betrayed by Pah Amadu and he did not being Olabisi back to Makalay, instead he helped Olabisi to reach the town. Also the betrayal of Edward Cole to Olabisi by disclosing the secret that he had sex with her.
6. CONFLICTS
Conflict means misunderstanding between two people. The following conflicts are found in novel :-
Conflict between Olabisi and Makalay. The source of the conflict was female genital mutilation that is when Makalay forced her daughters to be circumcised but the solution of this conflict was the court whereby Olabisi won the case and she was not circumcised.
Conflict between Olabisi and Eddy. The same of this conflict was the betrayal when Eddy betrayed Olabisi by disclosing the secret that he had sex with Olabisi the solution was when Olabisi decided to break up the relationship.
Conflict between Oyah and Ade Jones. The source of this conflict was unfaithfulness of Ade Jones and the solution was forgiveness and marriage
Conflict between Makalay and Ade. This conflict based on who is supposed to make decision to Olabisi about whether she is supposed to be circumcised or not. The solution to this conflict was the court whereby Olabisi was not circumcised.
Conflict between Olabisi, Rugiatu and Salay: The source of the conflict was when Olabisi called"agborka"The solution to this was Makalay and Yah Posseh decision to Olabisi that she was supposed to be circumcised.
Conflict between Bondo women Vs Olabisi, Oyah and Dr. Asiah
The source was female genital mutilation but the solution was court and Olabisi won the case.
7. ILLITERACY
In the novel, Yah posseh and most of the Bondo women were blind about the effects of women circumcision so as to become a real woman
8. LAZINESS
This is the situation of being unwilling to work.Olabisi was very lazy,she has many dirty clothes like pants, jeans and a tops but she was just keeping them in her bag instead of washing them.
9. SUPERSTITION
Yah posseh and all Bondo women believed in superstition on beliefs like goats and ancestors, that is why female circumcision to them is compulsory.Example, Yah posseh told Makalay that her daughter Olabisi offended the spirits of their ancestors and gods of their tradition and because of that she was supposed to be circumcised.Also when Yah Posseh told Makalay that if she will obey spirits will make things difficult for her during children (chapter 2 Pg 22).
FIGURES OF SPEECH
1. PERSONIFICATIONS
- The wind her news of an approaching group of singer (Pg 5)
- Her hand disappeared into the bag up to the elbow fingers searching for camera (chapter 1 Pg 7)
- The mosquitoes were having a party on you and the noise woke me up (Pg 40).
The darkness became jumping, threatening to take over the room again if the lamp went out (Pg 32).
The moon came out with a smile, shading soft light around her (Pg 31).
2. REPETITION
- I……. I was just…… (Pg 28)
- Ye………. yes sir (Pg 56)
- "Gborika" – said by Makalay many times to Olabisi for the emphasis of circumcision (Pg 11)
- Confess was also repeated to show the emphasis that Ade wanted to know the truth that he was the father of Olabisi or not (Pg 49)
- She is your mother……….she will always be your mother.This emphasizing Olabisi that Makalay was her mother no matter what (Pg 47)
3. METAPHORS
- Eddy the dog and he was making his way towards her (pg 63)
- The Bondo tradition is mama Africa (pg 74)
- "Death is the enemy who has no respect for people and this privacy" said Yah posseh (Pg 79)
4. HYPERBOLES
-Each pot was big enough to boil a cow without breaking its legs (pg 43)
-The girls folded their arms across their chests and tried to cook as if they eat rocks everyday (pg 35)
5. PROVERBS
-" let the traitor come close for this "(Pg 35) -" Never laugh with your enemy otherwise you might end up friends" (pg 75) -"Do as I say but learn from me" (pg 66)
6. SIMILES
- " She sat up listening like dog sensing an intruder" (Pg 5)
- "She scramble across the bed on all fours like a giant crab" (pg 8)
- " Students ran in panic, scattering from brutal police like cock roaches at the flash of the light" (pg 12).
-"The rift – ray boys will be after you for sexual fun like dodgers" (pg 12)
- "Salary was short and stocky like a well fed big while Rugiatu was tall, skinny and hungry looking like a shaved bird.
- "She was black as midnight, with flat eyes like a snake (pg 21)
- "Olabisi began to feel like a mouse watching a cat (pg 21)
- "The girl thrashed about like a snake caught in a farm trap (Pg 30)
- "Rugiatu attached like a mad dog (Pg 36)
- "From where she stood it locked as small as a handkerchief (Pg 54)
- "Large man, as huge as truck was sitting…. (pg 54)



LITERARY ANALYSIS
Passed Like a Shadow (NOVEL)
Author; Bernard Mapangala
Setting: Uganda 2006
Summary and themes.
Chapter I
This chapter starts with the father who has appeared unexpectedly. He is drink. His children fear him. As soon as he cames in, Atwoki lost his appetite. He tried to avoid his father; unfortunately he bumped into Aboo’ki hence sending the matoke down. In this case Atwoki encountered a classic slap. It indicated that Adyeri did not love his children. This is poor parental care.
His children hated him, this hatred.
The position of women has been reflected. Amoti was seriously beaten by Adyeri. She was trying to defend Atwoki. She cried uwii, uwii. In this regard, Amoti represents women as the oppressed gender. However, she is brave because she spoke her mind.
Lastly we see that Adyeri did not sleep at home that evening. He had another woman. This is betrayal.
Chapter II
This chapter is centered on Vicky. It is portraying Vicky’s previous and current life. Poor customs are reflected in which we see that Vicky is sent or exiled Kaitangwenda as she was seen riding a bicycle (It is a taboo for a girl to ride a bicycle in Torro).
In this chapter, it is shown that Vicky is an orphan. Her mother died so she had to live with Adyeri’s Family. Conflict and hatred are reflected as Adyeri hates or dislike Vicky. She considers her, as an additional burden to their family.
On the other side we see Vicky coming with Akena. She introduced him as a man who wanted to marry her. Amoti protests because she is jealousy that Vicky will get married to a man who owns garage. Adyeri settles the matter and tell Akena to come on the other day for arrangement of bride price.
Chapter 3
This chapter is centered on Atwoki’s fame. He is good in football as well as academically. Atwoki is ambitious and social. He wants to be a soldier. Other boys are also prophesying their future.
Also we are shown the difference between Atwoki and Abooki was quiet and meditative. Atwoki was busy, ting and always came home exhausted.
Love and care are shown in this chapter. Amoti did mot beat her children when they came home late, she warned them.
Position of women is reflected through Abooki. After school hours Abooki was response to prepare evening meal at home. The narrator says the little girl Abooki was overworked. In this chapter we are also introduced to uncle Araali. He likes children and appreciates their skills. This is love and care.
Lastly we see that Adyeri is irresponsible. This irresponsibility comes about do to the fact that Adyeri did not leave any money. Yet he came home drink. This is also alcoholism which leads to irresponsibility. Fortunately uncle Araali had brought bunches of Matoke and fish. He also gave money to children purchase firewood.
Chapter 4
It is opened up with Tusiime, Vicky and Kunchira console for having missed a husband because of a greedy uncle. He fixed a high bride price. This is poor traditional customs.
It is also indicated that Vicky was to send Bondibugyo to work as a tea plucker. She did not get any money from her sweat. All her wages had been prepaid to Amoti so that, she could pay for her childrean’s school fees. This is oppression.
Also Tusiime and Kunchira inform Vicky that Adyeri has another woman. Tusiime says that there is too much cheating in marriage. This is dishonesty.
Prostitution is reflected through Tusiime who said that she could sleep with any man to make money.
Furthermore, the narrator reflects that Tusiime and Kinchira were not good girls both had been worst product of port Fortal secondary education. Tusiime had been a ring leader that led in the burning of the school’s matlesses at Maria Goret Secondary school. Kunchira was discontinued from Kyebambe Secondary School.
Influence of peer pressure is shown on Vicky. She was abused by Tusiime and Kunchira to find boyfriend the accepted and changed in her behavior.
Self limitation and poverty are reflected through Adyeri could not stop Vicky from her behavior because she brought his crates beer and cartons of hard drinks.
One day Adyeri aerated Vicky’s jugardaddy. This led to the conflict between Vicky and Adyeri. At the end Vicky left the house and never came back.
Chapter 5
This chapter starts with Adyeri in the Hall of Kinyanasika Primary School. It was a parent’s day and he was invited as a pioneer teacher of the school.
This chapter shows adyeri suffering. He gave out heavy cagh which sent all the eyes in his direction. His confidence was gone. His body had lost more than 20 pounds in less than a year. He had frequent fever and vomiting. His hair had become sparse and grey. His vibrant color gad gone. These are symptoms of HIV/AIDS.
Standard five pupils performed a song. It started that those who die without doing something important pass like a shadow.
This song hit Adyeri because he spent his life carelessly. On the other hand, the flash back on Adyers previous life is given. He was a headmaster of Sit. Led high school. He fell in love with his secretary Biringi. This is betrayal to his wife. We are also informed that he misused his position by squandering the school funds build a house for Biringi in Birungi and This is corruption.
Adyeri was sacked as the headmaster after the news leaked cot on his misconduct. He spent most of the time drinking. (This is alcoholism) Later on, he sold a half of his inherited land. (This indicated irresponsibility he moved completely to Biringi’s home and financed her new shop at Muguso trading center. This is betrayal to his family.
Oppression is reflected in this chapter Adyeri was rarely seen at home; when Amoti complained she encountered ritual beating.
Love, care and generosity are reflected through Uncle Araali. He helped to pay the children’s school fees.
Effects of poor parental care are reflected in this chapter. He built a house for her mother in Katamba.
Lastly we are shown the theme Betrayal. Birungi betrayed Adyeri first; she rejected him when he was admitted at the hospital. Then she chased him away when he went to her house asking for help, and insulted him as a poor miserdlems.












CHAPTER 6
Joe met the old woman (cucu) and Dr Ocheng introducd him to her that he saved her and brought her to hospital..
She was sitting on the bed. She woke up and hugged him. The old woman wants to be released but Doctor Ochieng says that they have to trace her home first. She agrees on the condition that Joe should insist her.
Joe left and went to see Gladwell at St Bernadette church choir in Umoja. Before Joe went to see Gladwell, we saw on Ochieng tells Joe that HIV/ ADS victim who killed himself was pester, he warned him that it can get anyone. He also told him that they only ways to avoid HIV/AIDS is to remain single until he gets married or use condom.
Then, Joe arrived at St Bernadette and saw Gladwell. Gladwell is surprised by the bond that has developed between Joe and old cucu, as he told her that he wants to find her home and her relatives . After the choir practice they left, and Gladwell told him that her sister Georgina also died of HIV/AIDS.
CHAPTER 7
It starts with Joe and David.David is discouraging Joe when he said that he is going to trace cucu home. Because of David’s discouragement the next day he did not visit the old cucu. The day after he wentt to see her, she was disappointed when he did not show up the previous day. She thinks that Joe has come to collect her, But Dr Ochieng insists that she must be discharged first.As they are talking suddenly the old cucu mentions Kariobangi, but she forget immediately that has mentioned the place as home. When Dr. Ochieng is told, he says the old cucu is getting back the flashes of her memory. She is given another twenty four hours to recover for Amnesia.
The next morning Joe received Gladwell's all that she got a Job at the city soap industries.
An hour later, he decided to persue the past newspaper and when he turned at the page of notices and death announcement, he saw the picture of old cucu, below it there was a caption which explained that she went missing and a reward of 100,000/= would be given to whoever helps in locating her. There was also eh telephone number of her son Johnson Njogu

CHAPTER 8
Joe ran to the receptionist and gave mercy Mr Njogu's telephone number to dial at Njogu's house. He was given Njogu's direct number by a girl, as Njogu was not at home.
He called Mrs Njogu and told him that he know where his missing mother was. Njogu did not believe him. He thinks that he was after money. He banged a phone down. Joe













Topic 5: WRITING USING APPROPRIATE LANGUAGE, CONTENT AND STYLE.

Composition refers to a piece of writing on a particular topic, event or person. It can be expository, narrative, argumentative or descriptive compositions. Composition can be written at collage, school, and university as a part of studies or assignment given on a particular course. In writing composition a student is supposed to generate his/her own ideas and use them to narrate, describe, explain, argue, or persuade a certain thing or event.
Composition involves writing essays, letter, poems, stories, debates, speeches, dialogue, which involves a collection of ideas that are organised a good manner /pattern on a given topic or subject.

Things to consider when writing a composition
Title: Start with the title, the title should be written in capital letters. The title should be underlined if hand written and bold if type. The title should relate with the topic or subject given. Think of the number of words if it is given.
Put your ideas in small but detailed paragraphs.
Revise and edit your work carefully.
Divide your essay into three parts namely:
  • Introduction which relates to the title i.e. defines, explains the key words from the title.
  • Main body: This is the main part of the composition. Discuss your ideas in point in relation to the topic or subject given, planned. The main ideas should precede the minor ideas. Consider the logical arrangement of your ideas and points.
  • Conclusion: Under this part, you may give suggestions, views, opinions on the topic discussed. It should reflect the whole content discussed in your essay.
Write your essay/composition in a good manner, tone and good grammar.
There are various types of composition, namely:
  1. Narrative composition/ essay.
  2. Expository composition/ essay.
  3. Descriptive composition/essay.
  4. Argumentative / persuasive composition/ essay.
Narrative Composition/Essay
These are essays that account or give stories of events. The stories may be personal, fiction or non-fictional, historical stories or events. Personal autobiographical stories focus on the author’s or writers own life and historical stories reliy on past events /happenings.
Non –fiction stories are based on truth or true events but fictional stories depend on imagination and use of figurative language to produce a story according to the writer or author.
Narrative essay involve telling a story about someone or something you probably do every day in a normal conversation. You may preset and narrate or tell your experience on a piece of paper.

Activity 1
Imagine you are exploring a deserted house at night when you are surprised and captured by a member of a gang of thieves who have made the place their headquarters. You succeed in escaping from the villain. Write a narrative story in no less than 300 words to explain what happened.

Writing Events in the Past
Example 1
HOW KIBONGE WAS HUNTED BY TWO WOLVES
The next morning, when I went down to the river to fill my can, I was horrified to see a dog’s tracks that were bigger than my fist. I turned back to my tent, made my breakfast, packed up and get started.
But just as I was leaving I saw two cars over a bush; it was a wolf all right. The brute shrank down out of sight as I looked, but when I moved on it followed me, keeping under cover, and presently I found that there were two of them walking and hunting together. Every now and then one of them showed itself in the open and I had a shot at it, but they were quick you’d think they saw the flash and dodged the bullet – and I never touched them once.
After I had several shots at them I happen to look at my belt, and I’d only one to more left. I would come but with a heavy pack, and had cut down my ammunition to six or eight rounds to same weight.’ No more shooting, Kibonge. ”I said you keep the rounds for yourself’’ if they got me, I tell you I wasn’t going to turn into pieces alive.
As I went on without firing, the wolves gradually realised that there was no danger and they got more and more cheeky, keeping closer and closer to me and calling to one another to check up on my movements. I had to use up one of my two last shots on them. They followed the raft down along the sands, but eventually it drifted to the other side of the river, and I got away. Of course the Indians said it was my own fault for going out alone.
Exercise 1
  1. Write an account of result of a recent family dispute that you know about.
  2. Express the meaning of these phrases in your own words (a) Out and out; (b) Cut down my ammunition to six or eight rounds; (c) Pushing off; (d) Form to pieces alive
  3. Write a story called ‘’ Lost in the desert’’ (about 250 words)
  4. Write a 300 words composition carefully paragraphed, on the subject ‘’ the best years of my life’’.
  5. How far is it true, do you think that schooldays are the happiest ones of our life? (write in 250 words)


Writing Factual Information on a Topic/Subject
Expository essays are essays that explain something with facts, as opposed to opinion. They may describe how to do something, analyse events, ideas, objects, or written works. They must contain an introductory paragraph, body paragraphs and a conclusion. The introductory paragraph may contain the thesis statement or topic sentence that introduces the theme of an essay.
Expository essays are most written by college, school or university students during their test and examinations. They need response to questions that asks the writer to explain or expose a specific issue basing on a given topic or subject or describe a process.
Characteristics of an expository essay
  • It focuses on the main topic.
  • It needs logical supporting facts details, explanations and examples.
  • It needs strong organisation.
  • Clarity.
  • Unity and coherence of ideas.
Expository essay includes writing letters, definitions, reports and research, instructions, newspaper articles, magazine articles, etc.
Steps to writing an expository essay.
  1. Select a topic – it should not be wide so as to make you manage to describe it.( it should be a narrow enough topic).
  2. Provide an introduction paragraph. It should state the thesis of the essay.
  3. Think how to develop your essay. E.g. definition, listing, and explaining, classifying, process analysis, etc.
  4. Think of organisation of the essay. Provide topic sentence for each body paragraph that relates to the thesis sentence; make few suggestions related to the essay. e.g. in conclusion………, all in all……. It is now in position to say that………, etc.
Example 2
FACTS ABOUT THE LOCUST MENACE
In spite of what has recently done to combat the threat of the locust, they remain a menace to entire food supply of a quarter of the world. One trouble of them is they breed, the more they eat; and the more they eat the more they breed.
A breeding area may have up to five thousand eggs to the square yard. And a breeding area may cover up to two hundred thousand acres.
A large swarm, migrating from one of these breeding grounds, may number up to five hundred million and be capable of destroying an area of two hundred square miles. The locusts are a menace to plants therefore effective steps should be taken to destroy their breeding places.

Exercise 2
  1. Write an expository essay on the causes of HIV.
  2. Write down the duties and uses of the police force.(about 200 words).
  3. Write an essay on the causes of soil erosion (250 words).
  4. In many African countries there is the plight of children employed in mines. Write an expository essay about the problem in about 300 words.
  5. Write an essay on “ The power of water” (250 words).
Writing Descriptive Composition/Essays
Vivid Descriptions of People/Places/Events
Descriptive essays are concerned with describing objects, experience or ideas. The word descriptive comes from the verb ‘to describe'. In order to get started on your descriptive essay, it is important to identify exactly what you want to describe. This form relies on creative writing.
Descriptive composition requires the writer to express, to portray, show clearly and vividly something which one can touch, smell, hear, feel or think to the reader. It involves giving a detailed description about a topic, person, something, place or an incident.
Example 3
A GERMAN SAUSAGE
‘If you never try a new thing, how can you tell what it’s like? Think of a man who first tried German sausage!
It was a great success, that Irish stew I don’t think I never enjoyed a meal more, there was something so fresh and piquant about it. One’s palate gets so tired of the old things; here was a dish with a new flavour with a taste like nothing else on earth.
And it was nourishing too. As George said, there was good stuff in it, peas and potatoes might have been a bit softer, but we all had good teeth, so that did not matter much, and as for gravy, it was like a poem, a little too rich, perhaps, for a week stomach, but nutritious.
We finished up with tea and cherry tart. Montmorency had a fight with the kettle during tea time and come off a poor second.
Exercise 3

    Write carefully paragraphed composition of about 300 words on “trees”
    Write a 300 word essay on “People I Envy”
    Write a 250 word essay composition titled “Things I like Doing”
    Write a composition on “The kind of boy or girl that I liked at school” (250 words)



Writing Argumentative Composition/Essay
Presenting Contrasting Views of a Given Topic
Present contrasting views of a given topic
Argumentative essays are written to present on opinions which either favours or disagrees with a controversial topic. The writer must prove his/her view point by supporting it with convincing facts and evidences from reliable sources.
The function of argumentative essays is to show that your assertion (theory, opinion, and hypothesis) about some phenomena is correct or more truthful than other's.
Argumentative writing is an act of forming reason, making inductions, giving supporting examples, drawing conclusions and applying them to the case of discussions. It also involves a clear explanation of the process of reasoning from the known or assumed to the unknown and without doing this you do not have argument; you have only an opinion or theory. It is used to convince the readers to believe in the opinion of the writer /author of a particular material.
It aims at arguing ,convincing , motivating or persuading the reader to accept ,change and take the required action or step on something, a topic or subject that might affect the society in one way another . Example; political written speeches, on the uses of a certain traditional medicine to treat HIV or Malaria patients which needs convincing power with clear arguments/reasons
Argumentative composition involves the use of contrastive words such as whereas, although, on the other hand, yet, however, nevertheless, despite, but, meanwhile, etc.

Example 4
CORRUPTION IS RAMPANT
Corruption is a most problem in African countries. On the other hand, it is one of the causes of poverty to the majority citizen in most African countries. Although people are always struggling to combat poverty but their economy is hampered by corruption which denies them basic rights such as the right to employment.
On the contrary, the economy of the most African countries is in the hand of the few minorities whereas the majority is suffering from bad conditions.
Consequently, children retard due to malnutrition caused by lack of a balance diet. However, African countries have many minerals and forests, but these resources are not fully utilised as are result of poor investment caused by corruption.
Furthermore, corruption has caused lack of proper transport facilities such as roads, which is one of the factor for speeding up development and in fact, many roads are not all weather, meanwhile, they are used during dry seasons only. Therefore, these are the consequences of corruption in most African countries.
Activity 2
  1. Write on argumentative composition on forums of child labor. (about 250 words)
  2. Using the following contrasting conjunctions: while…, conversely, notwithstanding, despite, whereas, and although. Write a composition on the importance of a new constitution in Tanzania .(300 words)
  3. Argue for the subject “Animals, friends, and enemies of man”. (300 words)


Creative Writing
Writing a Work of Art Using Literary Devices and Skills
Creative writing refers to an art which involves writing fiction or non-fiction stories with the figurative use of language. It depends on a person’s masterly of a particular language and can be inform of a novel or short stories, poem, and memories in our life. It involves creating the environment or scene, plot, style, character, and proper, language, to use in your story.
How to write creatively
  1. Think on topic of your story.
  2. List down the general ideas to be included in your story.
  3. Think of the style and vocabulary which will complete your work.
  4. Plan the characters in your story.
  5. Consider the setting i.e. environment that will be reflected in your story.
Exercise 4
  1. Write a short story titled “ a misfortune woman”(500 words).
  2. Write a five stanza poem titled “ A village woman”













Writing Speeches
A speech refers to a vocalised form of human communication. It may also denote a formal presentation on a given topic or subject. A speech may also refer to a formal faculty or act of speaking, expressing or describing thoughts, feelings or perceptions through the articulation of words. Speech is written first before presenting. Normally, speech can be presented during seminar, graduation, workshop, political campaigns, report, project presentations, religious speeches, meetings, public meeting, ceremonies and functions.
How to write a speech
  1. Think on the purpose of the speech- why do you want to prepare a speech?
  2. Think on the context and audience whom do you want to write a speech.
  3. Plan for the heading/ title of your speech. The title/heading should be taken from the topic or subject given. It should relate with the event that takes place and requires a speech.
  4. The title/heading should be very brief, clear and readable. It should be direct to the event/function that takes place.
  5. Make a good introduction, starting with, greeting from the superior/guest of honor to the least people. Example; Honorable Guest of Honor,…,Your Excellency……,Secretary General…..Mr. president….., the highness…….., the majority……., etc. It will depend with the title/position of the guest of honor during the event.
  6. After introduction/greeting, clarify a little bit about the event, clarify the function taking place.
  7. The main body –concentrate on ideas as conveyed in the question/topic given, put each idea in a new paragraph giving examples and evidences. Observe a logical arrangement of ideas with good grammar.
  8. If you have a guest of honour, address your speech to him/her, but if there is no a guest of honour and your speaking to general audience use the words’’ ladies and gentleman “in every beginning of a new idea.
  9. Use appropriate vocabulary.. Do not use contractions example; I’ll, I don’t, we’ve, I’ve, etc.Use link words/connectors such as besides, finally, moreover, despite, on top of that, etc.
  10. Give your own suggestion / view opinions on what you have discussed in your speech.
Activity 3
You are given a chance to address the people on the topic ‘ Environmental Conservation.’
  1. Write a speech of not more than 250 words.
  2. Organise words in a logical order.
  3. Revise and edit your speech.
Delivering a Speech
Delivering a speech requires some things to take into consideration to make your argument more effective and interesting. The following are some of these things:
  1. Stand upright or in the place where you can be seen by all the audience.
  2. Look all side so as to hold your audience.
  3. Allow eye contact with the audience, a glance to your speech is enough.
  4. Avoid repetition , speak moderately, enrich your speech by using proverbs, idioms to make it more colourful (but this will depend with the audience)
  5. If you feel nervous in front of the audience, take a deep breath and put your legs apart and wait for several minutes before continuing.
  6. Observe the time duration so that your speech could not bore the audience.
  7. Avoid using offensive and aggressive language/comments that are embarrassing to the listener/ audience.
Activity 4
Imagine you’re the one of the political leaders campaigning for votes in an election. Prepare a speech to give to voters. Use this point;
  • Increase in wages
  • Increase crop prices
  • Lower taxes
  • Spend more on education
  • Unite the people
  • Improvement of transport and communication.









Writing Curriculum Vitae (CV)
Curriculum vitae is a document that lists a person's education qualifications, work experience and interests. A curriculum vitae (CV) sometimes is required as an attachment application letters as an advertisement for your skills. Your personal information should keep changing in order to suit with each new job application. The Americans call as CV ‘resume” while the British calls it Curriculum vitae (CV).
There are three (3) basic types of CV namely:
  1. Chronological CV –put emphasis on historical development on your career / professional.
  2. Functional CV—emphasis on skills and capabilities,
  3. Combine both functional and chronological styles (CV).
Example 5

A SAMPLE OF A CV
PERSONAL INFORMATION/ DATA:
SURNAME : NGANYAGWA
FIRST NAME : DOMINATA
MIDDLE NAME : BATISTER
DATE OF BIRTH: January 20, 1989
NATIONALITY : TANZANIAN
SEX: FEMALE
MARITAL STATUS: MARRIED
HOME ADDREES: P.O.BOX 670, IRINGA
PRESENT ADDRESS: P.O.BOX, 334, ARUSHA
TEL. NUMBER: 0748-564451/02663
E-MAIL: Domina@gmail.com.

EDUCATION QUALIFICATION:
YEAR
INSTITUTION
AWARD
2011-2014
UNIVERSITY OF DODOMA
BACHELOR DEGREE
2009-2011
MAWENI HIGH SCHOOL
ADVANCED LEVEL CERTIFICATE
2005-2008
UWELENI SECONDARY SCHOOL
ORDINARY LEVEL CERTIFICATES
2001-2007
IMAGE PRIMARY SCHOOL
PSLE CERTIFICATE
PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATION/ WORKING EXPERIENCE:
  • 2013-2014 - Tutorial Assistant – University of Dodoma
  • 2014-2015 - Teacher at Green Acre Secondary School
  • 2011-201 - Teaching Practice at Ohio High School
  • 2010 – Training on Computer Literacy- Certificate.
  • 2015 - Part time Lecturer at Edinburgh University
PERSONAL INTEREST /HOBBIES:
  • Reading newspapers
  • Sports and games
LANGUAGE FLUENCY:
  • Kiswahili – excellent
  • English – very good
EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES:
  • Reading novels
  • doing body exercise
REFEREES:
Prof. Mwala Enos,
Yalta University,
P.o.Box 641,
Japan.
Phone: +22733678933/9

Dr. Magdalena Mbozi,
TRA Headquarters,
P.o.Box.562,
Dar-es- Salaam.
Phone: 0773994576

Mwl .Maginga, F.,
P.O.BOX.663,
IRINGA,
Phone: 0761-514600
Activity 5
Imagine you want to secure a job at Maven Tea Producers Company, write a CV which should beattached with your letter.






Topic 4: SPEAKING USING APPROPRIATE LANGUAGE CONTENT AND STYLE .
OBJECTIVE:
By the end of this chapter you will be able to:
i. Respond appropriately to instructions
ii. Give effective and sensible instructions
iii. Listening to main ideas and taking notes.
iv. Make summaries.
v. Write down what you hear correctly.
SECTION 1: MAKING REQUESTS
Requests take many different forms and may be:
i. Very polite
ii. Moderately polite(or)
iii. Not very polite (rude)
When you make a request, you want someone to do something for you. If you get this important social interaction wrong, you may offend your teacher, your friends, or your parents.
- Some requests show that the person you are speaking to can choose to do as you want.
- Other ways of speaking indicate that if the request is not followed there will be trouble.
The difference between requests and instructions
Instruction/imperatives –Instructions require the person receiving them to do something or to stop doing it.
- Instructions are directly addressed to the person who has to do them. Therefore, instructions are one of the few types of English sentences that do not need a subject. The subject is usually You.
For Example: Everyone, be quiet! Asha, (you) say that again
Note: The first instruction is general, and the second instruction is just for Asha. Instructions are grammatically the same as orders. However their use is very different.
Uses of orders
- Orders do not give the person who receives them any choice. They should be obeyed. As a result, most people do not like receiving orders.
- Orders are usually given to children by their parents, pets by their owners, soldiers to soldiers, teacher to students.
Exercise
1. Mention three orders a teacher can give to his students 2. Mention two orders a parent (mother) can give to her daughter
Written instructions
English people usually obey written instructions. These are not orders and they can be quiet useful. You often see these in writing.
- Many written advertisement are instructions. For example lose 10kg in 2 weeks!!!
- When you buy a telephone set you often get a booklet of instruction on how to use it. This called a manual.

EXERCISE
1. Write your own advertisement on CAR SALE use phrases such as
- Buy this car today
Write down three more orders
i. ………………………………………………………………….
ii. ………………………………………………………………….
iii. ………………………………………………………………….
REQUESTS
Requests means asking for something or for certain services. Requests can be in different forms.
i. Something an instruction is changed into a request by the addition of "Please" or a question tag.
ii. To make a request more polite we might use some auxiliary verbs in the beginning like would, could etc
iii. Very often English requests are indirect. Instead of asking someone to do something, the speaker asks if the person is able to do it.
-Therefore modals of ability i.e can, may etc. are very often used
Examples, “Come here, please” - (order modified with please)
Pass the salt, would you? –(order modified with question tag)
Can I take this seat? (Indirect request with modal of ability)
Could I take this chair? (Polite indirect request with modal of ability in the subjunctive)
Note: Could is more polite than can and might is more polite than may. May/might is slightly more polite than can/could but generally you can use either one.
- Sometime we use “I wonder whether" to make polite requests.
To avoid embarrassing people
i. Orders are often given as requests, even if the person receiving them must do as he is told.
ii. Indirect requests are often questions related to what the speaker wants, but which do not directly ask for something. Sometimes even suggestions are really strong orders and some polite instructions are given as ordinary statements.
For example
a) “Could you call Mrs Machaku for me, Isack?” (order as request)
b) “Would you like to open your present, Sir?” (order as suggestion)
c) “Have fun!” (encouragement as order)
d) “Go on! Have some more food”(suggestion as order)
e) “Go to hell”(insult as order)
f) “Why don’t you go to hell?”(insult as strong suggestion)
g) “Some more coffee would be nice.” (request as statement)
h) You might consider doing it this way (instruction as statement)
i) “Have you got any change?” (Indirect request for many by beggars as related questions)
PLEASE
Please is a polite word often used to change an order into a request it does this by suggesting that the person receiving it can choose whether or not to do it?
- Please is a short way of saying “If it pleases you”
Please come at the beginning or the end of the request. Generally is there is a vocative (name), the vocative comes first at the beginning or last at the end. For example.
“Ian, please come here”
“Ian, come here please”
“Come here please, Ian”
“Please come here” Ian”
“Ian, could you please?” (Very very humble)
FORMAL REQUESTS
Formal requests are indirect or very polite. Sometimes the meaning and the words are very different.
For example
I. “Excuse me, is this place taken?”
Meaning: I want to sit here
II. “May be you should leave now.
Meaning: Get out
III. “Perhaps you would like to pay now”
Meaning: Pay
People in official positions often make polite requests when they are commands
For example.
“Would you come with us please”
“Would you like to explain why did you come late?”
Note: The grammar used above is the same as for offers but the meaning is completely different.
- The neutral request is perhaps the most common. It is used with people you know casually or people you work with. Requests are often orders moderated with please” or with question tags. Indirect requests are more common for requests that might be refused.
For example.
“Do you want to open that window, John?”
“Call me when you are through, would you?”
“Can you tell me what to do here?”
EXERCISE
Change the following orders into formal requests
1. Shut the door! 2. Don’t sleep here! 3. Do not cry!
Answer requests and instructions.
The safety answer to an order is “Yes” usually followed by name or title of the person giving the order
For Example: “Yes Boss!”, “Certainly”, “By all means”, “of course” or “with pleasure”
If you are asked to pass or give something you can say “here you are" as you give it.
For example.
“May I read that paper; if you have finished with it?
Respond: “Yes, Please do” or
“By all means” or
“Here you are”
Formal refusal.
When you receive a formal request or instruction it is not usual or polite to refuse directly. More usually you give the reason for refusing and sometimes an apology or to change an order into a discussion.
For example.
- Show me your homework.
Respond –“I ‘m sorry, I can’t find it”
“Er………… what homework is that?”















Topic 5: WRITING USING APPROPRIATE LANGUAGE, CONTENT AND STYLE

Composition refers to a piece of writing on a particular topic, event or person. It can be expository, narrative, argumentative or descriptive compositions. Composition can be written at collage, school, and university as a part of studies or assignment given on a particular course. In writing composition a student is supposed to generate his/her own ideas and use them to narrate, describe, explain, argue, or persuade a certain thing or event.
Composition involves writing essays, letter, poems, stories, debates, speeches, dialogue, which involves a collection of ideas that are organised a good manner /pattern on a given topic or subject.

Things to consider when writing a composition

Title:Start with the title, the title should be written in capital letters. The title should be underlined if hand written and bold if type. The title should relate with the topic or subject given. Think of the number of words if it is given.
Put your ideas in small but detailed paragraphs. Revise and edit your work carefully. Divide your essay into three parts namely:
  • Introduction which relates to the title i.e. defines, explains the key words from the title.
  • Main body: This is the main part of the composition. Discuss your ideas in point in relation to the topic or subject given, planned. The main ideas should precede the minor ideas. Consider the logical arrangement of your ideas and points.
  • Conclusion:Under this part, you may give suggestions, views, opinions on the topic discussed. It should reflect the whole content discussed in your essay.
Write your essay/composition in a good manner, tone and good grammar.
There are various types of composition, namely:
  1. Narrative composition/ essay.
  2. Expository composition/ essay.
  3. Descriptive composition/essay.
  4. Argumentative / persuasive composition/ essay.
Narrative Composition/Essay
These are essays that account or give stories of events. The stories may be personal, fiction or non-fictional, historical stories or events. Personal autobiographical stories focus on the author’s or writers own life and historical stories reliy on past events /happenings.
Non –fiction stories are based on truth or true events but fictional stories depend on imagination and use of figurative language to produce a story according to the writer or author.
Narrative essay involve telling a story about someone or something you probably do every day in a normal conversation. You may preset and narrate or tell your experience on a piece of paper.
Activity 1
Imagine you are exploring a deserted house at night when you are surprised and captured by a member of a gang of thieves who have made the place their headquarters. You succeed in escaping from the villain. Write a narrative story in no less than 300 words to explain what happened.
Writing Events in the Past
Writing events in the past
Example 1

HOW KIBONGE WAS HUNTED BY TWO WOLVES
The next morning, when I went down to the river to fill my can, I was horrified to see a dog’s tracks that were bigger than my fist. I turned back to my tent, made my breakfast, packed up and get started.
But just as I was leaving I saw two cars over a bush; it was a wolf all right. The brute shrank down out of sight as I looked, but when I moved on it followed me, keeping under cover, and presently I found that there were two of them walking and hunting together. Every now and then one of them showed itself in the open and I had a shot at it, but they were quick you’d think they saw the flash and dodged the bullet – and I never touched them once.
After I had several shots at them I happen to look at my belt, and I’d only one to more left. I would come but with a heavy pack, and had cut down my ammunition to six or eight rounds to same weight.’ No more shooting, Kibonge. ”I said you keep the rounds for yourself’’ if they got me, I tell you I wasn’t going to turn into pieces alive.
As I went on without firing, the wolves gradually realised that there was no danger and they got more and more cheeky, keeping closer and closer to me and calling to one another to check up on my movements. I had to use up one of my two last shots on them. They followed the raft down along the sands, but eventually it drifted to the other side of the river, and I got away. Of course the Indians said it was my own fault for going out alone.

Exercise 1
  1. Write an account of result of a recent family dispute that you know about.
  2. Express the meaning of these phrases in your own words (a) Out and out; (b) Cut down my ammunition to six or eight rounds; (c) Pushing off; (d) Form to pieces alive
  3. Write a story called ‘’ Lost in the desert’’ (about 250 words)
  4. Write a 300 words composition carefully paragraphed, on the subject ‘’ the best years of my life’’.
 Writing Expository Compositions/Essays
Writing Factual Information on a Topic/Subject
Write factual information on a topic/subject
Expository essays are essays that explain something with facts, as opposed to opinion. They may describe how to do something, analyse events, ideas, objects, or written works. They must contain an introductory paragraph, body paragraphs and a conclusion. The introductory paragraph may contain the thesis statement or topic sentence that introduces the theme of an essay.
Expository essays are most written by college, school or university students during their test and examinations. They need response to questions that asks the writer to explain or expose a specific issue basing on a given topic or subject or describe a process.
Characteristics of an expository essay
  • It focuses on the main topic.
  • It needs logical supporting facts details, explanations and examples.
  • It needs strong organisation.
  • Clarity.
  • Unity and coherence of ideas.
Expository essay includes writing letters, definitions, reports and research, instructions, newspaper articles, magazine articles, etc.
Steps to writing an expository essay.
  1. Select a topic – it should not be wide so as to make you manage to describe it.( it should be a narrow enough topic).
  2. Provide an introduction paragraph. It should state the thesis of the essay.
  3. Think how to develop your essay. E.g. definition, listing, and explaining, classifying, process analysis, etc.
  4. Think of organisation of the essay. Provide topic sentence for each body paragraph that relates to the thesis sentence; make few suggestions related to the essay. e.g. in conclusion………, all in all……. It is now in position to say that………, etc.
Example 2
FACTS ABOUT THE LOCUST MENACE
In spite of what has recently done to combat the threat of the locust, they remain a menace to entire food supply of a quarter of the world. One trouble of them is they breed, the more they eat; and the more they eat the more they breed.
A breeding area may have up to five thousand eggs to the square yard. And a breeding area may cover up to two hundred thousand acres.
A large swarm, migrating from one of these breeding grounds, may number up to five hundred million and be capable of destroying an area of two hundred square miles. The locusts are a menace to plants therefore effective steps should be taken to destroy their breeding places.
Exercise 2
  1. Write an expository essay on the causes of HIV.
  2. Write down the duties and uses of the police force.(about 200 words).
  3. Write an essay on the causes of soil erosion (250 words).
  4. In many African countries there is the plight of children employed in mines. Write an expository essay about the problem in about 300 words.
  5. Write an essay on “ The power of water” (250 words).

Writing Descriptive Composition/Essays
Vivid Descriptions of People/Places/Events
Write vivid descriptions of people/place/events
Descriptive essays are concerned with describing objects, experience or ideas. The word descriptive comes from the verb ‘to describe'. In order to get started on your descriptive essay, it is important to identify exactly what you want to describe. This form relies on creative writing.
Descriptive composition requires the writer to express, to portray, show clearly and vividly something which one can touch, smell, hear, feel or think to the reader. It involves giving a detailed description about a topic, person, something, place or an incident.
Example 3

A GERMAN SAUSAGE
‘If you never try a new thing, how can you tell what it’s like? Think of a man who first tried German sausage!
It was a great success, that Irish stew I don’t think I never enjoyed a meal more, there was something so fresh and piquant about it. One’s palate gets so tired of the old things; here was a dish with a new flavour with a taste like nothing else on earth.
And it was nourishing too. As George said, there was good stuff in it, peas and potatoes might have been a bit softer, but we all had good teeth, so that did not matter much, and as for gravy, it was like a poem, a little too rich, perhaps, for a week stomach, but nutritious.
We finished up with tea and cherry tart. Montmorency had a fight with the kettle during tea time and come off a poor second.
Exercise 3
  1. Write carefully paragraphed composition of about 300 words on “trees”
  2. Write a 300 word essay on “People I Envy”
  3. Write a 250 word essay composition titled “Things I like Doing”
  4. Write a composition on “The kind of boy or girl that I liked at school” (250 words)

Writing Argumentative Composition/Essay
Presenting Contrasting Views of a Given Topic
Present contrasting views of a given topic
Argumentative essays are written to present on opinions which either favours or disagrees with a controversial topic. The writer must prove his/her view point by supporting it with convincing facts and evidences from reliable sources.
The function of argumentative essays is to show that your assertion (theory, opinion, and hypothesis) about some phenomena is correct or more truthful than other's.
Argumentative writing is an act of forming reason, making inductions, giving supporting examples, drawing conclusions and applying them to the case of discussions. It also involves a clear explanation of the process of reasoning from the known or assumed to the unknown and without doing this you do not have argument; you have only an opinion or theory. It is used to convince the readers to believe in the opinion of the writer /author of a particular material.
It aims at arguing ,convincing , motivating or persuading the reader to accept ,change and take the required action or step on something, a topic or subject that might affect the society in one way another . Example; political written speeches, on the uses of a certain traditional medicine to treat HIV or Malaria patients which needs convincing power with clear arguments/reasons
Argumentative composition involves the use of contrastive words such as whereas, although, on the other hand, yet, however, nevertheless, despite, but, meanwhile, etc.
Example 4

CORRUPTION IS RAMPANT
Corruption is a most problem in African countries. On the other hand, it is one of the causes of poverty to the majority citizen in most African countries. Although people are always struggling to combat poverty but their economy is hampered by corruption which denies them basic rights such as the right to employment.
On the contrary, the economy of the most African countries is in the hand of the few minorities whereas the majority is suffering from bad conditions.
Consequently, children retard due to malnutrition caused by lack of a balance diet. However, African countries have many minerals and forests, but these resources are not fully utilised as are result of poor investment caused by corruption.
Furthermore, corruption has caused lack of proper transport facilities such as roads, which is one of the factor for speeding up development and in fact, many roads are not all weather, meanwhile, they are used during dry seasons only. Therefore, these are the consequences of corruption in most African countries.
Activity 2
  1. Write on argumentative composition on forums of child labor. (about 250 words)
  2. Using the following contrasting conjunctions: while…, conversely, notwithstanding, despite, whereas, and although. Write a composition on the importance of a new constitution in Tanzania .(300 words)
  3. Argue for the subject “Animals, friends, and enemies of man”. (300 words)
Creative Writing
Writing a Work of Art Using Literary Devices and Skills
Write a work of art using literary devices and skills
Creative writing refers to an art which involves writing fiction or non-fiction stories with the figurative use of language. It depends on a person’s masterly of a particular language and can be inform of a novel or short stories, poem, and memories in our life. It involves creating the environment or scene, plot, style, character, and proper, language, to use in your story.
How to write creatively
  1. Think on topic of your story.
  2. List down the general ideas to be included in your story.
  3. Think of the style and vocabulary which will complete your work.
  4. Plan the characters in your story.
  5. Consider the setting i.e. environment that will be reflected in your story.
Exercise 4
  1. Write a short story titled “ a misfortune woman”(500 words).
  2. Write a five stanza poem titled “ A village woman”
Writing Speeches
A Speech
Write a speech
A speech refers to a vocalised form of human communication. It may also denote a formal presentation on a given topic or subject. A speech may also refer to a formal faculty or act of speaking, expressing or describing thoughts, feelings or perceptions through the articulation of words. Speech is written first before presenting. Normally, speech can be presented during seminar, graduation, workshop, political campaigns, report, project presentations, religious speeches, meetings, public meeting, ceremonies and functions.
How to write a speech
  1. Think on the purpose of the speech- why do you want to prepare a speech?
  2. Think on the context and audience whom do you want to write a speech.
  3. Plan for the heading/ title of your speech. The title/heading should be taken from the topic or subject given. It should relate with the event that takes place and requires a speech.
  4. The title/heading should be very brief, clear and readable. It should be direct to the event/function that takes place.
  5. Make a good introduction, starting with, greeting from the superior/guest of honor to the least people. Example; Honorable Guest of Honor,…,Your Excellency……,Secretary General…..Mr. president….., the highness…….., the majority……., etc. It will depend with the title/position of the guest of honor during the event.
  6. After introduction/greeting, clarify a little bit about the event, clarify the function taking place.
  7. The main body –concentrate on ideas as conveyed in the question/topic given, put each idea in a new paragraph giving examples and evidences. Observe a logical arrangement of ideas with good grammar.
  8. If you have a guest of honour, address your speech to him/her, but if there is no a guest of honour and your speaking to general audience use the words’’ ladies and gentleman “in every beginning of a new idea.
  9. Use appropriate vocabulary.. Do not use contractions example; I’ll, I don’t, we’ve, I’ve, etc.Use link words/connectors such as besides, finally, moreover, despite, on top of that, etc.
  10. Give your own suggestion / view opinions on what you have discussed in your speech.
Activity 3
You are given a chance to address the people on the topic ‘ Environmental Conservation.’
  1. Write a speech of not more than 250 words.
  2. Organise words in a logical order.
  3. Revise and edit your speech.
Delivering a Speech
Deliver a speech
Delivering a speech requires some things to take into consideration to make your argument more effective and interesting. The following are some of these things:
  1. Stand upright or in the place where you can be seen by all the audience.
  2. Look all side so as to hold your audience.
  3. Allow eye contact with the audience, a glance to your speech is enough.
  4. Avoid repetition , speak moderately, enrich your speech by using proverbs, idioms to make it more colourful (but this will depend with the audience)
  5. If you feel nervous in front of the audience, take a deep breath and put your legs apart and wait for several minutes before continuing.
  6. Observe the time duration so that your speech could not bore the audience.
  7. Avoid using offensive and aggressive language/comments that are embarrassing to the listener/ audience.
Activity 4
Imagine you’re the one of the political leaders campaigning for votes in an election. Prepare a speech to give to voters. Use this point;
  • Increase in wages
  • Increase crop prices
  • Lower taxes
  • Spend more on education
  • Unite the people
  • Improvement of transport and communication.

Writing Curriculum Vitae (CV)
Writing Oneself CV
Write his/her own CV
Curriculum vitae is a document that lists a person's education qualifications, work experience and interests. A curriculum vitae (CV) sometimes is required as an attachment application letters as an advertisement for your skills. Your personal information should keep changing in order to suit with each new job application. The Americans call as CV ‘resume” while the British calls it Curriculum vitae (CV). There are three (3) basic types of CV namely:
  1. Chronological CV –put emphasis on historical development on your career / professional.
  2. Functional CV—emphasis on skills and capabilities,
  3. Combine both functional and chronological styles (CV).
Example 5
A SAMPLE OF A CV
PERSONAL INFORMATION/ DATA:
SURNAME : NGANYAGWA
FIRST NAME : DOMINATA
MIDDLE NAME : BATISTER
DATE OF BIRTH: January 20, 1989
NATIONALITY : TANZANIAN
SEX: FEMALE
MARITAL STATUS: MARRIED
HOME ADDREES: P.O.BOX 670, IRINGA
PRESENT ADDRESS: P.O.BOX, 334, ARUSHA
TEL. NUMBER: 0748-564451/02663
E-MAIL: Domina@gmail.com.
EDUCATION QUALIFICATION:
YEAR
INSTITUTION
AWARD
2011-2014
UNIVERSITY OF DODOMA
BACHELOR DEGREE
2009-2011
MAWENI HIGH SCHOOL
ADVANCED LEVEL CERTIFICATE
2005-2008
UWELENI SECONDARY SCHOOL
ORDINARY LEVEL CERTIFICATES
2001-2007
IMAGE PRIMARY SCHOOL
PSLE CERTIFICATE
PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATION/ WORKING EXPERIENCE:
  • 2013-2014 - Tutorial Assistant – University of Dodoma
  • 2014-2015 - Teacher at Green Acre Secondary School
  • 2011-201 - Teaching Practice at Ohio High School
  • 2010 – Training on Computer Literacy- Certificate.
  • 2015 - Part time Lecturer at Edinburgh University
PERSONAL INTEREST /HOBBIES:
  • Reading newspapers
  • Sports and games
LANGUAGE FLUENCY:
  • Kiswahili – excellent
  • English – very good
EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES:
  • Reading novels
  • doing body exercise
REFEREES:
Prof. Mwala Enos,
Yalta University,
P.o.Box 641,
Japan.
Phone: +22733678933/9
Dr. Magdalena Mbozi,
TRA Headquarters,
P.o.Box.562,
Dar-es- Salaam.
Phone: 0773994576
Mwl .Maginga, F.,
P.O.BOX.663,
IRINGA,
Phone: 0761-514600
Activity 5
Imagine you want to secure a job at Maven Tea Producers Company, write a CV which should beattached with your letter.














Topic 6: WRITING APPLICATON LETTER
Application letters are written for official purposes such as job applications. These letters are sometimes called official business or formal letters. Application letters should be always be concise, complete, logically, planned, clearly, and politely expressed in grammatically correct and good English or language.

Format of an application letter
An application letter regardless of their purpose, consist of the following parts or elements:
  1. Writer’s/ sender’s address – this is written on top right hand corner. This part is also called a letterhead.
  2. Date – (this is under a sender’s address), it shows the date of the letter i.e. the day in which the letter was written.
  3. Reference number (= if any) on right hand side below the date.
  4. Receiver’s – this is written on left hand corner /side. It consists of the name or title of the person, place of business or any place where the letter is intended to reach.
  5. The salutation; this is the greeting that begins the letter. Use dear Sir/Madam if you write to someone whose name you don’t know i.e. he or she is not known to you.
  6. Heading; it should be very brief starting with RE: or REF:-the heading should carry a message (theme of the letter. It should be capital letter and underlined it if is handwritten but do not underline if it typed, bold it.
  7. Body /message - it contains the message or the information of the letter. It is most important part which requires good flow of ideas and well punctuated. 
  8. Complementary close. - It consists of the words of respect to show the feeling of the writer of the letter towards his/ her correspondent / receiver of the letter. It should also relate with the salutation.
  9. Signature of the writer.
  10. Full name plus the name of the company, office or firm which the writer represents, written at an extreme end of letter. Although sometimes a company name may be written above the letter.
Exercise 1
You have completed your O-level studies and aspire to become a teacher. Write an application Letter to the director, ministry of education and vocational training seeking for the opportunity.



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