FORM ONE ENGLISH STUDY NOTES ALL TOPICS (TOPIC 1-16)





                                                   


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OTHER ENGLISH STUDY NOTES 




Topic 1: LISTERNING TO AND UNDERSTANDING SIMPLE TEXTS ABOUT A VARIETY OF EVENTS AND SITUATION.

Listening To and Understanding Simple Oral Texts on Events

SPORTS DAY
It was Sports Day at our school so students gathered at the playground which was full of students from different schools within the Morogoro region. At 4pm, a match between Kilakala Secondary School and Bigwa Secondary School, a sister school began. The referee called all players to line up at the centre of the football pitch and the coaches directed their teams to the centre of the football pitch. Spectators gathered and cheered at their teams. One of players, Siha, injured another player, Janet, on her leg. Janet was given first aid and treated for her injuries.
When the match approached the to end, two students ran into each other, and one of them, Jane, fainted. Five minutes before the end of the match, the Kilakala football team scored a goal, declaring them the winners. The referee blew his whistle and the team members left the football pitch.

Vocabulary
Meaning of Common Vocabulary used in sports story example football.
 (a) Suddenly - Quickly
(b) Spectator - People who are watching something
(c) Exciting - something you enjoy so much
(d) Attract - make people like to see something

Exercise 1
Give the meaning of the following words as used in the story:
  1. Competitor
  2. Crash
  3. Spectator
  4. Referee
  5. Football pitch
  6. Coach

GRADUATION DAY
VOCABULARY
Graduation - a party of student who has finished school
Activities - work
Arrange - plan
e.g. The teacher said that we should arrange our chair properly
Imagine - think of it
Example: Imagine a female present in Tanzania
Exercise
Make two sentences using the words; Graduation and activities
(i) …………………..
(ii) ………………….
STRUCTURE.
Prepositions of Time “At” and “in”
Examples
(a) The party started at 8:00
(b) The guest of honor arrived at 12:00
(c) We ate lunch in the evening
(d) The sleep at right
(e) We arrived at school in the morning


Listening to and Understanding Simple Texts

OUR SCHOOL

The school Head Master’s office is next to the laboratory which students use to conduct different experiments in biology, chemistry and physics. At 2 pm, students go to the assembly hall for daily announcements on routines and activities. The dining hall is between the school lab and the dormitory; students eat their meals in the dinning hall. There are many fruit vendors near the dining hall selling apples, pineapples, oranges, and bananas. After their meal at 5 pm, students go to their dormitories to shower and clean up. There are several bathrooms and laundry rooms where the students take baths and wash their clothes. After their evening meals, students normally go to the classrooms for personal study.




MY FIRST DAY AT SECONDARY SCHOOL
My name is Evelyn Livoga, my father’s name is Mr. Livoga and my mother’s name is Mrs. Grace Livoga. I am fifteen years old. I am black in colour and tall, thin in size.
My first day at secondary school was exciting. I was very excited. When I arrived at school saw some of my friends who come to me and helped me with my luggage to the Head Mistress office for checkup. I waved by to my parents and they gave me a hug.
When I went to the office they checked my luggage and they showed me the way to the dormitory. I went to the dormitory hurriedly and keep my luggage. Then I took bath and I went to class.
When I reached to the class I made my friends and they gave me a lot of loving company. After a half an hour the bell rang and everybody followed the bell.
All the teachers come in front of us and started introducing themselves and lastly the Head Mistress introduced herself. Her name is Sis. Magreth.
When it reached seven O’clock we had our first dinner at this precious school called St. Joseph Millennium Secondary School. After one and half hour we had our evening prayers and we went to our dormitory to sleep, since then our patron come and showed everybody her room.
After that I prepared my bed and I have my bed ready to sleep. My room where very charming and the patron was very good. I pray for myself and I slept. I hope my road of success will be successful at the end.

EXERCISE
Make two sentences using the words spectators and Exciting
(i) --------------------------
(ii) --------------------------








LISTERNING TO DICTATION

Dictation is the act or process of saying or reading words which are written down by another person. It can take place in school seminars or certain training sessions.

Activity 1
Write down the text as read by the teacher
A terrible accident occurred last Sunday along Morogoro Road; a lorry hit a pedestrian crossing the road at the Msamvu junction. The pedestrian died on the spot. The police arrived at the scene of the accident and called an ambulance from Morogoro Regional Hospital. The body was taken to the hospital's mortuary before being collected by relatives and buried at Kola Hill.

Activity 2
Write down the words below as read by a teacher
  1. Pencil
  2. Exercise
  3. Survival
  4. Environment
  5. Dormitory
  6. Desk


















Topic 2: GIVING DIRECTIONS
Giving direction helps to show where someone he/she want to reach also through this topic students could have a knowledge on how to ask for directions and identify the four points of a compass; The Common words (prepositions) used includes: left, right, straight, crossing, opposite, near to, in front of, beside, behind, under, adjacent to, between, on, in, to, by, at, into, onto, etc. for different situations.
The main purpose of this topic is to give compass direction mainly four cardinal points
i.e. East, West, North, South
The compass is instrument for find direction. It has magnetized needle which sits on a face. The face has different directions drawn on it. The needle always points to the magnetic north. The compass sometimes called Magnetic compass.
Learning words and expressions related to the directions below:

Asking for and giving directions
Rehema: Excuse me could you tell me the way to the pharmacy?
Suzy : yes, it’s that the way, just go straight away after two houses
turn left, it’s on the corner opposite the post office.
Rehema: Thanks, I’ have only been in town for a few days, so I really
don’t know my way around yet
Suzy : Oh! I know how you feel. I was born in this town so I know where everything is.

In giving directions:
  1. Use transitions: After that, then, next, when you get to……… go
  2. Specify distance: Some people feel better knowing how long it will take to get to their destination, example "it’s about five minutes away."
  3. Use landmarks: "You will see large clock", "You will see blue large building."
  4. More useful language: It’s on [street name], It's opposite ...., It’s near.....
  5. Repeat yourself: If you repeat the direction again, the other person will feel comfortable.
  6. Clarify: Make sure that the person understands your directions, example "did you get all that?"
  7. Don’t guess: I am sorry, I'm not from here, I'm afraid I can’t help you."
Exercise
Look at the Map below. Imaging your one of the children asking for the direction. Practice asking for and giving directions to:
1 The mosque 2. The dispensary 3. The market 4. The school 5.The agriculture office
Locating places Discuss the location of the school
-Where the school situated in Tanzania? (north, south, East, west or central)
 -Is it in town or in the country side?
 -Are there any houses, shops or offices nearby?
 - How many roads lead to the school?
 -Do the roads leading to your school have name?















Topic 3: USING A DICTIONARY
Dictionary:
It is a kind of a book or reference that containing words of a language, arranged alphabetically and showing class and uses. We often use a dictionary to look up a word. We do this when we do not know what the word means. Dictionaries are organised to help us look up word easily
Importance of Dictionary book
1. Gives meaning of words
 2. Shows words of the same meaning
3. Shows words which mean the opposite
4. Show the classes of word (verb, nouns, objectives)
5. Show how words are used
6. Show how words are made
7. Show how words are pronounced.
Synonyms: words, which mean the same, a called synonyms
Examples: -Angry - mad Cried - shouted Huge - big Hate - dislike Clever - bright
Antonyms: A dictionary also shows words which mean the opposite words which means the opposite are called antonyms
Examples:
o Hate - like
o Ugly - beautiful
o Slow - fast
o Friendly - enemy
o Strong - weak
Word formation
A dictionary also shows how words are made. This is called word formation
- A noun can be made from a verb or from an Adjective
Example vacate (v) –vocation (N)
Some Nouns end with
(i) …………….. ion (examination)
(ii) …………………ty (beauty)
(iii) ………………….ness (politeness)
(iv) ……………………ce (importance)
Some of the objectives end with
(i) ………... ous (poisonous)
(ii) …………. Al (trial)
(iii) …………..ic (electric)
(iv) ………….. an (African)
(v) ………….. ful (helpful)

Pronunciation: A dictionary shows how words are pronounced English words are pronounced differently from Kiswahili. The way the English words are written is different from the way they pronounced.
Example: see –pronounced as /si/ and not see
Exercise
Write the following words as they are pronounced in the dictionary
Example: King –/KiÅ‹/
(i) Sing =
(ii) Cheek =
(iii) Cart =
(iv) Chest =
(v) Dish =
Exercise
Show differences of pronunciation of the underlined words.
1. Please sit on the seat 2. I left my hat in the hut 3. Pull the boy from the pool 4. Do not hurt my heart























Topic 4: EXPRESSING PERSONAL AND GROUP ROUTINE /HABITS
Every person or group of people who stay together (school) has daily routine or activity. This can be expressed by different works, everyday, often, usually, daily, every month.
Usually action is expressed in present simple tense or habitual aspect. The social area/ focus is on the following.
BREAK TIME
At 10:00 A.M break starts. We go out for a break of 30 minutes. During break time, I drink tea with some snacks. At 10:30 A.m. I go back to class. Classes end at 2:00 p.m.
After classes I go home at 2:45 P.M. I eat lunch.
Exercise
As a student’s what is your Daily Routine?
Vocabulary
Take a shower - wash the whole body
Attendance - counting people
Supper - food eaten at the right (a right meal)
Structure
Prepositions
“ON” –is used with days and dates
Examples
- I go to church on Sundays.
- I go to the Mosque on Friday
- I was born on 03 rd May 1978
“AT” –is used with exact time
Examples:
- He come at six o’clock
- We traveled at night
- The lesson starts at 8:00 am.
“IN” –is used with parts of the day, months and years
Examples:
- He came in the evening
- School will be closed in December
- He was born in 2009
Asking questions.
We can also ask questions using does, do
Note: Does –is for singular nouns and pronouns
Do –is for plural nouns and pronouns.
Examples:
(i) Does she speak English?
(ii) Does he come to school late?
(iii) Does she smoke?
(iv) Do they speak English?
(v) Do they come to school late?
(vi) Do we have to write our names?
Exercise
Make question using does and do
1. Does …………………………..? 2. Does …………………………..? 3. Do ….…………………………..? 4. Do ….…………………………..?










Topic 5: EXPRESSING ON GOING ACTIVITIES
This activity can be done by individual or somebody else. They refer to what is going on at a time of observation guessing, talking and so on. This is PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE or PROGRESSIVE ASPECT
- The verbs end with …ing
(i) Martha and Consolata are sweeping the floor
(ii) It is looking at you
(iii) They are eating rice
(iv) You are playing nicely
- When you go to school in the morning there are a lot of activities going on, you will see
(i) Some students sweeping the compound
(ii) Some students watering the flowers
(iii) Some students parading
(iv) Some teachers shouting to the students
(v) Parents paying fees.
Extra verbs
Flowering, watering, chasing, snoring, reading, shouting, waiting, glorying, drinking, ringing, banking, blowing, cutting, shrinking .
Note: present continuous tense He She is It
I am + verb ...............ing
They We are You







Topic 6: EXPRESSING LIKES AND DISLIKE
The word like (v) means to be sound as or pleased with from the verb we get the word like (vi) and dislike (Ti) opposite or antonym. Grammatically likes/ dislike are not nouns but only used in everyday talks (spoken English) whether like or dislike the force behind them are human feeling, taste experience traditions.
- Usually like and dislike are expressed in non-verbal forms of communication such as gesturers, social expressions movement nodding.
- Non- verbal –communication is also called body language
Examples:
Question : what game do you like most?
Answer : I like football and boxing
Question : what music do you like most?
Answer : I like bongo flava
Question : what drink do you like most?
Answer : I like orange Juice only
PREFERENCE
The most suitable is ……..to…………
Therefore
Example: I prefer--------- to----------
(i) I prefer tea to coffee
(ii) I prefer English to Kiswahili
(iii) I prefer reading to writing
Exercise
Make ten (10) sentences using the following words below








Topic 7: TALKING ABOUT ONES FAMILY
- Expressing family relations:
A family is smallest social unit. The family consists of father, mother, children and relatives. This kind of a family is called Extended family
Vocabulary
1. Uncle - The brother of your father or mother 
2. Cousin - The child of your uncle or aunt. 
3. Nephew - The son of you r brother or sister 
4. Niece - The daughter of your brother or sister 
5. Sister –in –law - The sister of your wife or husband 
6. Father in- law - the father of your wife or husband 
7. Grandfather - The father of your father or mother 
8. Brother in- law - The brother of your wife of husband 
9. Grandmother - The mother of your father or mother 10. Aunt - The sister of your father or mother
A family tree Mabula married Kalunde.They have two children ,Robert and Rose. Robert got married to Rehema and they have two children Tyson and Diana Rose at mrried to Juma and they have two children;Bush and Sijapata Study the following diagram:
Expressing occupations of family members
Members of a family usually has daily activity for production or social services
Vocabulary; Venders, Tailors, Sailors, Plumber, Nurse,Teacher.
Exercise:
Fill in the following table with the right information. The first one has been done for you.

OWNERSHIP OR POSSESSION
Possession refers to one having his/her property such as school, pen, houses, car, home, and farm
- Most occurring words
(i) Possessive pronouns: e.g. my, her, his, our, their
(ii) Other terms: posses, belong, own, property of….
Examples
- My father owns a boat
- My sister own a big house
- I have a hen
- We possess a big library
- That bus belongs to my father
DESCRIBING PHYSICAL APPEARANCE
People differ in physical appearance in terms of height, size, colour,[complexion] morphology, hair, eyes, ears, nose, teeth, fingers, legs, toes, chest head.
Study the following text
Mr. Kibakaya is a light coloured skinned man in our street. He is baldheaded and his remaining hairs gray. Older people say that he has a fair complexion. His daughter is skinning, tall but tenders. She is beautiful and attracts attention whenever she passes. Her twisting eyes confuse young man. She puts on her-heals on every weekend. Her young brother is shot and fat, he looks handsome and magnetic to girls his chest is wide as well as frightening nose
DESCRIBING CHARACTER
Every person has a particular behavior that display his/her character: Example: cruel, greedily, rude, rough, carelessness, generous, gentle, sincere, open, lian
Examples:
(i) He is a rude boy at our school
(ii) She is careless that her uniform is full of sports
(iii) A sincere student is liked by teacher
(iv) You’re a liar
Character changes because of age education and people around, character reflects moral and cultural value. People from broken families usually show bad character. Character can also be understood through a language that a person uses.
Structure
Asking questions
We can also ask questions using the words in the box
(i) Who is shouting?
(ii) What are you doing?
(iii) Which boo is yours?
(iv) Whose pen is this?
(v) When do we go home?






















Topic 8; EXPRESSING OPINIONS AND FEELINGS
What is your opinion?
Do you like city life or rural life?
There are some people who want to go to live in towns. They think that life is cheap and simple there. They think they can buy cars, houses, good clothes etc.
Giving opinions can be easily expressed during debates
Example: Motions
1. Boarding schools provide better education than day school 2. Co- education school are better than single sex school 3. Special ability schools are not special in rolling students 4. Students failure in examination is due to poor teaching.
Look at the following ways in which we can express opinions in English
a) Asking for opinion
b) expressing an opinion
In my opinion,school rules are a waste of time
c) supporting opinion
d) opposing an opinion
e) Expression doubt
Participants
Chief proposer and opposes, audience, guest, speaker, secretary
Vocabulary :
Suggest, view, evaluate, propose, against, think, argue, advise, disagree, equally, feeling can be expressed.
Example
I feel hungry
You are happy
Expressing state of health
Examples Are you sick ? What are you suffering from? Yesterday I had a headache
Exercise Write conversations between a doctor and patient


































Topic 9: ALKING ABOUT PAST EVENTS/ ACTIVITIES
This give a particular form of verb endings it is sometimes called PAST TENSE
Note: common adverb
Last week, yesterday etc.
Example:
My brother got married last Friday
Last week they closed the school
Expressing past activities
Tense is expressed by verbs. These verbs in the past tense be have with regular ending with-ed,-ed, and others behave with irregular ending. Example see-saw, get-got, cut-cut.
Adverbs that show past tense
1. Yesterday - I saw him yesterday 2. Last - we were at club last Friday 3. Ago - they met two years ago 4. Previous - she experienced this problem from the previous.
- Such characteristics of irregular verb also apply to helping or modal verbs
Note: the past tense of the above modal helping verbs are common in conditional clauses that is if……… then…………..
Structure
Past perfect tense
Format
Subject + had + verb in participle
Examples:
I had seen several football games
I had done the job
Structure
Adjective: is a word that is used to describe a noun or a pronoun
General classification of Adjectives
(i) Adjectives of colour
e.g. black, yellow, green, purple, orange, red
(ii) Adjectives of size and shape
e.g. small, giant, round, etc
(iii) Adjectives of quantity
e.g. many, few, little, much
(iv) Adjectives of age
e.g. old, new, middle, young.
(v) Proper adjectives or adjectives of origin
e.g. African, Kenyan, French
(vi) Adjective of use
e.g. useful, useless
ORDER OF ADJECTIVE
Where there is more than one adjective before a noun in a sentence, the order of adjectives is as follows:
(a) 1 st adjective - Describes the number (Quantity)
(b) 2 nd adjective - Describes the general size and shape
(c) 3 rd adjective - Describes age
(d) 4 th adjective - Describes colour
(e) 5 th adjective - Describes where it comes from (origin)
(f) 6 th adjective - Describes what is made up of
(g) 7 th adjective - Noun
Examples:


Topic 10: EXPRESSING FUTURE PLANS AND ACTIVITIES
Future exists in different forms
(1) Intention - necessity -shall
(2) Probability - possibility -will
Common adverb
Tomorrow, next
How to form future?
Subject + shall/will + be + main clause
Examples:
It will be there tomorrow
Subject + will + be + clause
When we want to talk about things what we shall do tomorrow, next week, next month we use words like
- Going to
- Shall
- Will
Examples:
Tomorrow I’m going to write my mother a letter.
She will tell you something good tomorrow
We shall visit you next month
Going to, will and shall show future tense.
Future continues activities
Subject + will or shall + (be) + verb ........ing + clause
Examples
You will be leaving the school at 4:30pm
We shall be singing in the church choir
Exercise
Mention 4 things that you are going to do after you have finished form four
(i) ..........................
(ii) ..........................
(iii) ..........................
(iv) ..........................
(v) ..........................
1. Mention three (3) things which will happen to someone who has HIV/AIDS
(i) ..........................
(ii) ..........................
(iii) ..........................
Note: will is used all persons in the singular and plural for example i) you will be wait ii) I will go to the market tomorrow
Shall is sometimes use instead of will, It is used in statement in the fist personal singular or plural, It shows determination or promise about future activities for example i) We shall play hard and we shall win the game: (determination) ii) I shall write to you as soon as i arrive in Mpwapwa (promise)













Topic 11: READING A VARIETY OF TEXTS (INTENSIVE READING)
Intensive Reading refers to slow and careful reading in details which specific learning aims and tasks. Intensive reading involves reading for composition. Read the following composition then answer the question.
A FOOLISH CUSTOMER
One day Mr. Juha seat in a hotel drinking some coffee. A boy come to him that he was selling afternoon papers. “Which papers do you have? Juha asked. “I have the Daily news and The Guardian”, the boy said. “Well, give me both. How much do they cost?” Mr. Juha asked. “One thousand two hundred for both. The Guardian sells at seven hundred” the boy said, “Oh, that is very expensive; just give, The Daily News”
Mr. Juha gave the boy ton thousand shillings note. The boy said he had no change. “Let me go for the change sir”, the boy said “No! No! No!” you will run away with my money! Leave your papers here with me” Mr. Juha said. The boy left happily leaving Juha with the papers after two hours Mr. Juha counted the papers that the boy had left. They were only three! Juha laughed Kwe! Kwe! Kwe! Of course the boy never came back
Questions
Write True (T) or false (F) to the following sentences
(i) Juha sat in a hotel reading the Daily news
(ii) The Guardian costs five hundred shillings
(iii) Juha change was 8,800/=
(iv) Juha counted his change
Question 2.
Provide meaning of the following terms.
i) Customer
ii) Cost
iii) Change
iv) Expensive


Answers
           i) someone who buys things from the seller, buyer, client
           ii) The price of something e.g. my shoes cost me five thousand shilling only
           iii) Money left buying something
          iv)  An item whose price is very high

EXERCISE
Make two sentences using the words expensive and cost
(i)............................................
(ii)............................................













            











Topic 12: INTERPRETING LITERARY WORKS
Intensive reading: Involves comprehension and summary while reading a class reader (books) its chapters, the following activities should be done.
1. Understanding the writing and pictures on the front cover, usually they summarize or give a piece of information of what is in the class reader (book)
2. Title of the class reader (book)
- A name or topic which is discussed in the chapters
3. Author: A person writes a book must be memorized.
4. Main or chief character(s) he/ she is the main actor
5. Minor character persons or animals in the story
6. Setting (venue –A particular place in which the story take place Example, Dar es salaam, Nairobi, Kampala etc
7. Difficult words should be selected and their meaning understood either by using a dictionary (decretive memory) or according how they are used in the book.
8. To summarize each chapter in one or two sentences and finally the whole book into one to five sentences.
9. The lesson one can learn from the book.
10. The importance or significance or relevant of the book in society
It is still useful or not
Intensive reading therefore means reading deeply while extensive reading refers to reading widely (a lot of book)
Skimming –Narrow information into one sentences or passage Scanning - Reading intensively for specific information
Definition of teams
1. Author - A person who write a book or storing
2. Plot - The main sequence of events in a play, novel
3. Theme - Subject of a taller, piece of writing
4. Chapter - main division of a book
5. Character - Particular nature of someone
6. Setting - way of place in which something is setting
7. Summary - A brief statement of the main point
8. Comprehension- The ability to understand
9. Publisher - A company or person that Publisher, book, News, Paper, Journal
CLASS READER
 I. Who is the author?
The author is Richard S. Mabala
II. List of what you see in front
(a) Hawa the bus driver
(b) The bus
(c) Ubungo plaza (the weather building)
(d) 114 (the number route of the car)
(e) UDA (the name of a car)
(f) Isuzu (the name of the company of the car)
(g) T 140 ADS (the plate number of the car)
(h)Coconut tree
(i) Route of the bus K/Koo
III. Mention the name of the  publish.
The publisher is Ben and company Ltd.
IV. Who is the main character of the whole book why?
Hawa is the main character of the book because she is the one who the whole story is taking about her being a bus driver.
V. Names of the character
(i) Selemani (ii) Hawa (iii) Mzee Athumani (iv) Saada (v) Hassani

Hawa the bus driver
CHAPTER I
HAWA’S DESCRIPTION
- Famous in Dar es salaam
- Very strong woman, tall, tough
- Weight 82kgs
- Bus driver
- The lioness
SELEMANI
- Husband of Hawa
- Worker at Urafiki Texttile Mill
- A medicine operator
- Tall, strong
- Smilling, cool
CHAPTER II, HAWA’S DAY
- Hawa lives in Manzese, suburb of Dar es Salaam.
- Two children Hassan and Sauda
- Primary school teacher George
- A nurse Chausiku, best friend of Hawa
CHAPTER III HAWA AND THE DRUNKED
- Hawa focus trouble from a drunkard
- The conductor, Meshack co-operates with passengers to help Hawa comfort the drunkard
- The drunkard is taken to police station.
CHAPTER IV HAWA AND THE THIEVES
- During the night shift, A man with a pistol pointed at Hawa
- Hawa hijacked and ordered to drive to Mbezi
- Made attack with a passenger who was in a blue overall
- Hawa stopped the bus abruptly
- The thief was overcome by grabbing the pistol
- The passengers helped
- The thief was taken to the police station
- Hawa becomes the Heroine with mind that arms are like baobab trees.
CHAPTER V
Accidents are common in Dar es salaam due to drivers negligence, driving to fast disobey traffic lights, ignore other cars
Changu ni changu chota chako kwingine
Bus coach hit a primary school boy
- Hawa takes troubles to take him to hosp[ital
- Passengers are angry as well as police officers her hart is as sweet as ripe mango
CHAPTER VI SELEMAN IS JEALOUS
- Seleman is jealous because his wife is more famous
Hawa the great
- Some of Selemani’s friends advised him that it is wrong for a wife to be famous and bad to drive a bus
- Selemani orders his wife a stop driving and stay at home.
- Unwilling Hawa decides to resign
- Before submitting a resignation letter her fellow drivers advice her not to do so until they take with her husband
- After a long discussion selemani changes his mind and allow Hawa to drive after seeking his opinion to.
- Hawa and Seleman, continued to live happy together.
Lesson or significance or importance
Generally, Hawa the bus driver is still relevant in society.
- Heroine drivers
- Role of women to prepare breakfast/ meal for the family
- Mockery against women who exceed in society above men has no place anymore.
- Hijackers of business and planes
- Accidents in urban areas/ cities and highways
- Healous of husband who do not like to hear their wife.
Structure8
Articles
a, an, the, are called articles
A: uses of article “a and an” (Indefinite Articles)
(i) “a” is used for countable singular Nouns
Example: a book, a boy
“an” is also used for countable singular Nouns but those which start with a pronunciation of a vowel a, e, I, o, u etc.
Example: an elephant, an egg
But we can also say an honest man because although the word honest start with “h” yet “h” is not pronounced. In pronunciation the word starts with a vowel “O” /Onist/
(ii) a/an are used to refer to things which are not clear to us (indefinite)
Example
- A national party (which one?)
- A man is outside (who?)
(i) a/an are used to introduce something or a person for the first time.
Example:
I bought a radio.
The radio was stolen after two weeks
(ii) an/a are used with illness
Example
I have a cold/ a headache
I have a stomachache
Note: we don’t use articles with plurals
Example: measles, mumps
We also don’t use articles with: blood pressure, flu, gout or hepatitis
You cannot say
I have a blood pressure but you can say
I have blood pressure
(iii) an/a are used when describing someone’s nationality.
Example:
She is an American
He is an African
She is a Tanzanian
Note: Do not put a if the Noun is plural
Example: I saw a boys (No!)
But: I saw boys (Yes)
Exercise
Put in the space below article a or an or put a dash (-) if no article is needed
(i) I can repair __________ car
(ii) I can write__________ letters
(iii) I can eat______________ onion
(iv) Use_______ ruler to draw ___________lines
(v) I am ________Tanzania

DEFINITE ARTICLE “The”
Uses of “the” is used with the following things:
(i) Organizations
E.g. the OAU, the UNO
(ii) ships
E.g. The M.V Express
(iii) before certain expressions of time
e.g. –in the afternoon
- on the previous day
(iv) On public bodies
e.g. the police, the RTD
(v) HISTORICAL EVENTS:
e.g. The Arusha declaration
The majimaji war
(vi)Political parties
e.g. The UMD party
The NPP
(vii) The press e.g. The Daily News
(viii) River E.g. The Ganges, The Nile
(ix)Before musical instruments e.g. He plays the guitar
(x) Mountains e.g. The Alps The Kilimanjaro
(xi)Ocean e.g. The Atlantic
(xii) Things mentioned for the second time
e.g. I bought a shirt and an umbrella, The shirt is now old
(xiii) Used before the name of a country which consist of an Adjective! Example: The United Kingdom The Soviet Union The United Arab
But not;
The West German
The Great Britain
The New Zealand
(xiv) Things which are unique (the only one) e.g. The stars,
The moon,
The God,
The Angles,
The Kilimanjaro hotel,
The Hilton
(xv)Used before superlative e.g. The biggest boy The most beautiful girl
(xvi) The only thing found in the house e.g. The wall The window The roof The kitchen The floor
Note: Do not use articles
(i) In front of uncountable Nouns
e.g. I like butter
(ii) With languages
e.g. English is a world language
(iii) In front proper Nouns
e.g. Mwamsiku is our Headmaster

INTERPRETING POEMS
POETRY
Definition: is an art which uses imaginative language in a pattern of lines and sounds to express deep thought, feeling or human experience. However there are different definitions of the term poetry depending on the author, we can generally define poetry as the art of composing or writing poems.
Note: poems are meant for singing
Structure of poetry
1. What is a poem?
It is a piece of writing arranged in patterns of lines and sounds.
2. What is poet?It is an artist of writer who composes poems
3. What is stanza?It is a group of lines divisions in a poem
4. What is a verse?
It is a single line in a poem
5. What is simile?
It is a way of comparing things using words like……………as…………or like……………………….
6. What is metaphor?
It is a way of comparing things without words of comparison
7. What is imaginary?
It is an art of drawing word picture by comparing the reality of what is talked about to different but relevant aspect of reality.
8. What is rhyme?
Words with some sound at the end of the verse e.g. fly, tie, pie.
9. What is alliteration?
Words with some sound at the beginning of words in verse reinforce the meaning.
Example: pixpox ,pax pox etc.
1. What is reiteration?
It is repetition of a word, a verse or even a stanza for a particular effect
e.g. You are dead and dead and dead indeed



POETRY ANALYSIS
1. Content –What the poem is about or what to describes
2. Themes/ Message –Lessons we learn from the poem or novels message e.g. ignorance,      exploitation, friendship
3. Form –how the poem is arranged (stanza and verses)
4. Mood - attitude of the poet
e.g. happiness, anger, seriousness, etc.
5. Symbolism –using a person or object /animals as if they are people

EAT MORE GRASS (JOE CORRIE)
“Eat more grass” the slogan says more fish, more beef, more bread but I’m on unemployment-pay my third year now and weed.
Read the following poem very fast
Katai is a Masai
Katai can tie and untie a tie
If katai can tie and untie a tie
Why can’t I tie a tie?
Like katai, cantie
And untie a tie?
Questions
(i) Which tribe is katai?..........................
(ii) What can katai do?............................


Structure

BETWEEN/AMONG
Between - is used with two things
Among - is used with more than two things
Examples:
- Kibile is standing between two girls
- Riwa Kariwa is standing among four girls
- The car is between two buses
- Ruth is among ten girls who failed the exams.
















                                           













TOPIC 13: ANALYSING INFORMATION FROM MEDIA.
Analysing Information from the Media
Facts from Media
Identify facts from media
Facts are pieces of information regarded as truth beyond reasonable doubtthatcan be proved or verified.
Activity 1
Read the article below extracted from a newspaper and identify factual information from it.
It is a shame that many girls do not know how to say no to boys who make sexual advances on them. Some girls say no yet still use non verbal actions that suggest a ‘yes.’ What do you think the boy will believe? 'Boys assume that ‘no’ is a half hearted yes', said the minister for social and welfare development. For example, when a girl says ‘I don’t think we should do it,' while looking down at the floor, eating her fingers or killing an unseen insect, her ‘no’ does not get across. Why don’t you say ‘no’ while looking directly into the boy’s face? There are some girls who don not know how to explain themselves when they are asked by boys why they have refused - they start laughing instead of saying ‘no’ and meaning it. For girls to be valued by others, they have to value themselves first. Remember, there are many ‘hit’ and ‘run’ boys who are only after sex. Please say ‘no’ to them, and mean ‘no.‘ You will be preventing pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Look out for your future, mean what you say, if it is ‘yes’ then say it knowing what you are getting into, and if it is ‘no’ it must be a strong ‘No’!
Questions:
Write ‘F’ for facts and ‘NF’ for non fact in the following statement extracted from the passage above :
  1. Girls should say ‘no’ to mean ‘no’ and not ‘yes’ to boys who are hit and run.
  2. Girls should say ‘yes’ and get into sexual intercourse
  3. Girls should value themselves before being valued by boys
  4. Some girls don’t know how to express themselves when they asked for sex by boys
  5. Girls eat their finger and insects around when they are raped by the hit and run boys.
Analysing Non-Factual Information from the Media

Non-Factual Information from Media
Identify non-factual information from media
Non-factual information refers to information which is not true, lacks an element of truth, and cannot be proved beyond doubt. It contains some elements of uncertainty.
Activity 2
Read the texts below and answer the questions that follow:
I think Tanzania's forests are in trouble. It is possible that Tanzania could lose its entire forest cover in under a century if more is not done to reduce the current rate of deforestation, estimated at round one million acres each year. There is a possibility that Mt. Kilimanjaro itself is severely affected by environmental damage. Perhaps, for thousands of years, the Serengeti winds would sweep over the cool and humid forest air carrying this moisture to the top of the mountain, but this is occurring at a smaller scale due to environmental changes.
It might be the deforestation on the slopes of mountain Kilimanjaro has contributed to the melting of its glaciers causing the East African trade winds to stay dry and warm accelerating the demise of the snow caps as this air flow reaches the summit. The dry winds also is no longer replenishing the glaciers, therefore, aiding in the demise of these magnificent mountains of ice. According to UN, Tanzanians population probably may be growing by over 2 percentages per year. It is possible to increasing rate of deforestation due to the demand of charcoal as a cheap source of energy. In addition burning down and cleaning of forests for crop cultivation in order to cater for this growth.
Exercise 1
  1. Analyse the non factual information from the text above.
  2. Identify five indicators of non factual information from the text above.
  3. Give the meaning of the following words as used in the passage: a) Ice, d) Fauna, b) Snow, e) deforestation, c) Flora, f) land degradation
  4. State whether the statement below is fact or non fact, according to the passage above. a) Tanzania's flora and fauna may lose its habitat because of deforestation. b) Tanzania’s population is growing by over 2 percent according to UN, c) There is a possibility of melting of glaciers due to the dry winds in the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. d) The snow and glaciers from Serengeti go up onto Mt. Kilimanjaro summit.
Activity 3
Listen carefully to the newspaper text on gender read by your teacher and point out five facts and five non facts orally and in writing.













Topic 14: WRITING A PERSONAL LETTER
Friendly or personal letters are means of communication through letter. We normally write letters to loved ones, including mothers, fathers, uncles, aunts, sisters, brothers, lovers, wives, husbands, teachers, friends, etc.
We normally use statements such as 'Dear mother', 'Dear father', 'Dear sister', 'Dear friend', 'hi daddy',' hi mummy', 'hi aunt'. in the greeting (introduction part). We use expressions such as 'your loving daughter', 'your loving son', 'your loving………', 'missing you….....'in the closing remarks.
Components of a friendly letter
  1. Writer’s address -written on top right hand corner.
  2. Date - below the sender address.
  3. Salutation - comes after the address.
  4. Main body-states the aim or purpose of the letter.
  5. Closing statement-ending the letter.
  6. Signature and name of the writer/sender- extreme end of the letter.
Example 1

SAMPLE LATTER
Kongani Secondary School,
P. O. Box 340,
Pemba
05December, 2014
Dearest Mother,
It is my hope that you are doing well. It's been a long time since I last wrote to you. I am generally fine and continue with my studies. By the way, we will close school for a short holiday this Saturday till early April. I ask that you send me some money for a bus fare from school.. Please send me the money very soon so that I may pay the transport officers. Greetings to brothers Jorum and Maven and sisters Jacky and Joan, as well as all my friends.
I hope to see you during holiday and pray for you with best wishes.
Your loving daughter,
N.S
Nasra Shomari Mohamed.

Activity 1
Pretend that you are Nasra's mother and reply to the letter, informing her that you will send her some money before school closes.





Topic 15: TAKING NOTES
This is the process of taking notes, either from spoken or written text. For example, from radio, television broadcasting and different stories or speeches or in the papers.

Important Points from Oral Texts

What to consider when taking notes from different sources.
These include:
  • To note down important information.
  • Write in short phrases, not long sentences.
  • To use dashes and other marks to separate points. These marks are used to separate the noted points to avoid mingling and/or redundancies.
Activity 1
Listen carefully from the text and take notes.
Early marriage puts girls at great risk. Due to their young age, they are not physically mature enough to become mothers. Early marriage also results in early and frequent childbirth, leading to large families. Forced early marriage also denies girls the right to enjoy their childhood, the right to education and the right to choose a husband they love and of their own age group. When girls are forced to marriage with older men, they are likely to become widows at an early age. When this happens, the young widows are left to take care of the children themselves or have to remarry. Many of these women struggle because African customs and traditions do not allow a young wife to inherit her husband's property as most customs deny women the right to own property.

Exercise 1
Write down the important points from the passage read to you.

Important Points from Written Texts
Write down important points from written texts
Kino jumped forward as the rifle fired and his large knife swung and cut through the man’s neck and chest. Kino was a terrible killer now. He took the rifle with one hand and with the other he pulled his knife out of the man’s body. Kino moved very fast. He turned around and hit a second man’s head. The third man crawled away into the pool. He then began to climb up the rocks where the water was coming down from. The man’s head and feet were caught in bushes. He cried and tried to climb up but Kino had become hard and cruel. Kino raised his rifle and fired, then saw the man falling backward into the pool. Kino walked into the water; in the moonlight he could see the man’s frightened eyes. Then Kino fired the rifle between the man’s eyes.
Kino stood and looked up to the cave, something was wrong. The insects were silent now. Kino listened and heard a sound. He knew the long, rising cry from the little cave on the side of the mountain. It was Juana’s voice. The sound was the cry of death.

Exercise 2
Write notes from the passage above.

Topic 16: WRITING A VARIETY OF TEXTS

Filling in Forms

Activity 1
Imagine you are filling in this registration card for your friend. What questions would you ask him or her to fill it in?


Activity 2
Complete this visitor’s card.
Name of visitor:
Address:
Arrival date:
Destination:
Flight no………………………………
Flight arrival time……………………

Writing Things/Notes in a Diary

Diaries or journals are books where you write what has happen each day, year, month, week, etc. It is written to help the writer to remember important events and thoughts. In their diaries, writers comment on what they have seen recently or previously. They also describe their thoughts and feelings. They record the reasons for doing or liking certain things. The language used in diaries is usually informal and the writer will often emphasize certain events and feelings that mean a lot to them. A calendar diary has printed dates, months, days and sometimes years. This helps the writer not have to write them over again but only write when there are details; they are mostly used for work. In it, people record appointments, reminders, meetings, and plans for each day in the future.
A diary is a book with pages for each day of the year in which you can write down what you do each day and what you plan on doing in the future. A dairy can also be used to write our private thoughts and feelings, views or opinions.




Sample of a Diary


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