CIVICS          COMMERCE             ENGLISH 




Here the student should be able to give specific information, reproduce in writing what is heard. To give general opinion about a text he/she has read and give a general theme/idea /meaning of a text heard.
The student should do that by reading the text based on a variety of issues including challenges facing the youth in relation to HIV/AIDS, form of child labour and effect of drug abuse in society Affect reading the text, the student should be able to respond to different questions about the text he/she has read. And also she/he should know vocabularies used in the text such as symptoms ,virus ,infection, transmit, prolong, ill-treat, HIV etc
Vocabularies in HIV/AIDS TEXT
HIV - Human Immune Deficiency Virus
AIDS- Acquired Immune Deficiency Virus
Stigma - segregating HIV Victims
Syringes - A plastic or glass tube with a long hollow needle that is used for putting drugs into a person’s body
Virus - A living thing, too small to be seen without a microscope that causes infections disease in people
Lazar blades - A thin shape piece of metal that is used in a razor symptoms
Language Use
Since and for Since is used for point of time and for is used for period of time in perfect tense.
i) They have eaten nothing since yesterday.
ii) We have eaten nothing for two days.
iii) Aisha has been ill since last week.
iv) She has been ill for two weeks.
v) We have stayed here for two weeks.
vi) You have stayed here since the previous weeks.
vii) John left the country for ever
viii) He has been out of the country for many years ago.
From and Since From is used for both time and place. Since is used for time only. From can indicate time in both past and future; since indicates duration from a point of time in the past to the time of speaking.
i) He came straight from home.
ii) He was busy from 6 O’clock to 10 O’clock.
iii) Rehema has not eaten anything since morning.
iv) Jimmy has been here since he finished his university studies in 2005.
i) He has been in the office for only a few months, he has, however achieved more than any of this predecessors.
ii) He will never pass however hard he may try.
iii) However beautiful you are, you will never get married
i) Poor as we may seem, we are still proud of our culture.
ii) As it is fine, I shall go out
iii) Much as he liked to travel, he could not afford the fare.
i) Simon is as strong as Samson of the Holy Bible.
ii) Joyce is as healthy as her father.
iii) He promised to arrive at the seminar as early as possible.
In spite of
i) In spite of being angry, he listened to me.
ii) Annett cannot get a job, in spite of doing well at school.
iii) In spite of being sick, he passed all the exams.
NB: the correct form is “in spite”. This means that “in” and “spite” should be written as two separate words and not as one word. So, it is incorrect to write “in spite” as one word.
So as
“So as” goes with the preposition “to” which is added at the end.
i) He studied thoroughly so as to pass the test.
ii) Agnes cooks delicious food so as to impress her boyfriend.
iii) James has visited his fiancée so as to discuss their marriage issues.
iv) They are playing vigorously so as to win the match.
So that
“So that” does not go with the preposition “to” instead it is followed by the personal pronouns or nouns.
i) He prepared supper so that the President could eat after the meeting.
ii) He studied thoroughly so that he could pass the test.
iii) They are playing vigorously so that they can win the match.
iv) Aisha cooks delicious food so that she may impress her boyfriend.
i) He is preparing supper so nicely that the President may eat it all.
ii) He studies so thoroughly that he can pass the test.
iii) They are playing so vigorously that they can win the match.
iv) Aisha cooks so well that her boyfriend can be impressed.
In spite of the fact that
i) In spite of the fact that Baga was sick, he came to school.
ii) Anna came to my room in spite of the fact the teacher on duty was around.
iii) In spite of the fact that Mercy was not studying hard, she passed the exam on legal methods.
iv) Mwajuma slept very comfortably in spite of the fact that she was alone.
In order to
i) They study effectively in order to perform well the exam.
ii) Ruth wants to leave for town in order to see his fiancée.
iii) Theodora went to Tanga in order to visit her fiancée.
It is similar to “in spite of” but it does not go with the preposition “of”. For example:
Incorrect: Despite of his sickness he passed the exam.
Correct: Despite his sickness he passed the exam.
i) I got married to him despite his poverty.
ii) Despite poor life, she got married to him.
iii) You should exercise regularly despite your old age.
iv) Despite his big stomach, he emerged the winner in the race.
v) Despite her beauty, no one approached her for a marriage proposal.
Despite the fact that
i) Despite the fact that we crying in class, we understood what the entire teacher taught.
ii) They went to the music hall despite the fact that the headmaster was so vigilant.
iii) Despite the fact that your parents are not supporting you financially, I shall pay school fees for you.
iv) Despite the fact that your parents are not supporting you financially, I shall pay school fees for you.
v) Despite the fact that Agnes was late, Mr. Mubenzi never punished her.
Even though
i) Even though I have other activities to do, I would like to help you.
ii) I shall attend his graduation ceremony even though he has not invited me.
iii) I won’t buy you such even thought I can afford to do so.
For all
“For all” is similar to “despite” in terms of use and meaning. Examples:
i) For all his sickness, Kamoga went to Kibila to write a Mathematics book.
ii) For all his frequent attendance to church sermons, she is still possessing superstitious beliefs.
iii) For all her old age, Mrs. Apollo still wears tight mini-skirts like a teenager.
Among and Between
“Among” is used to show a relationship in which three or more persons or things are considered as a group. Examples:
i) Slavery still exists among certain tribes.
ii) They have friendship among themselves.
iii) There were only three students in the class; among them one was suspected to have a love relationship with the head prefect.
“Between”: is used to show a relationship involving two persons or things or to compare more than two items within a group or to compare one person or thing with an entire group.
i) He stood between two girls.
ii) A quarrel arose between his two brothers.
iii) Mkina was standing between Aisha and Amos.
iv) The ship sails between Mwanza and Kilimanjaro.
i) Though he has an extended family to attend to, he still gets money for recreation.
ii) He is not contented though he is very rich.
iii) I will not see her though she comes.
Not only…………..but (also)
i) She is not only short but (also) slim.
ii) Not only is she short but (also) slim.
iii) They are not only noisy but (also) naughty.
iv) Not only does he look after cattle but (also) does his homework.
v) John does not only look after cattle but (also) does his homework.
vi) Annie is not only beautiful but (also) charming.
Even if
i) Don’t say anything even if they beat you.
ii) Even if you don’t feel sick, go to the hospital.
iii) I won’t forgive her even if she repents.
i) The teacher will teach us tuition; nevertheless we haven’t paid him money.
ii) Nevertheless she has not born me a child, I won’t divorce her.
iii) Jameson passed the University exam very well nevertheless he was sick.
Structure pattern
Question tags are often used to ask for more information or confirmation to what we are saying. Using question tag well also promote a keen understanding of the use of various auxiliary verbs
Question tag is made up for Auxiliary +personal pronoun
A question tag is therefore a school questions that follows statement.
Put a comma before the question tag, and put a question mark after the question tag
E.g: He is sick, isn’t he?
Rules 1. If the statement is positive, the question tag should be negative
E.g: You are my friend, aren’t you?
2. If the statement is negative the question tag should be positive E.g: You are not my enemy, are you?
More examples 1. She can ride a bicycle, can’t she?
2. He doesn’t like riding, does he?
3. He rode a bicycle yesterday, didn’t he?
Exercise Complete the sentence with the correct question tags
1. Mr Juma is from Tabora
2. The car isn’t in the garage
3. They play cards everyday
4. He should write a letter
5. He collects used stamps
There are four ways of expressing future events as described in a –d below
Think of any three events that will happen in the future .Example are what you will do after school today or how you will celebrate your birthday. Write about each event
Using the four patterns given above.
For example
1. I will celebrate my birthday next week
2. I celebrate my birthday next week
3. I am celebrate my birthday next week
4. I am going to celebrate my birthday next week
At and in are preposition of Time
Examples. The party started at 8:00
The guest of honour arrived at 12:00
We sleep at night
We ate lunch in the evening
We arrived at school in the morning
“On” is used with days and dates
Examples: I go to church on Sunday
School starts on Monday
Tanzania became independent on 9 th Dec. 1961
“At” –Is used with exact time
Examples: He came at six O’clock
The lesson starts at 8:00 A.M
“In” –Is used with parts of the day, months and years
Examples: He came in the evening
Classes start in the morning
He was born in 2001
School will be closed in December
Exercise Fill the blanks with appropriate propositions
(1) He is coming _____________ noon. (2) We left ____________2.00 pm. (3) We go to church _________Monday. (4) He celebrate his birthday __________ 15 th November this year. (5) He is coming __________ the morning.

What is debate?
A debate is a formal discussion during which people take sides to express their views or opinions support or opposition to a given subject. A debate therefore is inevitable every time people are faced with a controversial issue or subject.
Things to consider during the debate
When participating in any debate in school in or any other place, remember to adhere to the following principles.
a) Introduction: start with a good introduction. In the introduction do the followings things:
i) Greet the debate participants according to their status or positions in that debating session.
ii) Extend appreciations to the chairperson and other special people who have organized the debate. You may simply say ‘thank you’.
iii) State your position, whether you belong to the opposing side or the proposing side.
b) Repeat reading the motion and start giving your opinions and arguments according to your stand; whether you are opposing or proposing the motion.
c) Be clear during your presentation. The language should be understandable and the voice should be audible.
d) Present your ideas or facts logically and fluently. For more emphasis you can use words or phrases like; in fact, due to the fact that, to prove my point, for more clarification, etc.
e) Where possible or necessary, support your arguments with evidence.
f) Be straight to the point in order to keep pace with time.
g) Finish your presentation by simply saying ‘thank you’.
h) Be patient when other participants unleash a scathing attack or level pricking criticism at your arguments.
One needs to be aware of the language diction to employ during debates. Most often, language diction should always focus on expressing ideas, opinions, language. some of the phrases/words used in debates include: I think, in my opinion, in view of this, having said that/this, therefore, however, finally, eventually, moreover, despite the, even thought, etc. observe the following extract:
Despite the good comments given by the contemporary commentator, in my view, I would rather comment the other way round that abstinence, being faithful or condom use (ABC) alone are not the only solutions against HIV/AIDS infection. Some people are being infected with HIV/AIDS through sharing razor blades, shaving machines, blood transfusion, etc. here, the main speaker from the opposing side views the spread of HIV/AIDS in a very myopic way. The speaker has to be aware that sexual intercourse is not the only way which accelerates HIV/AIDS infections, but it is among several factors which accelerate HIV/AIDS infections in the society.
Another important thing in debate is that one needs to practice on how to play with words of the particular language in various situations. A speaker should bear in mind that the audience are normally interested with the message that the speaker has. So, one should use simple language when presenting his or her arguments during the debating session. This means that a speaker should avoid using difficult and complex words or phrases. If one needs to employ bombastic words, they should make sure that they use those words appropriately.
Furthermore, the arguments should be presented in a convincing and attracting way so as to avoid boring the audience. It should be borne in mind that the primary goal of most academic debates is to improve language competence, performance and develop persuasive skills.
Study the following example of a debate then answer the questions which follow below:
The speaker greets all the important participants in accordance with their social status: For example, thank you chairperson, secretary, matron / patron, timekeeper, principal speakers from both sides, the guest of honor, and all the participants/audience. I first of all thank the chairperson and his/her team for organizing this long-awaited debate.
As far as the motion is concerned, I am here as an oppose of the motion which says, “Science and Technology have Brought More Harm than Good to Third World Countries”.
Make short and precise elaboration about the motion
If the chairperson has not elaborated the motion, principal speakers may do so. Other speakers from the floor the may begin directly to describe their main points so as to avoid tautology and also because of limited time. Example on how to elaborate hey concepts of the motion:
Science is the body of knowledge and skills which may be natural, learned or acquired in various ways. Technology is the application of science. Technology tries to put that knowledge and skills into use. These two terms are interrelated and they may simply mean that science is the software and technology is the hardware.
Start giving your arguments according to your stand in the debate. The points for each side may be given as follows:
Affirmative Side/Constructive Speech/Proposing Side
Moral erosion due to acquiring different kinds of information from televisions and other information media like tabloids, newspapers, magazines, internet, etc. All forms of pollution like air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, land pollution, etc. are caused by outdated vehicles which are imported in third world countries. Land degradation and soil erosion due to the use of artificial fertilizers and other modern forms of farming system. Spread of diseases like cancer, diabetes due to the use of genetically modified food and other imported food stuffs; HIV/AIDS due to social interaction with different people from different countries, and eye diseases due to the use of computers, etc. Spread of western culture into Africa, which tends to be more powerful and thus dominating the African cultures. Killing of the indigenous industries and skills due to frequent use of computers, calculators, and other electronic equipment which simplify work. Deterioration of education and African languages caused by computer and internet technology. Most materials given to students and mode of teaching do not reflect the African setting. The African environment does support the use of computers and other forms of electrified equipment due to inadequate power supply, especially in the rural areas.
Negative Side/Rebuttal Speech/Opposing Side
Science and technology have brought less harmful effects to developed countries and instead have boosted the socio-economic growth of almost all the developing countries in the following aspects:
- Improvement of transport systems like roads, airways, waterways, etc., which also facilitate the movement of people and goods within the countries and outside the countries and continents.
- Advancement in information and communication technologies: People can now communicate with anyone at any place within a flash of a minute by using cellular phones, e-mail technology, etc.
- Creation of employment: people are employed in various companies as computer experts and thus improving their life standards.
- Dissemination of information through various mass media like television, radio, newspaper, etc.
- Improvement of agriculture and other economic sectors through the use of modern machines and other forms of mechanization.
- Advancement in the provision of medical services by using computers, ultra-sound machines and other forms of services on the one hand; and education services by using computers, liquid crystal display (LCD) projects, over-head projectors and other modern forms of classroom presentation facility, on the other hand.
Judge’s judgments and determination
Judge’s judgment and determination concerning the motion and arguments given by the proposers and the opposes depend on the points given by both sides and the views of the audience. In this case, the affirmative side has a great chance to win the debate because they have seven points.
What is dialogue?
Dialogue is the interpersonal talk that basically involves two people, but in some circumstances, it may involve more two people. Dialogue involves spoken language or speech and is characterized by typical features of speech sounds. Dialogue is very wide in its meaning. However, it is important to the spoken language like in drama, interviews, telephone and the like.
Dialogue Interviews
Dialogue interview involve verbal interaction between two sides. Unlike written interview, dialogues interview need special attention and accuracy because the interviewer and interviewee engage themselves in a face-to face interaction. Dialogue interview may also be referred to as a face-to face interview between an interviewer and the interviewee (respondent).
In most cases the interview is done when one conducts a research or study, when one side seeks for an employment, scholarship visa, etc and the other side wants to know the background, intention, and the experience of the interviewee. The interviewee (respondent) must know the basic regulations that apply before and during the interview. These regulations are based on the appearance of the respondent, the style of presentation and the content or the theme he/she is interviewed on.
Dialogue interview can also be conducted online by using a telephone. This interview can be done with someone who is far and cannot easily reach the interviewer. For example, a person in Dar es Salaam may interview someone who is in Mbeya or London by using a telephone or a cellular phone.
Things to Consider Before Appearing for an Interview
Before appearing for an interview, the respondent should:
i) Know exactly the theme/topic or content he/she is going to be interviewed on.
ii) Prepare important documents that might be required by interviewers. E.g certificates and other crucial documents.
iii) Imagine possible questions to be asked during the interview and find their answers.
iv) Make a rehearsal on all the processes, especially on the speaking style.
v) Avoid awkward dresses, funny hair styles and do not be under or over dressed.
vi) If possible. Make a preliminary visit to investigate some important things through people who have been employed in the particular institution or company. You may investigate things like salary, the nature of questions asked, etc.
The following are some tips on how to prepare for job interview
a) Read widely on the subject you are to be interviewed on
b) On the night before the interview , prepare all the documents you need to carry with you for interview ,such as certificates,publications and testimonials
Make sure you sleep early
c) On the interview day, dress smartly, decently and formally. Do not use too much make up
Arrive at the interview venue at least an hour before the interview
d) When you walk into interview room, remain standing until offered a eat
Maintain eye contact without staring at them and be relaxed
e ) Give a clear, precise and concise answer
Do not digress into irrelevant details If a question is not clear, ask for clarification in a polite manner Thank interviews at the end of the interview and remember to carry your documents with you Thank the interviewers at the end of the interview and remember to carry your documents with you
During the interview
i) Avoid awkward mannerism like playing with a key holder, chewing gums or swinging your legs.
ii) Be confident and make yourself comfortable; sit on the chair squarely not on the sides.
iii) Listen carefully to what is being asked. If it is not clear, ask for clarification by using. “I beg your pardon”, but not too often.
iv) Try to be brief in answering and avoid saying “Yes” or “No” to most of the questions. If you don’t know the answer, say so politely.
v) Look straight at the interviewer when answering a question, and be yourself, i.e. don’t imitate other people.
vi) Use simple and clear language; also be audible to everybody in the room.
vii) Don’t try to impress the interviewers. Be grateful for anything done for you say, “thank you sir madam”.
viii) Don’t interrupt the interviewers.
ix) When the interview is over say, “thank you”.
Impromptu Speeches and Discussion
Impromptu speeches are those which are delivered or offered while the speaker is unprepared. The main characteristic features of impromptu speeches are that they are unplanned, not rehearsed, ad hoc, etc. these speeches are also referred to as informal speeches.
People frequently make informal speeches. These speeches can be brief as an introduction of one fried to another. They are also as casual as telling a group of friends what you did during your family’s vacation. Impromptu speeches require rarely advance preparation because of their brevity, informal nature and casual style. Unlike impromptu speeches, formal speeches are rehearsed and are delivered in a more formal setting.
Guidelines for an Impromptu speech: (a) Do not panic. Be calm and composed. (b) Quickly take down a few important points about the topic. (c) Walk slowly to the platform if you are required to do so. (d) Remember the points already made by other speakers and avoid repeating them. (e) Be brief and relevant. (f) Maintain eye contact with the listeners as you speak.
Presentation (a) Introduction: Inform your audience that you are organizing your thoughts as you speak This will help you relax, when you realize you had forgotten an important point (b) If the topic is controversial, state your position very clearly (c) Give your points, the facts statistics (if you have any) and example, supporting your approach in the introduction (d) Conclusion: If it is a controversial topic briefly restate your position and only recommendations as you conclude
You can also summarise your points in your conclusion
Impromptu speeches are neither written nor organized but may involve informal discussion in an informal setting.
The major items of an informal speech are:
a) Salutation – when we address the audience, we start by mentioning with the most superior people, downwards.
b) Make an introductory remark on the item you are going to speak about, i.e. any background information on what you are going to say.
c) Provide some information that is new to the audience about the subject.
d) Introduce a little humor (funny, interesting comments) to entertain the listeners.
e) Avoid hurtful, offensive or aggressive comments that may embarrass the audience or particular individuals.
f) Apology – if it is a farewell speech or a speech that calls for an apology.
g) If there is a reward, it should be given at the end of the speech.
h) Express best wishes at the end.
Language patterns Possessive pronouns Possession is indicated in pronouns in two different ways: a) With person pronouns the possessive forms are: Mine, yours, his, hers, theirs, ours, whose and its.
For example: i. This car is mine;yours is over there. ii. Whose books are these? My brother took his.
b) With indefinite pronouns like someone ,anyone, nobody etc, we add an apostrophe and an S For example: At this point, it is anyone’s guess who will win the trophy Note: it is important to distinguish between the possessive pronouns: Its, whose and contractions its (it is) and (who’s) who is respectively for example in A dog wags its tail when it's (it is) happy. Who’s (who is )coming to open the seminar? Whose chair is this?
Exercise Write down the possessive form of the personal pronouns given in brackets This book is (you) ____________ The luggage is (he)____________ This house is (we)_____________ The care is(I)_________________ The blue house is (we)__________


Reading Intensively for Comprehension
When reading any comprehension, one needs to recognize the logical and grammatical relationship among parts of the concepts. Information can be obtained from newspapers, internet, television, radio, and other public documents. Usually, information should be researched and must have facts. Most comprehensions are with questions to be answered by the reader. There are some important things to understand before one attempts to answer the questions.
Things to consider when reading comprehension questions
i) Comprehension questions are designed to test how well one understands what he/she reads.
ii) However competent you are on the subject, don’t use outside knowledge to answer the comprehension unless stated by the questions.
iii) You have to concentrate o n the passage and come out with all the answers to the comprehension questions.
iv) Before reading a passage, read the questions that follow it in order to know what information is being asked.
Reading Extensively for Comprehension
This involves reading a variety of books/stories for information and pleasure from different sources, particularly the library and other books centers. This part also provides students with sample short stories. However, students should be provide with a number of books which have various stories, both for information and pleasure. Remember to write a summary of the story after reading it.
Extensive reading involve reading novels, plays ,short stories ,poems, biographies, autobiographies, magazines, journals and many other reading materials.
Extensive reading will improve you English language, will give you information entertain you
Tips on how to read extensively
1. Read the blurb and the table of contents 2. If you are reading a non-literary task, like history, lines book, take notes of the main points and supporting point you read 3. If its literary text, at the end of you reading write a report showing :
The title of the book ,novelist, playwright or poet The setting of the story The plot of the novel ,play or poem The central character in the story The main theme or central message of the literary work Any new vocabulary or expressions that you have come across
Read any novel or a play that is not part of the literature set texts and then write a report using the guidelines above
Language patterns
Negative sentences
We form negative sentences by adding the word not between the auxiliary verb and the main verb, when these is no auxiliary verb in the affirmative sentences, we add do, does or did
In less formal language use, the auxiliary and the word ‘not’ are contracted so that we get can’t from can not ,doesn’t from does not ,didn’t from did not etc
Exercise Change the following statement to negative sentences 1. Your house is made of wood 2. The car i traveled in was fast 3. This hurts are built on a hall 4. She can play a piano
When you write about someone else, it is called Biography .It includes information like where the person was born, who the person's family is, where they went to school, what job they have had, how and why they made major decisions in their life and the impact of those decisions on themselves and those around them. When you write about someone else you need to know this person very well. You can not write anything that is not true or that you can not prove . The best way to know this person is to conduct the research. Find information from different sources like newspapers, radio or internet.
Write a brief biography about your best friend.
Reading intensively This is the reading where by you read widely and deep
Skimming Reading
This involve reading a text quickly in order to pick out the main features , including:
1. How it is organised
2. The general nature and purpose of the text
3. Key points of information and opinion
How to skim a book
a) Read the cover review and the information about the author.
b) Read the table of content
c) Read through the sections and subsection headings if there are any
d) Read the first and last sentence of each paragraph, they often contain the major points.
e) Take note of names of persons, places and events
Scanning Reading
Looking quickly of a passage but this time it is in order to identify relevant features or information.
This skill is useful when reading a passage that requires you to answer questions at the end of the passage.
How to scan a book
a) Skim the book first
b) Read the questions at the end of the book
c) Look quickly through the book to find answers to the questions asked
When we are making (forming) Yes/No questions, the auxiliary verb is moved ,to the beginning of the sentence as illustrated below:-
E.g. Tayana has finished her work.
Has Tayana finished her work?
If the statement does not have an auxiliary verb, the appropriate form of the auxiliary do is introduced.
For Example (1) The boy played football?
Did the boy played football?
(2) Babu Jose gets up early even on weekends
Does Babu Jose get up early even the weekend?
(3) They like to dance on Monday
Do they like to dance on Monday?
When forming Wh-questions from statements, we bring the auxiliary verb before the subject and then we start the question with the Wh –word. Look at the example below
(i) Veronica is cooking ugal in the kitchen
(ii) When is veronica cooking?
(iii) What is veronica doing?
When these is no auxiliary in the statement, the appropriate form of the auxiliary verb ‘do’ is used
(i) Yuster studied in the library
(ii) Where did yuster study?
(iii) What did yuster do?
These are the words that show how much is of something is used with. It can be a single word or phrase and can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns.
MUCH - Is used with uncountable nouns, like milk ,jam, money and time E.g: (a) I don't have much time (b) How much money do you have?
MANY - Is used with plural countable nouns like bottles of milk, jams, dollars, bannas and books. E.g: (a) I don't have many mangoes (b) Many people come here in January.
A LOT OF - Is uses with both uncountable and countable nouns E.g: (a) I have a lot of pen (countable) (b) I have a lot of time (uncountable)
Also: A lot of can also be used with some slightly meaning as in the following sentences (1) I like ripe bananas a lot (very much) (2) We saw him a lot last month (several times)
LITTLE :- Is used in a negative way , to indicate that amount is not enough or that it is less than the expected These was little work to do , so they did not want to employ many workers
A LITTLE :- We use it when we want to say that the small quantity was enough or more than expected. - A little has a positive meaning ,we use it when we are happy with the quantity E.g: There was a little money left ,so we were able to compete the project.
FEW –is used in a negative way
E.g. there were few members of the committee, so they could not hold the meeting
A FEW –Is used positively
E.g. there were a few members of the committee so they were able to make decision
Complete the sentences below using much ,many ,a lot ,a little, a few, little and few
1) We have __________ oranges
2) We don’t have_______ bananas
3) Edward has ___________ rice, but Alfred doesn’t have_________
4) They asked many questions but _________ were answered
5) The soldiers seemed to have _________ idea whom they fighting and why

Literature is the work of arts which use words / creative language to express human realities in social, political, economical, cultural and love
Literature is the work of art which use language and transmitted in spoken and written form.
There are two types of literature, namely
a) Spoken or Oral literature
b) Written literature
Is the literature which represented/expressed through oral or spoken form.
Is the literature presented / expressed in written form.
There are two element of literature include;
i) Form
ii) Content
Is the outer shell of the work of arts. This means that author (artist) organized his / her work of arts.
The form in literature comprises /consist of the following things;
i) Style
ii) Plot
iii) Setting
iv) Characterization
Is the work of arts we use simple language, difficult language by employing figures of speech, proverbs, idioms, saying etc
Is the technique or method which artist used in constructing/performing a work of arts such as Narrating, Monologue, dialogue, straight forward, oral traditional style etc.
E.g. Once upon the time
Is the environment where the work of arts events taken.
E.g. ("This time tomorrow" it’s setting in Kenya)
Is the way which an art organized or arrange event in his / her work of arts e.g. flash back, straight forward.
a) A character –Is a person in a story. Character donate the beliefs habits of mind moral choice and motivation
b) Characterization –Is the creation of imaginary a real person who exists for the leader as real.
In work of arts there so many characters including
- Expository character
- Dramatic character
- Flat character
- Round character
- Per eloping character
- Stock character
But all those character can be grouped into two
a) Main (Central ) character
b) Minor (Assistance) character
Main character: Is the person or people who appear the work of art from the beginning of story the end of the story.
Main character conveys carry the message of the story.
Minor character is the person who appears and disappears as a story continues.
Content refers to what is being said or conveyed or content is what is described in the work of art (literature).
Content involves the following
i) Themes
ii) Conflict
iii) Message
iv) Philosophy and climax, crisis and prologue
A central or dominating idea in a literary work, Themes of most African work of arts are love, Betrayal corruption, oppression women position, culture, Alienation etc.
In any work of arts which written or Spoken there must be a theme. Also they are center of any literature question.
This is the use learn from a literary work. Normally message is occurred after read a novel titled, a wreath for father Mayer you can get a message that you to have to fight against injustice to build Justice Society.
Conflicts is misunderstanding, collision of ideas Antagonistic
Or Opposition between one side and another side.
Conflicts arise between characters and their environments, or
Circumstances, or Character himself (internally) conflicts Made a work of arts to precede events.
1. Educates the society
2. Criticize the society
 3. National and culture identity
4. Entertain the society
5. Develop and improve the language use

Atwoki - Son of Adyeri
Adyeri –Father of Atwoki and Abooki
Vicky –An orphan
Amoti –Wife of Adyeri
Abooki –Daughter of Adyeri and Atwoki is sister
Aluganyira –Vicky’s husband
It’s relevant to content of the book once it takes about life of the people whose life seemed to pass like a shadow.
ADYERI: Is an educated man who reached the level of being the head of the school. Became famous one married with a good reputation in his society however later he changed to be alcoholic, womanizer took his secretary (and squared)
- Use the money to entertain Birungi (Secretary) Picked women from bar and slept with them.
- He used to mistreat his family after being drunkard; he beats his wife and uses a lot of abusive language “Have Married a Pig”. He also demanded a respect from his children while he did not deserve, he demanded delicious food while he did not leave enough money to buy such a delicious food for his family.
Vicky Atwoki’s cousin brings a man called Akena Opoto from Pallisa who owns a garage but coming from another tribe she wants to introduce him as her husband. “He is the man who wants to marry me.”
The book tried to reveal the way Vicky is treated in her uncle’s family. She is chased away by her uncles and found nowhere to go as a result she made a decision to find a husband who would make her life comfortable.
Her mother dead before telling Vicky who is her father therefore Adyeri’s wife is Lamenting to be given a burden i.e. Caring Vicky.
Akena is rejected by Adyeri's wife that he is Munyamuhanga means a man from another tribe she said (Amoti). A person from another tribe cannot marry Vicky especially the tribe from north.
Adyeri is against Amoti’s view, to Adyeri something important is dowries and not anything else “I don’t care who married Vicky. Whether is a person or a con or a donkey all I want is dowry.”
Adyeri analyzing the dowries as he said is head cattle, including 3 bulls, but marriage negotiation fail dowry, then Vicky is completely disappointed and she wishes in other were alive because her uncle’s wife is no help but she is jealous of her.
The Author “reveals” to us the talent of Atwoki that when he is at primary school a little Atwoki is very good at football, it is ambition is to be prominent person as exemplified his argument he has with his age mate. The behavior of his father drinking much is hurting him when is mentioned any other person.
The Author reveals that Atwoki’s father is irresponsible person. This happened when Atwoki’s under pays visit to Atwoki home and kind home has got no food.
Araali (Atwoki’s uncle) is a best friend of children as always tries to show true love to them “Uncle Araali drew out a box of biscuits to them.”
“What are you thinking Vicky?”
In this chapter Vicky is persuaded by her friend “Tusiime and Kunihira to find herself a man to look after her.
“Why didn’t you run a way with the man”……… ……
Kunihira is complaining that the parents they have considered marriage as a business. Since when one wants to marry, parents tend to put some conditions that can hinder smooth running of marriage process………… They demand a lot and put impossible condition”. Kunihira is also complaining that too much demanding of this things have become the reason to why people get marriage without official marriage.
The author tries to show that, friends or peer group can change the behavior of a person example because of some advice or influence given to Vicky by her friends she started to use cosmetics, she also started to attend disco but all in all she did all this so as to attract men
As a result from started to find Vicky “Men started chasing her up the way flies chasing rotting meat”
Vicky behavior is completely changing as she is going with sugar daddy being some money where sometimes she managed the budget and later Vick went for good with a man from Kassese.
Adyeri is invited to Kanyamasika as the one of teachers started at that school the time it was starting.
The song that was sung by pupils of standard five touched Adyeri and gave a friction of his whole life.
One of the Adyeri’s life was that he was a drunkard person, a womanizer therefore however he was employed still he had nothing, he lived in a poor life.
Example: A part from Atwok’s mother Adyeri had another woman called Birungi she was a secretary when Adyeri the time when he was the head master at ST. LUIS high school.
This made Adyeri to acquire a disease that was called a (slim) AIDS as he was found asleep.
Atwoki and Abooki are living with their mother at Katumba in a home built by Atwoki while still a High School Student at St. Luis. Atwoki gets the money from rewards and gifts given to him by the president following the classic goals he scored in the Africa Cup of Nations. He was the national team striker while a school boy. The two Atwoki and Abooki have completed high school and they are at home.
Amoti informs her children about the news of their father’s sickness back at Kachwamba. The children have not been aware since there has been no communication between them and their father, Adyeri for several years. Though Adyeri know about his son’s fame as football star in Uganda, he has sworn never to beg or ask for any financial assistance from him.
Amoti informs the children about the broken relationship between Birungi and their father. Atwoki feels sorry for the father especially on the disease but the mother claims that has been the right time for Adyeri. An elderly woman comes to Amoti’s house to plead with her in order to have mercy on the husband who in a pathetic sight back at Kachwamba. Amoti refuses to heed this request and instead she advice the woman to go and tell concubine Birungi that Amoti is very bitter with the husband such that she not ready to forgive him.
Adyeri is brought by a group of people to his children and wife. He is very thin and barely recognizable. In fact he is stinking because of the sores all over his body. He is brought on a stretcher to one of the rooms in their house. The people who bring him are football fans who know Atwoki so well.
They have found it wise to bring the dying father despite the poor family history. They are sorry for those decisions to bring him there as they suspect it will remind them the family wounds. Atwoki accepts his father back despite the strong objection from his mother, Amoti. All that the children can do is weep uncontrollably what has be fallen their father. They really pity him.
Atwoki pays a visit to his friend, David, who lives in Kampala. While in Kampala Atwoki is introduced to a girl called Edda whom they meet in a restaurant. Everybody in the restaurant knows Atwoki as a football star nicknamed “the foot portal Bullet,” while at the restaurant, girls keep eying Atwoki. Some even sit directly opposite to him in a very provocative careless posture. It is revealed in this chapter that by the time Atwoki goes to Kampala; he is twenty two years but has never slept with a girl all his life. His sister Abooki has always warned him against girl even back at portal frontal.
During his stay in Kampala, Atwoki falls in love with Edda as a result of the peer pressure and the environmental influence at David’s home. David’s father, being rich and in the governmental influence at David’s with all the luxuries they need. Despite the information made available it about AIDS over the radio, TV, and magazines, David’s father never seems to care. He attends bar and picks girls together with his son, David, who a university drop out. Atwoki is provided with a room at David’s home where he sleeps with Edda during his stay in Kampala. David assures him that the girl is healthy and free from AIDS judging from her appearance. “Eventually the foot portal Bullet” falls a prey to girls.
Vicky and her husband, Aluganyira, go to a witch doctor at night. Their aim of visiting the witch doctor is to get a charm which makes them have a child. Aluganyira had married twice and divorced before he married Vicky. His former wives have given birth to two children each. They are now being taken care of by Vicky, as their step mother.
Aluganyira is a rich man and therefore, needs more children with Vicky. Vicky does not welcome the idea of visiting witch doctors but the pressure and anxiety to have a child makes her agree with the husband’s plan to make her to the witch doctor. At the doctors place they find six people lying on the Floor. Two of them are very thin and have rashes all over the bodies. At the corridor there are five other customers, probably AIDS victims must have been among the witch doctor patients.
The witch doctor makes pricks on Vicky stomach and tattoos it. He uses the same knife on the other patients who are probably infected AIDS. Vicky fails to object to the situation because she is desperately in need of a baby. Instead they receive something else, AIDS from the infected knife of the witch doctor. Victims must have been among the witch doctor.
Adyeri passes away and people mourn him bitterly, especially his drinking mates. Everyone knows the causes of Adyeri death. Judging from his love for ladies, they know he has swell died of AIDS (slim) probably infected by one of his concubines in the streets.
It revealed that Adyeri’s wife, Amoti, is also sick and the only hope is in the children. However, the Foot portal Bullet is rumored to have changed and become a reputed womanizer in Kampala. They say he has taken after his father and would probably die the same death because AIDS never discriminates people on the basis of race, age, wealth or education. The drunkards are wondering where the disease come from such that they are afraid it will wipe the whole of Uganda.
After his father’s burial, Atwoki goes back to Kampala leaving behind his sick mother under the care of Abooki. Atwoki neglects his mother and sister, Abooki back at home without enough money while the mother is sick, Football fans who are frequent Kampala say, he is tied to a lady with whom he is living. Despite his mother lamentation, Atwoki does not respond to the call of his sister. This makes their mother very bitter and complains a lot.
Abooki boards a bus to Kassese in order to see Vicky so that she (Vicky) may help in the financial situation; she is shocked by the health of her cousin and the husband. They are very thin, weak and they look old. Vicky confesses to her cousin, Abooki that she is an AIDS victim, therefore she as no hopes of living long. Vicky counsels her cousin by teaching her never to step hunting money. She says money will kill her. Then Vicky regrets for her past life.
Back at their home, Abooki continues nursing her sick mother. A boy, called John, from a rich family uses to visit them frequently. The boy helps her so much during her mother’s sickness. The boy having created trust in her invites her to visits her to his home where he play a trick. John drops a Valium tablet in her glass when Abooki goes for a short call. She drinks the contents in the following days when she finds herself in John’s bed naked minus her virginity. Abooki is so warned that he may be able to have inquired AIDS or unwanted pregnancy with the loss of her virginity to the cruet, John.
Abooki blames herself for honoring the appointment to visit John’s home she feels as if her life is over a as she is sure her mother will die soon leaving her under no one’s care as Atwoki has seemingly neglected them forever, Abooki becomes thin from the worries about her health. She has concurred to have been a victim of the virus following what John did to her.
Abooki goes for pure-blood test. She receives concerning by a councilor called Jonathan before the test. Jonathan informs her he ways through with the virus is spreads from one person to another. After narrating her story to Jonathan, the test is carried out in which both the HIV test and pregnant test results are negative. Abooki is very happy now that she is lucky to have acquired neither AIDS nor pregnancy.
Jonathan warns her to be extra careful now that she has contracted no AIDS. He says that the only hundred percent protections guaranteed from acquiring the virus is abstinence for un married people mutual love and loyalty among couples. The two Jonathan and Abooki seem to have fallen in love after this exercise.
Atwoki arrive home sick, just after the burial of his mother. The foot portal bullet has been completely disfigured by irritating skin burns and rashes all over his body. Atwoki acquired the disease in Kampala together with his friend David who has been trying to spread it to other girls. David’s father died earlier and now it is the mother and house girl who are on their death bed.
Abooki and Atwoki decide to visit their uncle Araali, who lived at Kitangwenda. They board a bus and drop at Kitangwenda from where Atwoki is to be carried on a bicycle for 20 kilometer to Thinga village, where their uncle says, uncle Araali welcomes them to his home where Atwoki decided to stay until the time of his death, since he knows that he will soon die as their parents and cousin died of AIDS. Only Abooki is spared in Adyeri’s family.

The title Passed like a Shadow is a symbolic title of a customer or experience of a family catastrophe, that attacked all the members of her Adyeri with HIV/AIDS and left only Abooki as it passed her like a shadow ever –since she was situated by the environment of acquiring the disease and also by being deceived by John who got her in bed unwillingly without using protection.
Hence the title Passed like a Shadow fulfills the author’s intentions into sending his message to the society or there is one to one corresponding of other title and content of the book.
The setting of the book is in Uganda after independence during the end of the Uganda and Tanzania war at the period of Iddi Amin rule in Uganda it was during this period where a lot of Uganda citizen dead of HIV/AIDS, popularly known as “SLIM” In the story “Passed like a Shadow” we see that the whole family of Adyer’s vanished off from the earth except only one number Abooki because of poor precaution on fighting against AIDS.
The novel has a straight forward narration as it is straight by portraying Atwoki and Abooki as the main character their relation to the family and the society at large. The first to forth chapters are narrating about Adyeri aggressive treatment towards his family as it is seen how he usually drink and end up beating his family as it seen how he usually drink and end up beating his family until his children and wife decided to run away from him.
Chapter 6-8 narrate about Atwoki’s success as they explain how he become a Uganda football star and how he managed to build the house from his mother and sister and lastly people bring their father to their cowries house as a victim of HIV / AIDS to die in their arms. Atwoki doesn’t learn from his daddy as he was old womanizer when he went to Kampala. To conclude they said, death finally catcher up with him and let the HIV/AIDS passed Abooki (his sister) like a shadow.
Adyeri is the father of Atwoki and Abooki. He was the former headmaster of St. Luis High school. He becomes a hopeless drunkard and womanizer after losing his job. He is a very irresponsible father and husband as provided by his failure to provide for the family. He resorts to beating his wife and children on any slight provocation, Causing fear and frustration to the family. He later becomes a victim of the AIDS pandemic in a lonely home when the wife and children cluster him. His concubine also throws him out after establishing that he is a victim of HIV/ AIDS. He drink’s and smokes heavily. Adyeri dies very miserably of the disease after suffering for a long time. He is a greedy man as portrayed on the bride price on Vicky’s marriage.
Is the wife of Adyeri and the mother of Atwoki and Abooki
- She is hot tempered
- She is portrayed as a jealous woman from the way we see her refusing Vicky’s man who is from another tribe
- She plays the rule of a caring mother
- She dies of the AIDS pandemic
- She is superstition and Ignorant. She always think of disease to be the result of witchcraft but not finesses
- Is the son of Adyeri
- He suffers from poor upbringing by his father
- He later become a famous football nick name “Foot portal bullet”
- He build house for his mother who has been separated from her father.
- He falls in love with a girl in Kampala despite his awareness of AIDS.
- Is Adyeri daughter
- Is a decent and disciplined girl
- She take care of her sick mother ,father and brother
- Adyeri niece and cousin of Atwoki and Abooki
- She is a victim of poor upbringing as seen by her mistreatment by her uncle and his wife.
- She goes into exile where she meets Akena but he frustrates her intention to marry him.
- She resorts to sell her body after that.
- Vicky seems to be aware of the diseases and its Causes unlike her husband Aluganyira.
- Is Adyeri’s concubine who lives at Burungu
- Is a prostitute and crud exploiter of man.
- She chases Adyeri away with the police when he needed how most.
- Adyeri’s former secretary when he was headmaster
- She is Ignorant of the disease called slim.
- Is the son of a rich and important man in Kampala
- He is Atwoki’s friend and a university reject
- He is a womanizer who influences Atwoki to start hunting for woman.
- He becomes a victim of AIDS pandemic disease
- His father died of AIDS having infected his moth
- Is a prostitute who hunts for men in town, she traps Atwoki
- She is cheap going as seen by how she kisses and hugs Atwoki
- Is a boy from a rich family
- He is merciless and exploitation
- He misuses Abooki to his pleasure
- Vicky’s husband, rich and ignorant exploiter
- he exploits women
- He is superstitious because he lives in charms and the power of which doctor.
- These are Vicky’s female friends
- They sell their bodies and exploit men
- They convince Vicky to be engaged in prostitution
- They are ignorant of the disease “slim”
- Uncle Araali is the brother of Adyeri who lives Ilunga village at Kitangwenda.
- He supports the family of his brother as seen by paying school fees
- He is a kind and loving man
- He welcomes Atwoki and Abooki when the farmer is sick
- It is a technique or uniqueness of the writer’s say of writing a work of art. In “Passed like a shadow” the author used a creative technique as he used a simple language with the use of familiar language devices as he used the following in his form of language.

1) Abook was in a nightmare : To mean she was in a deep thought (page.2)
2) Daddy gave him a classic slap to mean a heavy slap (page . 3)
3) Amoti’s eyes nearly popped out: To mean the high surprising state, Amoti was in at the moment(p.9)
4) She told him breathlessly to show how exciting Abooki was (p.4)
5) The catastrophic that had been him to mean hard time(P.25)
The situation where by a comparison of two unlike things is made using words like, as or like.
1. She walked to wards him or fearless as a lioness (p.3) 2. He was humble as a dove (p.8) 3. His face was us him as a child(p.21) 4. She was a hard working as a donkey (P.14)
Are popular says made by the notion of people which are mostly conclude as the truth.
1) Life is not easily (p.9)
2) I have hit the jack pot (p.9)
3) Men are like a buses (p.6)
4) Like father like son (p.39)
5) East or west home is best (p. 19)
A metaphorical representation of an animal or inanimate object as having human attributes ----- attributes of form character feelings, behavior, and son as on. As the name implies a thing or ideas is treated as a person.
i) His eyes near heart (p.28)
ii) Amoti’s eye nearly popped out (p.9)
Amoti don’t have a hard heart.(P.28)
Imagery: It is an act of an author to create an imaginative picture in the mind of a reader. E.g. The birds were really a wonderful sight (Pg 49) Due to her well shaped figure(Pg 19) With electricity speed (Pg 26) Symbols: Is the use of words in such a way that one thing stands for something else.For example the cross stands for Christianity.In this novel ,the following symbols have been used. 1. A big fish - means a rich man(pg 19) 2. Slim - HIV/AIDS. 3. I regret to have married a pig -Unsuccessful man 4. He is so green - Outdated people.
Code Switching. Chill - poor me (pg 2) Munyamahanga - Down and foreign can outcast who doesn't belong to the tribe of Batooro (pg 6) Juju - Magic power(Pg 37)

The main theme is passed like a shadow is the AIDS pandemic which has invaded the setting of the story in western Uganda. The disease, which is referred to as a slim, is wiping the population. Indiscriminately, the writes has revealed some of the practices and beliefs that speed up the spread of the disease among the people.
The generation is dying miserably of the disease before the right age. The title of the novel PASSED LIKE A SHADOW reflects on how the young and energetic men and women perish from AIDS (slim). Their life span lasts as short as that of a shadow. Man power and talents are worded by the disease. Before the talents are utilized fully, the people pass away like shadows.
The characters in the novel ,like Adyeri, Amoti, David, Vicky, David’s, father and mother, Aluganyira and Atwoki are example of the people who fall victim of the AIDS pandemic. The writer reveals the factors that exposed them to this tragedy as follows:
2.Position of Woman: This is the role of woman in the family.A woman is portrayed as a tool of pleasure for men. This is when David and his father pick different girls from the bar and restaurants because they think women are instrument of pleasure.Aliganyira divorces two women after having children with them and marries Vicky as the third wife. A woman is also portrayed as weak and cannot be involved in decision making .For example Aliganyira forces Vicky to visit witch doctor who could give them a charm forgetting children. Also the woman takes care of the home and give birth to the children.
3.The influence of Power. The position that we hold in the society plays a very big role in the exposure to AIDS infections. The rich business people like Aliganyira and David's father use their position to influence young little girls into their trays using money and power.Atwoki falls a prey to the trap of Edda ,and the other girls in Kampala because he is a football star and famous.
4. Influence of Parents and Their Children. a) The jealous of Amoti influences Vicky's life style.Amoti has always been jealous of anything that concern Vicky,especially of the man who wanted to marry her. b) Atwoki falls a victim to David's influence because of the poor life in their family. c) David is exposed to infection because of very free, leisure and fair environment in their family.The tendency of David's father to pick girls and shares drinks with his son in the bar.This influences David so much . d) The negligence and greed of Adyeri, Atwoki 's father exposes Vicky to infection.
5. Peer Pressure and Influence. This is the influence of age mates , friends and colleagues in making decisions.In the novel ,the following people fall victims of peer pressure and influence . The pressure from relatives and her husband expose Vicky to further infection when she accepts the services from witch doctor so that she can have children.The witch doctor use the same knife he used to another patients who are probably victims of slim. Atwoki is influenced by his friend David who used to take him to girls and even finances their cost.This lead him to become an HIV victim. Vicky is also influenced with her friends Tusiime and Kunihira .She sell her body so that she can take care of herself.
6.Ignorance and Superstition. Ignorance is situation in which people are unaware of the vital information within their society.Most of people in the story are ignorant because they can not tell the truth about AIDS- people are not aware of the disease. Vicky's husband takes her to witchdoctor so that they could have a child.In process she got infection of slim. Amoti associates her husband's sickness to witchcraft.She thinks that her husband ,Adyeri is bewitched by Birungi. The victims of slim are taken to witchdoctors with the belief that they are victims of bewitching and evil spirits.
7. Family Conflicts. These are the misunderstanding within the family which lead to instability of the family.These conflicts play a big roles in the spread of AIDS (Slim) 1.Conflict lead Atwoki falls victim of the disease. 2.Amoki separates from her husband 3.Vicky get into prostitution when her uncle chases her from the house and also later refuses her fiance.
8.Promiscuity and Infidelity/Prostitution. This is a situation of some one having many sexual partners who are not married legally to him/her. Adyeri is promiscuous because he has a lover called Birungi,besides his wife . Apart from that he also has other lovers in the streets. Vicky had several men before she married Aliganyira. David and his father are promiscuous because they are pick girls from the streets.
Massage. Is a lesson we get after reading a work of art.In passed like a shadow is mostly concerned with the HIV/AIDS pandemic where we see people are negligent and ignorant of the disease as they practice promiscuity and infidelity/prostitution without precaution on protecting their health as a result they acquire the HIV virus
Conflict. This is misunderstanding between a person and himself or a person and a group of people or a group of people and a certain group of people. In this book the conflicts are divided into two parts.
1.Personal Conflicts. Vicky going to the witch doctor unwilling since it as an order from her husband (pg 37) Amoti did not know what to do when he was brought to their home without her concent (pg 29)
2. interpersonal conflicts Vicky with her aunt because she always felt jealous of any success of hers (p7) Vicky's uncle with Vicky's fiance(P 11) Atwoki and his age mates about his dreams.
Philosophy of the writer. Philosophy of the writer is that HIV/AIDS is spread to people because of the ignorance and negligence of the people. Also the main cause of spreading HIV/AIDS is the sexual intercourse between two partners having unprotected sex.
Relevance of the Book. This book is relevant to the society as it brings a teaching message to the society of Uganda,Africa and the world wide which encounter the HIV/AIDS pandemic. It criticizing the society's way of life with its act of prostitution and infidelity at the same time it educates the society and lastly entertain the society by different songs in the book so as to bring up awareness.
1) Explain how the Author of the book have used characters to bring massage to the society
2) Parents are the agents to shape their children by using their parents are either good or bad.
1) Solution qn. 1
Character is the agent which carries the message to the society. In the novels passed like a shadow which written by BERNARD MAPALALA and wreath for father Mayer which written by S.N. NDUNGURU the author of this book are try to use characters to bring message to the society.
The following are the characters from the book Passed like a Shadow which used to bring message to the society.
Adyeri is the head of the family not only but also is the head master of St. Luis high school. He becomes a hopeless drunkard and womanizer after losing his job so the message which brings from these characters to the society is irresponsibility. Irresponsibility shown by Adyeri who failed to provide for the family basic needs. As the book says “uncle pays visit. Atwoki’s home and find the home had gated no food.
Aluganyira is rich person, exploiter and Vicky's husband also he is superstitious because he believes in the power of witch doctor. The message which we get from this character is local beliefs. Local beliefs are the beliefs of existence of goods and the activities that are concerned with their being the worshiped. Shown when Aluganyira takes his wife to witch doctor in order to get child. As the book says “The witch doctor make prinks on Vicky stomach and tattoo’s it”
Abooki’s is Adyeri’s and Amoti’s daughter she is a kindness person is the message which we get from her.
This character is kindness. Kindness showed when Abooki’s is taking care of her sick mother, father and her brother. As the book says, “Abooki back at home without enough money while the mother is sick”.
Also characters from the book wreath for father Mayer bring the following message to the society.
Father Den’s Moyo: He is the parish priest at Mkongo parish. Also is sympathetic about twenty parish owners who dead cholera and also used to visit patient at the dispensary. He is important figures in the society who think and solve issues critically. The message which this character brings to our society is prisoners. As the book says “Father Moyo continued to help villagers with used kerosene fins. This message are show good example to our society also it teach us how should be to live in our communities with other people who suffered from different problems.
Bwana Pima: He real home of Omary Mtepa. He is medicine man at character is infidelity. According to this book wreath for father Mayer infidelity is shown by Bwana Pima. As the book says “Bwana Pima has five wives -------still he has many combined in village-----“in other side this message he bring in the society is so bad because infidelity may cause different disease especially HIV/AIDS for those people who apply or concerned with it.
Paul: is Bwana Pima’s son the only Rozina child. He is twelve years old and he is a standard five pupil at Makongo mission school. The message we get from this character is transparency. Transparency shown by Bwana Pima’s son who very important figure in this book is through is a minor character. As the book says “He revealed about secret use of tetra cycling at his home--------“This message he bring in our society is very good so is a good example for people to imitative.
The following above are the characters and the message which are bring to the society which are still found in our daily activities and surrounding
Answer qn 2
Parents are the agent to shape their children by using two books explain children can learn something from their parent be either good or bad.

SETTING: KENYA (Uhuru market)
TIME: 1970
PUBLISHER: Kenya literature Bureau
‘’This time tomorrow’’ is a play which shows disappointment among the majority who are being humiliated and made to suffer. It also unseals the weakness in the government that doesn’t take decision and affects masses and their interest.
The title of the play is direct because it simplify explains the disappointment made by the new government to the majority who live in slums and also the government decision on the ‘clean the city’ campaign which demanded the demolition of slums without a clean statement to which place that majority will leave soon after the demolition because of this situation, Njango is asking herself a question ‘’where will we go tonight? “Where will be, this time tomorrow”
- The writer used both 1 st and 3 rd person point of view
Example wakes up! I tell you
- The Writer used 3 rd person Point of view for narration i.e. By explaining those words in brackets,
Example (the journalist resumed typing, then he stops …………) Pg 31 (as she sweep she hears a tune) Pg 34.
Pg 38, when Njango explained about her man and what caused his death
Pg 42, when Tinsmith explained himself to the journalist about different kinds of jobs he had.
Pg 43, when shoemaker explained to the journalist about how they fought for freedom
- She is the central character in the play. She is a protagonist and the mother of Wanjiro. She is a widow since her husband is killed in the forest during Maumau movement.
- She has come to town after the death of her husband.
- She engages herself in petty trade at the Uhuru market (selling soup).
- She earns a poor life. Her house is made of cardboard and share the floor with her daughter as a bed.
- She is tribalistic due to conservatism. She is against inter-tribal marriages.
- She is one of the victims of the Clean-the- city Campaign. She laments, “Where Shall I be this time tomorrow?”
- She is abandoned by her daughter Wanjiro who decides to go with Asinjo.
- She warns or advises Wanjiro to be cautious with city boys.
- Daughter of Njango.
- She is naturally beautiful but not smart due to poverty.
- She has not been sent to school like her brother but does work at home.
- She loves Asinjo and wants to marry him but her mother forbids her.
- She helps her mother with domestic chores and in her petty business.
- She is unhappy with the poor life in the slums and wants to go away with Asinjo.
- She admires we ring like white people and walks like an European lady.
- She is not touched by the demolition of slums.
- She finally goes to marry Asinjo.
- Conscietizes the people about their rights and makes them aware of humiliation and exploitation.
- The people think that he has magical power to save them.
- He advises the people to unite in their opposition against the demolition of the slums.
- He is aware that in order to succeed, there should be a strong determination, organized struggle and unity.
- He is courageous. He remains alone when others run away until he is arrested by the police Officer for inciting people into violence and civil disobedience.
- He is one of the slum dwellers.
- He is illiterate and does not know his age.
- He is married to one wife and his five children.
- He is among the freedom fighters in the forest.
- He earns a living by mending shoes.
- He protests against the government’s decision to demolish the slums.
- He is once arrested and sent to Manyani Concentration Camp.
- He easily despairs to struggle against the City Council.

st Customer
- Is among the slum dwellers.
- He buys soup at Njango’s place.
- He is also against the demolition of the houses.
- He suggests that they should hold a meeting with the stranger. He believes in magical powers and thinks that the stranger can use his magic.
- He is coward. He tells the people at the meeting that the police are coming and cautions them that they have got batons.
2 nd Customer
- He is another person who buys soup at Njango’s Place.
- He complains to Njangu about the price of the soup.
- He believes that the stranger has magic to save them.
- He is coward. He tells others to run and he runs away.
3 rd Customer
- He is also a slum dweller and buys soup at Njango’s place.
- He also protests against the government’s decision to demolish the slums. He therefore, does not want to move.
- He supports the idea of uniting (standing together) as suggested by the stranger and encourages people to accept what the stranger says and stand firm.
- He is also courageous like the stranger.Inspector Kiongo
- He works with the City Council Health Department, therefore, he reminds the people in Uhuru markets to move away since the slums are going to be demolished in a bid to clean the city, because the filthy slums are an eyesore to the city.
- He is not among the slum dwellers.
- He is among the few people enjoying the national cake; living a good life.
- He helps in forcing the people to move away from the slums. He drives Njango out of her hut.
- He is a young man fom another tribe who loves Wanjiro and wants to marry her.
- He was chased away and insulted by Njango because she does not want him to marry her daughter.
- He tells Wanjiro that he is a taxi-driver and owns a house in old Jerusalem.
- He convinces Wanjiro to go with him and ignore her mother because she is old.
- He is aware that slum will be demolished that day. He therefore, uses that chance to convince or win Wanjiro. So, Asinjo in this case is depicted as an opportunist because he takes advantage of the demolition process to get Wanjiro.
- He is also a slum dweller who lives a poor life.
- He is illiterate. He is not sure of his age.
- He came to the city many years ago, and does not remember exactly when.
- As the journalist takes his photograph, he tells him that he has done many jobs including cooking, washing, sweeping.
- He cooks for the White people during the war and after. He also works as a porter.
- He has terrible experiences in his life that involve sleeping on shop-verandahs, trenches and in public latrines.
- He makes water buckets, pangas, hoes, etc.
- He report different events in the society like the state of sanitation, the government’s decision to demolish the slums, the people’s reactions, etc.
- He gather the people’s views on the decision to demolish the slums.
- He is not among the slum dwellers.
- He takes pictures of different people like the tinsmith and Inspector Kiongo.
- He works with the media.
- He tells the journalist to hurry up writing the article.
- He is also not among the slum dwellers.
Police Officer
- Is among the people in the civil servant.
- He is representing the government in the implementation the Clean-the-City Campaign.
- He arrests the stranger for inciting the people into violence and civil disobedience.
- They implement the government’s decision to demolish the slums.
- They face some resistance thought not strong.
- They storm into the slums and in the meeting, and start hitting people with batons until they run away.
- The majority in the slums. The group of people suffering and living a poor life.
- Most of them are freedom fighters fighting for Kenyan freedom and against land alienation.
- They struggle against injustice exercised by the new government. They are against the demolition of slums which takes place so abruptly without due consideration of their impending plight.
- Since they are not properly, united struggle against the government fails. As the beginning they manage to stand together, but later they split due to lack of coherence and confidence.
- They are superstitions. They believe. (Have illusions) that the stranger can perform magic and save them. Due to their weaknesses, their slums are

The Meaning of Composition.
This topic deals with compositions that engage pupils/students in writing using appropriate language, content and style. Composition refers to a short text that is written at school, college, etc. as part of exercise. In composition a student/pupil generates his/her own ideas to explain, narrate, argue/persuade or describe something or event. Composition involves writing of essays, poems, stories, songs, and letters. Etc.
Types of composition.
There are various types of compositions, they include.
(a Narrative compositions.
(b) Expository compositions
(c) Descriptive compositions.
(d) Argumentative or Persuasive compositions.
Narrative compositions
Narrative compositions refer to stories of different events. These stories may be personal, historical or fictional. Personal stories focus on important events of the author’s life. Historical stories capture a moment from the past and present it in a story format. Fictional stories use imagination and figurative language to produce a short story.
A narrative composition is the composition that tells a story. When writing narrative about an event, the following should be included.
When did it happen? What exactly happened? When did the event start? How did you know about the event? Did you witness or where you told about the event? Were you involved in the event? How did the event end?
Basic elements of Narrative Compositions.
There are several basic elements that should be considered when writing a narrative composition. These include: plot, characters and setting.
Plot: is a sequence of events or actions in a story. It has conflict that is a problem to human experience, and a resolution, that is the outcome of the conflict. Most plots develop in the five stages, namely: exposition, rising action, climax, falling action and resolution.
1. Exposition is a background information about the characters and setting
 2. Rising action is a part that develops the conflict
 3. Climax is the point of the highest interest, conflict or suspense in the story
4. Falling action is a part that shows what happens to the characters after the climax
5. Resolution shows how the conflict is resolved, or the problem is solved.
Characters are animate or inanimate things that perform certain roles in literature. Animate things are living things like people, plants and animals, while inanimate things are non living things like stones, air, wind, soil, pieces of wood, etc. when inanimate things are given human attributes, they are personified (personification).
Setting is the time and place in which the events of a narrative occur.
Steps in writing Narrative Compositions.
There are several steps to follow when writing a narrative composition. They include: finding a story idea, developing characters, setting the scene, communicating a theme and choosing a point of view.
Finding a story idea: The story should have a conflict/topic/problem that can be external or internal, intra-personal or inter-personal, at the level of an individual, group or society. Story ideas come from everyday life experience, newspapers, magazines or books.
Developing characters: Assign roles that relate to their physical descriptions, thoughts, personality traits, actions and reactions to one another,. Include dialogue to let readers witness the characters, conversations. In writing a dialogue, use the language that reflects age, background and personality of each character.
Setting the scene: in setting the scene, include information about time, place, weather and historical period. Often setting will affect the way characters act.
Communicating a theme: Theme is a main idea of a story that the writer conveys through the narrative. One way to express the theme of narrative is through description of the setting and the title.
Choosing a point of view: The decision is made by the author whether to use first person (i/we), second person (You) or third person (he/she/it/they) narration. In first person point of view, the narrator is a character in the story. In third person point of view the narrator is an observer of the event being narrated.

Expository composition.
An expository composition is a piece of writing or story that gives directions, explains an idea or term, compares one thing to another and explains how to do something. The purpose of an expository writing is to explain something to the reader or audience.
Types of Expository composition
There are five types of expository composition as follows;
Type Explanation.
Explaining a process (explanatory)
Uses a step –by-step organization to explain how something happens, works or is done. For example, how to prepare oxygen in the laboratory.
Cause and effect
This examines the causes or effects or both of a system, or certain phenomenon. For example, the causes and effects of AIDS, poverty, the desertification, drought etc.
Compare and contract
This examines similarities and difference of certain phenomena. For example, compare and contrast weather and climate, animal cell and plant cell, rocks and minerals, etc.
It explains a concept by listing its qualities and characteristics. For example, define a cell, metamorphic rock, climate, poverty, globalization, technology etc.
Problem and solution
This examines aspects of a problem and proposes possible solutions. This means that a writer investigates a problem and explains it to the readers, then he/she proposes solutions,. The problem can be HIV/AIDS, famine, environmental pollution, floods, overpopulation and migration. The measurers to address these problems can be suggested in the essay and they should be as many as possible.
Descriptive Composition.
Descriptive composition is the type of writing that describes about events, actions or phenomena which exist or happened sometime in the past. It tells that a phenomenon is, like by giving the details of the features or characteristics. A writer can describe the colour, size, quality, feeling, smell, taste, sound, speed, or age of someone or something.
For example, one can write an essay describing the Kilimanjaro Mountain, or Lake Victoria or the shape of animal cell.
In writing a descriptive composition, avoid the following overused modifiers: good, bad, really, so, and very. Instead you may consider the following modifiers: completely, definitely, especially, exceptionally, largely, mostly, notably, oddly, particularly, strikingly, surprisingly, terribly, thoroughly and unusually.
Also, use precise verbs and words that appeal to sight, sound, taste, smell, and touch, so as to capture the essence of actions.
Argumentative/Persuasive Composition.
Argumentative or persuasive composition is the type of writing aimed at convincing, motivating, arguing, or persuading readers to accept, change or take action on something or topic or subject in whatever form that might be. For example, an essay can be written to persuade readers to join a certain political, party, or buy something, or vote for a certain candidate or use certain medicine in combating malaria or AIDS.
Things to consider when writing a persuasive composition.
Varied opinions about the topic: You must argue for a point and try to convince readers to support your opinion. Your opinion should be disputable or argumentative. If your opinion can’t arouse argumentation then it is worthless. For example, it would be pointless to argue that the sun rises in the west and sets in the east because almost everyone would not agree with you. However, your might argue on a certain theory which states that the sun accounts for 90% of desertification.
Audience receptiveness: Take into consideration your audience and their opinions, are well as their age, level of education, sex and problems they encounter when choosing a topic. For example, one can write about HIV/AIDS, importance of education, the problem of pregnancy in primary schools, floods, outbreak of diseases etc.
Sufficient evidence: Provide sufficient evidence to support your arguments. If give little support for your opinion, you will be fighting a losing battle.
Use inductive and deductive reasoning: Reasoning is an important aspect in providing arguments. Reasoning can be inductive or deductive.
Inductive Reasoning
Inductive reasoning proceeds logically from limited facts to a general conclusion, that is, reasoning from specific aspects to general aspects.
The meaning of Creative Writing
Creative writing involves the figurative use of language in a more artistic way. Creating writing goes hand in hand with competence and performance of a certain language. Creative writing becomes more effective when one becomes capable of using literary devices and skills. Literary devices are tools which make a story or any piece of writing figurative.
Some of the literary devices which are used in most literary works include: personification, hyperbole, simile, rhetorical questions, irony sarcasm, tautology, onomatopoeia, alliteration, reiteration, assonance, consonance, proverbs, riddles, just to mention a few. (For more details about literary devices refer to Chapter Four)
Simile: it is used to compare two different things having a common quality.
(i) Janneth is as beautiful as a rose.
(ii) He is running very fast like a horse.
Metaphor: It is used to compare two different things treated as one. It is also called and implied simile without using words such as ‘like’, ‘so’, ‘as,
(i) Education is a key to life.
(ii) An elephant is the king of the forest.
Allegory: A form of extended metaphor in which objects, persons and actins in narrative, either in prose or verse, are equated with meanings that lie outside the narrative itself.
Personification: It is a way of giving inanimate and other lifeless objects the qualities of human beings such as speaking, walking, thinking, etc. Example
(i) Hyena requested Hare to give him some water
(ii) The sun sheds his beams on all people.
Hyperbole: It is used to exaggerate facts. Example
(i) I thanked him a hundred times.
(ii) He is as tall as the P.P.F tower
Euphemism: It is used to say unpleasant thing in a pleasant manner. Example:
(i) ‘I am going to the comfort station’ instead of ‘I am going to the toilet’.
(ii) ‘My mother has passed away’ instead of ‘My mother has died’.
Irony: It is used to express the opposite meaning which is different from the real meaning . Example:
(i) You are very beautiful (to someone who does not look beautiful)
(ii) You have scored very high (to a student who has failed to test)
Rhetorical questions: It is a question which does not need an answer because the answer is known to the person who is asking the question. Examples:
(i) Will there be a tomorrow?
(ii) Now! Why don’t you act?
Alliteration: Repetition of identical consonant sounds at the beginning of word or of stressed syllable within a word in a verse. Example: after, life fit fever.
Assonance: Repetition of similar vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonant sound. Example
(i) Lake and fate.
(ii) Clean and cream.
(iii) Side and wide.
Archaism (Barbarism): Using different languages in conversation or writing. The worlds which are not acceptable in that language (language used) because it is foreign. In short this term refers to the borrowed words.
Litotes: A form of understatement in which a thing is affirmed by stating the negative of its opposite. Example
(i) ‘She was not unmindful’ meaning ‘she gave careful attention’
(ii) ‘It wasn’t easy’ meaning ‘It was very difficult’.
Onomatopoeic: The formation of words by the imitation of sounds resembling those associated with the object instead of object itself. Example: “hiss” “buzz”, “whir”, and “sizzle”.
Satire: A literary manner that blends a critical attitude with humour and wit for the purpose of improving human institutions or humanity. Example: it seems there is no salon nearby. Your hairs are very cooperative.
Sarcasm: Bitterness. It may not be ironical but it always cuts bitter and ill natured. It aims at inflicting pain. Example:
(i) If you are the son of God rescuer yourself from the cross.
(ii) If you are a mechanical engineer, tell us the problem of this car.
Humour: Funny and amusing. It can be a comic speech, a comic behavior or comic appearance. Example:
Wife: I have been watching you for almost half an hour concentrating on our marriage contract certificate. What is wrong?!
Husband: Nothing wrong! But I am just trying to find out the expiry date of our marriage contract.
Wit: Clever and humorous expression of ideas (intelligent and understanding). With raises a sense of awareness. Example: Oh! Why didn’t you tell me that those mosquitoes are your beloved friends? I can see you visiting the pharmacy daily. But I have two mosquito nets. Can I give you one to dress your bed so as to attract more mosquitoes?!
Sympathy (sympathetic): Feeling of pity and sorrow; capacity for sharing the feeling of others. Example: I really recognize your current situation. It is God’s work. Let us pray for her soul so that God may rest her in eternal life.
Climax: A figure of speech which is used to express a series of ideas in the order of increasing importance. Example:
(i) I heard, I followed, and I won.
(ii) Some are born great, some achieve greatness and some have greatness thrust upon them.
(iii) I came, I saw, I conquered.
Litotes: It is used to convey an affirmative meaning by employing a negative word. Example:
(i) ‘The car is not in bad condition’ meaning ‘the car is in good condition’
(ii) ‘Elizabeth is not a lazy woman’ meaning ‘Elizabeth is a hard worker.’
(iii) ‘Tanzania is not a mono-party system nation’ meaning ‘Tanzania is a multiparty system nation.’
Ellipsis: It is the omission of words or letters to avoid repetition in the sentences.
Thesis: An attitude or position on a problem taken by a writer or speaker with the purpose of providing or supporting it.
Contrast: A device by which one element is opposed to another for the sake of emphasis or clarity.
Antithesis: A figure of speech characterized by strongly contrasting words, clauses, sentences or ideas: Example:
(i) Man proposes and God disposes.
(ii) To err is human but to forgive is divine.
Allusion: A figure of speech that makes brief reference to a historical or literary figure, event or object.
Ambiguity: The expression of an idea in language that gives more than one meaning and leaves uncertainty as to the intended significance of the statement. Example words like bank, socket etc.

Tautology: The use of superfluous, repetitious words. Tautology differs from the kinds of repetition used for clarity, emphasis or effect, in that it repeats the idea without adding force or clarity.
Exclamation: A figure of speech which is used to express an idea in the form of an exclamation. Example:
(i) What a piece of work is man!
(ii) What fall was there my countryman!
(iii) How sweet is the bed that is slept by the queen!
Language patterns
Conditional sentences
Conditional Sentences can be grouped into three;
I. Conditional type one (likely)
II. Conditional type two (unlikely)
III. Conditional type three (impossible)
Type 1
It expresses conditions that are likely to be fulfilled
1. If I eat to much, I will get stomachache 2. I will send her an invitation, if I find her address 3. Unless I get the ball ,I won’t play basketball 4. The harvest will fail, unless it rain
It formed by two clauses
We use present simple in the if clause and will in the main clause You can have the main clause or the if the clause at the beginning of the sentence. When the if clause it at beginning of the sentence you need comma before the main clause ,as seen in sentence above
Type 2
Always suggest that a situation is unlikely, impossible, imaginary or hypothetical Here we use simple past tense in the If clause and would or conditional tense in the main clause. E.g: If were an angel, I would lead all carjackers to a trap He would go to London, If he spoke english If I played crunk, I should be a soldier If I ran fast ,I would be the winner
Type 3
Also called impossible is made up with two clauses
Conditional are used to talk about unreal situations in the past or possible consequences of something that did not happen in the past
We use past perfect in the if clause (if + had) and conditional perfect (would have) in the main clause.
I would have given up if you had not encourage me If you had not encourage me, I would have given up If he had gone ,he could have called me If I had come ,I might have been sick
Prepositions of movement
Study the examples below
a) The children came from the village the other day
b) The young came by daladala to Arusha
c) Some other came all the way on motorbike
d) They stopped at marishoni for lunch
By and on indicate means of travel while to movement toward the destination. From indicate movement from a place of origin. At indicate a point along the journey
Fill in the blank spaces using from, to, at, or by
1) Let us go ___________ the village this weekend
2) Shall we drive _____________ mwama or shall we go____________ air?
3) She called to say she arrived __________- Nairobi last night
4) What time did you reach _____________ Tanga
5) The old lady stood ______________ the bus stop for two hours
Language patterns
1. How to send a text message (SMS) using a cell phone
a) Ensure you have credit in your phone
b) Go to write massage and type your massage
c) Look to the number of person you want to send a massage to
d) Send a massage you have written by pressing send on the phone
Gender neutral language
When we use the English we need to be careful that we do not discriminate against men or women. Language that excludes one sex is said to be gender insensitive. This insensitivity occurs in the use of nouns and pronouns.
a) If you lose your way in the city, it is safes to speak to the policeman
b) The response of fireman was slow so the fire destroyed everything in the shop
c) The fireman pays the workmen every Saturday
The use of the underlined nouns suggested that all police officers, firefighters, and supervisor are men. The nouns police officer, firefighters and supervisor should have used instead because are gender neutral
Provide the gender neutral equivalent for each of the following nouns
a) Businessman
b) Headmaster
c) Mankind
d) Spokesman
e) Chairman
f) Workmen
Two past sentence connectors
These are conjunctions that are used in pairs. Usually some sentence material comes between the two parts. They are sometimes called correlatives
Either - or
We use Either ----- or when we want to give a choice from two alternatives.
For example
1. Either the teachers or the prefects will supervisor the preparations
2. You can either do your homework now or wash the clothes
3. Either you can join the army or the prison services
4. She is either a teacher or dancer
We use to disqualify or reject two available options
1. Neither the watchman nor the residents were hurt in the attack 2. Neither the author nor the editor knows what to do with manuscript. 3.
Not only--------but also and both------------and
We used them to relate two things or actions where one is an addition to the other.
For example
1. He wrote a song .he sang it
He not only wrote a song but also sang it
1. Shufaa can not only compose a play but also act upon it 2. He need both clothing and food 3.
So---------------- that/such ----------that
1 Amina was fat. She could not run
Amina was fat so that she could not run
Hardly ---------------when
1. Hardly had abdul sat down when his rival stood to speak 2. Hardly had i started close eyes when the bell rang
Scarcely ------------------when
1. Abul had scarcely sad down when his rival stood to speak 2. I had scarcely closed my eyes when the bell rang 3.
No sooner had--------------------than
1. No sooner had Juma sat down than his rival stool to speaker
2. No sooner had he arrived than he left
We use No sooner---------than, Hardly------ when and scarcely ----when, when we suggest that one event and happen very soon after another
Simple subordinating Conjunctions
Consist of one word eg although, since, that, unless, until, while, whereas, whereby, as, because, however
Although / though
The weather is bad, we are enjoying ourselves
Although / though the weather is bad, we are enjoying ourselves
The weather was bad, however we enjoyed the games
Since it was raining, I took a tax
Because it was raining I took a tax
While he stood there, he saw two women fighting
When he comes, tell him I have gone to Tanga
I have lived here for five years
Complex subordinating conjunctions
Consist of more than one word
In order that, such that, expect that, so that, as far as, as long as, as soon as, in so far, in case, as if, as though, sooner than
Possessive nouns
A possessive nouns show ownership and is formed by adding an apostrophe and ‘S’ to the nouns, or only an apostrophe if the word ends with an s. the possessive form of a nouns shows that the person named owns something.
For example
a) One girl’s bicycle was pink
(The bicycle belongs to the girl)
For the possessive is plural nouns that ends with ‘S’ like boys, houses, the apostrophe follows the plural (s) and possessive ‘S’ is left out,
1) This is a boys’ school
2) The teachers’ visitors are here
3) Please collect the student’s assignments before lunch.

Major Parts of Formal/Official letters
Sender’s address and date Addressee’s address below the reference number U.F.S, if it has to be signed by a certain officer/Person, for forwarding. Formal salutation i.e. Sir/Madam The introductory sentence e.g a reference to a former announcement, letter, or newspaper. Curriculum Vitae (CV) Purpose of your application i.e. for national building. Referees (at least 3) i.e. someone who can furnish personal information about you. Closing remarks like your faithfully Signature. Full name and title.
Example of Request Letter

Order Letters: (The Full Block Form)
Kazamoyo Shop,
Kariwariwa Suburb,
P. O. BOX 420,
I shall be grateful if you will send me by Kilimanjaro Express Bus Service, 20 Dozen of Batik made in Tanzania particularly by China and Tanzania Friendship Textile Industry, “URAFIKI” as early as Possible.
Customer have created trust on me and I hope you shall do your best for the betterment of both sided. Sending this month will be more appropriated and appreciable.
Yours Faithfully,
Jamaa Jamaa
Managing Director.

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