BIOLOGY FORM TWO TOPIC 3: BALANCE OF NATURE, TOPIC 4: TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS.

TOPIC 3: BALANCE OF NATURE
The Natural Environment
The Concept of Natural Environment
Explain the concept of natural environment
Natural environment is made up of all living and non living things that occur naturally on earth. An organism living anywhere in any environment is affected by the things around it such as air, water, animals, plants, microorganism, stones, rock, soil, clouds and the sun. everything around it in fact makes its natural environment. It is important to understand that the environment includes all living things as well as non living things.
IMPORTANT TERMS
  1. Ecology: is the branch of biology that deals with studying interaction oforganisms with their environment
  2. Population: is the total number of organisms of the same species living in a certain area. Example the number of frogs in a pond
  3. Community: this refers to the sum of total of all population of different organisms living in a specific called habitat
  4. Habitat: is the specific area where an organism is found and adopted. i.e it is an appropriate for the certain community example an ocean, grassland, and a pond
  5. Ecosystem: refers to a natural unit made up of living and non living things whose interaction
Biotic and Abiotic Components of the Environment
Describe biotic and abiotic components of the environment
There are two components of environment,;
  1. Biotic (living things)
  2. Abiotic (non living things)
BIOTIC COMPONENT
These are living components in the environment such as animals, plants, fungi, andmicroorganisms. These organisms interact together in number of ways and these waysof interaction include the following;
  1. Competition That organisms must compete for limited resources in struggle for life. For anorganism to survive in an ecosystem it must compete with partner for thelimited resources.
  2. Predation Is the system in which one organism utilize the other as food. The eater is a predator while the eaten is a prey and a number of predators and preysregulate each other
  3. Symbiotic relationship This is where there is a close relationship or association between organism sthis association could take various forms like mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism
  4. Adaptation Adaptation has enabled organisms to survive. They may be anatomically structurally physiologically or behavioral. Eg some organisms are poisoners totheir predator while others while others develop warming colouration
ABIOTIC COMPONENTS
These include non living organisms that are found in ecosystem. Example air solar,energy, soil, and nutrients. Generally abiotic components of an ecosystem consist ofphysical environment and they are as follows.
  1. Climatic factor Several change of climatic condition influence or determine the survival of organisms in ecosystem such condition include temperature, humidity,pressure etc
  2. Aquatic condition Changes in the aquatic environment and the nature of environment it is self determined by the type of organism found in the area such a changes include water current, wave action, salinity, etc
  3. Light condition factor These affect much plant population where photosynthetic process depend onthe availability of light.
  4. Soil factor/conditionThese are also adaphic factors and they include soil texture, soil structure and soil PH
Various Organism in their Natural Environment in the Community
Identify various organism in their natural environment in the community
Activity 1
Identify various organism in their natural environment in the community
The Importance of the Natural Environment
Explain the importance of the natural environment
IMPORTANCE OF NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
  1. It is a source of food to organisms
  2. It provides shelter and security for organisms
  3. It allow living and non living things to interact
  4. It provides an appropriate setting for organisms to reproduce andincrease in number.

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