Module 5
Media selection
This is the process that teachers use to identify the media mostly likely to support the classroom instruction based on their analysis of learners’ characteristics, lesson objectives and learning activities.

In teaching diverse classroom, there are two main principles which guide selection of media:-
         The first is universal design for learning (multiple representation, engagement and expression) a concept that publishers and teachers can use in design of instructional materials and learning activities.
         The second is accessibility, a concept supported by law to ensure the rights individuals with disabilities to be able to use instructional materials

Media selection under transmission approach
Transmission approach assumes knowledge as being out there to be acquired or transmitted, learners as passive receivers of information or empty vessels to be filled with knowledge, ideas, numbers, values and skills. The teacher spends most of the time talking, elaborating and engaging learners in activities. Methods are such as lecture, storytelling, guest speaker, etc

Factors to consider in media selection under transmission approach
A teacher’s voice itself is a medium (oral), so clarity of voice, pausing, and repeating important points are important + audio visual materials are preferable + realia and locally available materials which are familiar to the learners are best
Media selection under transmission approach serves the purpose of: helping the teacher to emphasize the points that he/she thinks they need more clarification + enabling the teacher to pause and change teaching styles from all time talking to showing the visual materials on the board + using the media as the way to help the learners who cannot hear well the teacher’s voice + awaking the learners who lose interest due to prolonged teachers’ talk

Media selection under transaction/interaction approach
Under this perspective, knowledge is said to be generated or consolidated or shared during transaction process. Methods are such as discussions, seminars, debates, buzz groups and other methods that emphasize sharing of information
Factors to consider in media selection under transaction approach:
A teacher has to provide materials which will engage learners in discussions and other tasks + media are usually introduced as the lesson commences + audio, visual, audio-visual materials such as globe, maps, games, video tapes, video disks and digital video disks are preferable + media which follow the principle of universal design for learning (multiple means of representation, expression and engagement)

Usefulness of media in transaction approach: a teacher’s lesson is guided by those media, since the media is displayed from the beginning and hence it will guide the lesson development + groups have to share understanding among themselves under the guidance of the teacher + enhances learners to achieve their tasks through cooperative and collaborative fashion + the media are well distributed or positioned in groups depending on the class size

Media selection under transformation approach
This approach changes the learner’s belief system and attitudes or view of reality from one form into another. Assumes that during the process of teaching, the learner and content interact in such a way that learner’s beliefs and attitudes are being transformed. Methods are such as role play, simulation games, field visits to relevant places, invitation of key speakers.

Factors to consider in media selection under transformation approach:
The use of realia or locally made materials, teacher to prepare or choose T/L media by utilizing the naturally available materials such as tree leaves, soil, drum, etc + learner’s characteristics. Teachers have to choose media which fit to the ages and mental capability of the learners of the learners during the T/L process + the media which offers multiple means of engagement, expression and representation + media which are participatory in the process of making and consider prior experiences of the learners

Usefulness of media in transformation approach
Learners require meaningful or permanent learning (changes in attitudes and beliefs) + promotes learner’s interest and motivation + promotes independent thinking and curiosity

Criteria (models) for media selection
Romiszowski, A.J (1989): classified the criterion of media selection into four main concerns which are: 1.  effective communication which can be related to content, objectives and learners. 2. Reasonable or affordable cost which can be related to objectives, market and availability. 3. Practical tool which can be related to availability, time and facilities. 4. Human factors which can be related to facilities, teachers and learners
Barnes, Mosgrove and Rassoli (1982) lists the following media selection criteria: 1. Define objectives. 2. Availability of the media in the target area. 3. Uncontrollable factors such s governmental restrictions. 4. The behavioural aspects of target customer-learner + 5. Appropriate media to affectively convey the message + 6. Considering the cost factors of candidate media
Tony Bate’s ACTIONS model (1995): access (how accessible is a particular technology for a learner)+ costs(what is the unit cost per student) +teaching and learning (what are the best technologies for supporting this teaching and learning) + interactivity and user friendliness (what kind of interaction does this kind of technology enable)+ organizational issues(what changes in organization need to be done) + Novelty (how new is this technology)+ speed (how quickly can course be adapted with this technology)
Coulter and sarkis (2005):1. Quality +time +flexibility+ coverage+ cost
ADDIE: analysis + design + development + implementation + evaluation

Improvisation- collection, preparation and use for teaching and learning materials from locally available materials on behalf of commercial equipments or products.
Advantages of improvisation- it slashes the cost of apparatus/equipments and is a quite helpful in making school self reliant + it has instructional value as well as we also learn by doing + it helps develop the dignity of labor and also satisfies the urge of creative production + it helps develop the habit of cooperation and coordination + it provides training in thinking skills through the process of looking for low cost substitutes or alternatives

Steps in improvisation: making a careful study of the conventional apparatus or equipments + thinking of some low cost substitute that may be available in the local environment + collection of materials required for improvisation







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