EDUCATIONAL MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY: MODULE 4.

Module 4
COMPUTER IN EDUCATION
Computer is a machine that manipulates and processes data and information in response to a list of instructions. it is an electronic device which takes inputs from the user in form of data and instructions, and processes the data to give out information that is displayed to the user.

Components of a Computer
A computer system is usually made up of hardware, software, and media to store the software.
Hardware: refer to all physical devices or equipment in the computer system.
Software (programs): refer to sets of instructions written in computer language that let users give directions to the hardware.

Components of hardware
Central Processing Unit (CPU):
          CPU performs the actual work of the computer system i.e. processing user instructions.
          This is the part of the system that can be accurately called the computer.
          CPUs are a series of electronic circuits arranged and stored on silicon chips.
          In microcomputers, these chips are housed on a component called motherboard.

Motherboard (mainboard): The place where most of the electronics including the CPU are mounted. It is the backbone of the computer. All the individual pieces connect to the motherboard in some way.

Processor - This is the chip that does the "thinking" of the computer. These are the "Pentium" and "AMD" chips you hear about. Processor speed is measured in Megahertz MHz) and Gigahertz GHz). 1 Ghz = 1000 Mhz

CPU consists of three parts:-
           The control unit (CU): directs the activities of the whole system.
          Arithmetic logic unit (ALU): All operations in a computer are based on computations such as computer’s basic arithmetic operations of adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing, storing and comparing bits of information.
          Memory unit.

Memory Unit (Internal Memory)
There are two types of memory:-
          Random access memory (RAM) serves as temporary storage for user requests in the form of applications program commands and the data that programs use.
           Read only memory (ROM) is a type of memory designed to hold instructions permanently within the computer.

Input Devices
These are devises through which users give instructions and information to the computer system. E.g. keyboard, mouse, scanner, microphones, optical character reader (OCR), digital camera, voice recognition units.

Output Devices
These are devises that display the results of what the computer does. E.g. monitor (CRO), printer, liquid crystal display (LCD), speech synthesizers and speaker.

Other Hardware Devices
External Storage I/O devices: E.g. Disk drives.
Communication Devices: E.g. Modem.

Using Software Tools in T/L
          Material generators: Help teachers to produce instructional materials such as lesson plans and notes. E.g. word processing, databases and spreadsheets.
          Data collection and analysis tools: Help teachers collect and organize numerical information that indicates students progress. E.g. spreadsheets.
          Graphics tools: Allow production of images and illustrations. E.g. Photoshop, video-maker.
          Research and reference tools: Electronic versions of encyclopedia, atlases, and dictionaries, usually stored in CD-ROM.
          Teachers/learners access valuable information from their  homes/desks. This is done via searching on the internet.
           Specific computer programmes produce accurate maps, graphs, documents and also print them.
           If used in conjunction with satellite communication, radio programs and broadcasts can be received in schools.
           When computer used in combination with DVDs and CDs, pre-recorded information can be advantaged for use when needed.
          Test generators and test question bank.
          Puzzle generators.
          Making certificates.
          Distance learning. E.g. internet, videoconferencing, e-mail.
          Send assignments/questions/notes/clarifications via emails to students OR feedback to teachers from the students (interaction)       despite of distance.
           Facilitate individual learning and self-evaluation (computer-aided instructions matters)


Using Specific Software Tools in T/L
This section discusses some software tools and their application in T/L. These include:-
          Word Processing Software
          Spreadsheet Software
          Database Software
          Presentation Software

Word Processing
Word processing is simply put, typing on a computer. E.g. Ms. Word.

Uses of Word Processing:
          Preparing lesson plans and notes.
          Keeping student information and handouts.
          Frequently used worksheets and exercises.
          Preparing flyers and other announcements.
          Periodic student progress letters to parents.
          Preparing annual reports for the school.


Spreadsheet
Electronic spreadsheet programs organise and manipulate numerical data. E.g .Ms. Excel

Applications of spreadsheet
          Perform calculations and comparisons for student’s examination results.
          Can be used to create graphs for given data such as attendance charts.

Database
Databases are programs that allow users to store, organise, and manipulate information including both text and numerical data.

Uses of Databases in school
          Inventorying and locating instructional resources. E.g. Ms Access

Presentation Software
          These are programs that allow users to create and display a series of screens called slides.
          They can contain images, text, graphics, sound video clips or combination of these.
           They can be used for tutorial conferences, seminars and exhibitions.
           E.g. Ms. Power point.

Using Instructional Software
          Instructional software are programs developed for the sole purpose of delivering instruction or supporting learning activities.
          Instructional software are sometimes referred to as computer assisted instruction (CBI), computer-based instruction (CBL), or computer assisted learning.
Instructional Software Include:-
          Drill and practice: These are exercises in which students work example items, usually one at a time and receive feedback on their correctness.
          Tutorial: delivers an entire instructional sequence similar to a teacher’s classroom instruction on the topics. This instruction usually is expected to complete enough to stand alone (information summaries, explanation, practice routines, feedback and assessment); the student should be able to learn the topic without any help or other materials from outside the courseware.
          Simulation: is an imitation or a representation of an actual physical or social situation reduced to manageable proportions to serve a specific purpose.
 A simulation is a computerized model of a real or imagined system designed to teach how a system works.

Microcomputer-based Laboratory (MBL)
          MBL are electronic systems used to collect, organise, and process real world data automatically.
          Any minds-on/hands-on experimental activities where a computer and sensor gather, process, and display data directly from the environment is called microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL).

Advantages of using computers:
           They break the monotony of routine teaching.
           They reinforce/enhance learner’s interest in learning.
           Teaching and learning can be made interactive.
           Computers can store, retrieve, manipulate, process, transmit and receive information.
           Teachers/learners present work in a more organized manner. It is           because they can use computer to write, draw and print.
           Better and more accurate information can be accessed at will.
           Alternative teaching approaches can be easily and conveniently implemented.
          Interactivity - engaging the learner to think, respond, receive feedback and  become involved with subject matter in a meaningful way.
          Learner’s can self-pace through the instructions repeating or skimming as needed.
          Learning when it is convenient for the learner, no travel costs or disruptions.
          Cost-Effective for the learner.
          Can reach large audiences at various locations, convenient for the learner.
          Increased retention.
          Knowledge and ability can reach physically challenged learners.

Disadvantages of using computers
          Plagiarism.
           Demands computer literacy skill.
           Too expensive to buy and maintain.
           Schools’ inaccessibility to internet services.
           Learners/teachers to access improper information if internet is misused.
           Wastage of time playing computer games that distract learner’s attention.
          Isolation - some students may regret the lack of social interaction.
          Lack of suitable hardware resources. Whether used at a university or in an office or at home, requires access to suitable hardware.
          It is not as convenient as a book. Books are light, portable, provide instant.
          Inefficient utilization of computers. Why? Due to lack of electricity connection.
           One computer to one learner at a given time. It implies that many computers are needed/required.

Using projectors to Enlarge Images
           Projected image refers to the pictorial representation beamed from an object on a projector platform and displayed onto a screen.
          The projector may be an overhead, a film, a slide or even an LCD projector.
          When you place the projector close to screen the image gets bigger; when you place the projector far from the screen the image gets bigger. I.e. The further the projector from the screen the bigger the image and vice versa.


OVERHEAD PROJECTOR (OHP)
          The overhead projector is a machine used to project images from transparency to the screen for classroom view.
          The Overhead projector, as the name implies, is a hardware used for projecting a transparent visual onto a screen placed behind the presenter.
          It is soundless and non-motion picture machine.

Major Parts of OHP
OHP comprises three main parts:-
          The head: Contains mirror, lens and elevation adjustment.
          The arm: Holds the head and the focus knob.
          The body: Contains glass plate, Fresnel lens, fan, lamp, lamp switch and acetate role.
          The Stage - The stage is the glass surface where the transparency is placed.

The Head: The head is the part of the projector housing the mirror. Light is projected at the head passes through the image and reflects off of the mirror before is exits and is shown on a screen.
The Arm – the arm is an adjustable metal rod that holds the head. Using the adjustment knob the head can be made to move near to the stage or far away from it.
Mirror: To deflect the beam of coloured light from the light source to the screen.
Lens: To enlarge the picture, large enough to be seen at a distance.
Elevation adjustment:  To adjust the position of the picture on the screen.
Focus knob: To focus the image sharply on the screen.
Fresnel lens: To collect to the centre the light from the bulb and throw it to the head through the glass plate.
Fan: To cool down the bulb to prolong its life span.
Lamp: produce light for projection.
Lamp switch: To switch on/off the power in the projector.

Functioning of OHP
The functioning of an overhead projector is very simple.
          A bright lamp within the unit shines through a translucent sheet of plastic.
           Markings on the plastic colour block the light which then travels to a mirror at the top of the overhead.
           This image is then projected onto a screen for the audience to see.
           The coloration on the transparency, the plastic sheet containing coloured writing and images, determines what patterns will appear on the projected image.

USING OHP
Setting up
          The screen should be placed at the corner near the window in front of the classroom, to avoid incoming reflection of the light. (In a darkroom the screen can be placed at any position in front of the classroom.
          The screen should be tilted at an angle of about 12 degree forward, to avoid keystone effect.
          Keystone effect appears when the beam of projected image lands on the screen at an angle other than 90°.
          Align thoroughly the OHP to the screen and focus sharply by using focus knob to get sharp image. The switch off the OHP.

NB. Setting up should be done before presentation time.

Preparation of OHP Transparencies
OHP transparencies can be produced in two main methods:-
          By hand: using felt pen. The pens can be permanent group and non-permanent group (water soluble).
          Avoid any direct contact between transparency and your hand.
          Letters should be large enough.
          Photocopying:  In the photocopier transparency (heat resistant.

Uses of OHP
The OHP can be used for projecting both verbal and visual material during a training programme. A few instances where the OHP can be used are listed below.
a) While presenting a sequence of points, stages, parts, components, processes etc.
b) For presenting  tables, worked-out examples, data, charts etc.
c) For presenting diagrams and drawings used as illustration/for explanations,
d) For showing charts and maps for explanation or an activity.
e) To display pictures and illustrations.

OHP Presentation Techniques
          A right-handed presenter should stand or sit to the left of the OHP looking at the class, and project from the right hand side to the right hand side of the audience. The left-handed presenter is automatically vice-versa.
          The projection across corners is better than forward, as it will avoid the teacher to obscure the screen.
          Revealing technique: This is a technique that allows projection of one information or diagram at a time. This can be done by covering the unwanted information with opaque paper or cardboard.
          Overlay Technique: In case you want to present a complex diagram, you may present that diagram in phases. Several transparencies are mounted together one over the other so that information overlaps stage by stage to make one complete diagram.
          To show a specific point on the information use a pointer. The pointer  can be used to point either on the screen or on the projection stage of the machine. Care should be taken not to obscure the image projected on the screen or to come between the screen and the projector. Knitting needle or sharp pencil would provide a good pointer. Avoid using your finger.
          During presentation, remember to allow enough time to read what you have projected. The best way doing this is to read carefully the transparency to yourself word to word.


Advantages of Using OHP
          Overheads are inexpensive and Is cost effective.
          easy to use
          reliable
          have very few moving parts.
          Provides enlarged visual
          Can be used during the day
          Allows trainees to face the class.
          Is flexible in use.
          Is easy to arrange and operate
          Overcomes trainer incompetence
          Saves writing time
          Provides colourful visuals.

Limitations of using OHP
          Too delicate machine
          Expensive (initial costs & its running)
          Demands constant high voltage power to drive the OHP.
          Demands good storage (machine & software)
          Systematic routine to service is required
          Easy to distract students’ concentration or attention if left on during on-going of the lesson
          Use and advantages needs special attention that most teachers lack.
          Images commonly affected by keystone effect if the surface is not inclined at a correct angle.


EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING (EB)
Implies: use of radio/TV in T/L process
          EB refers the process of transmitting and distributing to school and the entire public the educational information over the radio, TV or combination of the two.
Why EB?
Aims to enrich and improve education in a different way from the usual and specialized way.

Main Sections of Educational Broadcasts
          School broadcasts
          Correspondences course broadcast
          In-service educational broadcast for teachers
Note/Caution:
Before effecting radio/TV broadcasts, a printed hard material is sent to inform users on the day, date and time of that program/lesson and some notes to teachers

School Broadcasting (SB)
          SB is a process whereby a subject teacher is carefully selected because of his/her exceptional teaching skills and expertise transmits lessons through radio or television to reach many learners.
          Thus, intended knowledge can be accessed by the target learners in the shortest time possible using very few subject experts.
          In most cases teaching materials including timetables, lesson booklets, manuals and any other materials are distributed in advance.
          Schools are guided by the timetable, when to assemble students for a broadcast lesson.
          During the lesson, the class teacher, using teachers introduces the lesson, turns on the receiver and a single teacher takes over through broadcast.

Advantages of School Broadcasting
          All targeted students benefit the expertise of an exceptionally good subject teacher at the same time.
          A standard understanding of intended knowledge across schools.
          A solution to limited number of subject experts over a fast growing school population and educational seekers.
          Enhance professional development for teachers in schools.


Disadvantages of School Broadcasting
          Expensive in terms of capital investment and infrastructure.
          Scheduling may involve adjusting the school time table.
          Learners may become passive.
          They do not cater for individual differences.
          The language used may be too advanced for the learners.
          There is usually no feedback from the learners to the teacher.

Role of EB
          To inform: (ie : the public on what takes place on their country/world)
          Offer a range of entertainments (ie: in form of music, dance or poetry…)
          To motivate the public (ie; use of advertisement)
          Subject control (ie: bring the world to classroom for learning purpose; knowledge and content is brought to students and within short time)   
          Behavioral changes (i.e: habits and styles may change such as HIV awareness, smoking/population control)

Handling a Broadcasting Lesson
          As teachers, play a facilitator’s role
          Use the first and last stages to interact with the students/pupils
          Familiarize with all the control of the devices (TV/Radio)
          Know exactly the timetable of the broadcasting

Pre-lesson Activities of a Teacher
          Examine the aims/reasons and methods of why listening that program?
          Establish if there is any type of assistance you know would require to succeed in your lesson (ie: text books, visual aids etc) 
          Establish whether the broadcast program can fit in the timetabled programs at the institutions
          Have good and working recording tool if it is in need

 
Activities during Presentations
          Presence of the teacher during presentations is of great importance
          Ensure the entire broadcast runs from the beginning to the end without interpretations
          As a teacher, jot down new information and explain later where the teacher-student participation necessary.

Radio as a Medium in T/L Process
Radio is a device that transmits message through the air by means of electrical waves.
Radio broadcasting is now a chief means of transmitting/communicating message to large audiences at the same time

Advantages of using radio in T/L process:
          A wider coverage
          Immediate. Fast message transmitting device
          Literate and illiterate people benefit from it
          Creates mass education
          Authentic source of messages as deemed by most people
          A cheap device to purchase
          Messages from resource persons, consultants, experts etc usually contribute to the subject matter transmitted

Group activity
What might be the hindrances of most schools in employing radio as a teaching and learning medium?


TV as a Medium in the T/L Process
Television (TV) is an electronic device that transmits still and moving pictures with accompanying sound, through wires and space.
          There are two types of TV:-
          Open Circuit: This is the usual telecast device used by home viewers. Here programs are commercially sponsored and purposely produced for home viewing.
          Closed Circuit: This sends specifically designed signals for classroom instruction purposes. Interests educators and learners only. E.g. Microteaching skills


Contributions of TV in T/L situations:
          Students are able to hear and see
          Arouses students’ interests
          Some presentations are done by resource persons
          It is an authentic course of information transmission
          It brings distant world to the classroom
          It is good for mass education


Limitations of TV in T/L
          Costful to buy and maintain
          They are useless in absence of electricity
          It is a fragile and delicate device
          Unclear images are received in case of poor reception
          It is one-way communication
          It never consider individual differences among students/pupils

Group Activity
Why the school radio and television broadcasting are not popular in Tanzanian context?



POWERPOINT PRESENTATION
         One of the most empowering programmes in computer assisted educational programmes is a PowerPoint programme.
          Like the OHP, a PowerPoint presentation is well guided, sequenced, motivational and indeed well placed for provision of facts.
         In addition to the advantages of an OHP this facility provides animation for improved orchestration of information for improved comprehension. Otherwise PowerPoint is merely a computer programme (Microsoft) now preinstalled in almost all PCs.


         To Start Switch on your computer to the desktop environment.
         Locate PowerPoint on the computer's desktop or under the Programs folder.
         To create a PowerPoint Master Template: Entering text to a selected frame can be accomplished in many ways:-
         typing directly into slide by slide;
          cutting and pasting chunks of text from a word document;
          or copying an entire document into the outline view.
         Select "Blank presentation" from the "New Presentation" window
         Choose the desired layout from the auto layout format in the "New slide" window
         Follow instructions and start entering your data or text to the frame provided.
         Choose a name and serve your first slide.
         To insert a new frame click on insert menu .
         Keep entering your data by selecting Insert new slide every time you finish one slide.

Inserting Background Colour
         Select "Custom Background" from the "Format" menu.
         Click the down arrow in the Background fill area on the Custom Background window.
         Select colour desired
         Click the down arrow in the Background Fill area on the Custom Background
         Click OK.
         Click Apply to All to make the changes to all slides in the presentation.

Choosing a Textured Fill as a Background
         Select "Custom Background" from the "Format" menu.
         Click the down arrow in the Background Fill area on the Custom Background window.
           Select "Textured Fill..." to go to Textured Fill window.
           Click the down arrow in the textures area on the Textured Fill window and selected desired texture fill
           and click OK
         Click Apply to All

Creating Graphics with PowerPoint
         Using PowerPoint, you can add graphics to enhance your presentation or to illustrate your instruction. To do this, select "Slide View" from the "View" menu.
IMPORTING GRAPHICS INTO POWERPOINT
         Select "Clip Art" from the "Insert" menu.
         Select the categories of the clip art.
         Click the clip art to be used.
         Click insert.
         Resize the graphic to the desired dimension and position

To import pictures from scanned files
         Select "Pictures" from the "Insert" menu.
         Navigate to the folder containing the pictures.
         Select the picture.
         Click insert.
         Resize the graphic to the desired dimension and position.
Importing Video Clips
         In situations where a short clip of a demonstration, a movie clip or an animation, where showing a short film would improve effectiveness of your presentation do insert a video clip following these steps.
         Select "Slide View" from the "View" menu
         Select "Movie" from the "Insert" menu.
         Navigate to the folder where the movie is stored.
         Select the file and Click OK.
         After you inserted the movie, you can scale it, providing that the quality is not affected.

Inserting A Picture as a Background
You can insert a picture as a background that you have scanned or digitally created for this purpose by doing the following:
         Select "Custom Background" from the "Format" menu.
         Click the down arrow in the Background Fill area on the Custom Background window.
         Select 'Insert Picture...' to go to the Insert Picture window.
         Navigate to the location of the desired picture.
         Click the picture to be used and click OK.
         Click Apply to All to make the changes to all slides in the presentation.

Playing the Slide Show
         When you are already set play you PowerPoint presentation by :
         Select "Slide Show" from the "View" menu.
         Click the left mouse or the down arrow on the keyboard to move to the next slide
         To stop the show press the "Esc" key on the keyboard or
         Click the right mouse and choose end the show.

MULTIMEDIA IN EDUCATION
Definition of Multimedia
         The concept multimedia is derived from the words ‘multi’ which means many or multiple; and ‘media/medium’ which refers to tool/vehicle or agent to present or communicate something.
         Multimedia can simply be defined as the application of more than one media at the same time in a presentation.
         Multimedia is the use of several different media (eg text, audio, graphics, animation, video, and interactivity) to convey information.
         When a person watches television, the television shows the person everything. There is sound and pictures, and sometimes even words on the screen. The person watching does not have to put much effort into understanding what is happening on the television.
         Educational multimedia is understood to be multimedia which provides learning resources by using a variety of media in an integrated way for the purpose of instruction. By doing so we provide resources to students in ways that best suit their learning needs and capture their interest.

Significance of Multimedia in Education
         Multimedia responds to diverse sensory needs of the learners based on their cognitive strategies.
         Research has revealed that learning occurs better when more than one of the sensory organs of the learner is involved. E.g. Learners know it better when they see, touch and finally taste an orange than merely hearing a thunderstorm.
         The combination helps learners to form correct concepts. When for some reasons a learner misses a point through one sensory means, it is compensated for through another sensory means.
         Meaningful learning occurs when learners construct and coordinate multiple representations of the same materials including visual and verbal representations.
         If implemented thoughtfully multimedia can facilitate learning and promote deeper understanding.
          Using multimedia also supports students with different preferences for how information is presented.
         Pictures convey information more quickly than words.
         Virtual worlds enable learners to actively participate in authentic tasks, empowering them to do things in an environment that provides a level of complexity and information representative of the actual setting rather than be passive observers.
         Interactive animations can create more exciting and attractive learning experiences.
         Students can choose start and stop simulations at their own pace.
         They can view and scrutinise images as often as they like, repeat practice quizzes or audiotape lessons for clarification of topics.
         Caters to the different ways in which students learn.
         By providing more than one way for students to gain information we are improving accessibility.
         A lesson involving many sensory organs is interesting to the learners.
         Multimedia enhances retention.
         Satisfies educational objectives.
         Increases student understanding.
         Can be used to demonstrate events and show places.
         Experiments can be conducted that would otherwise be impossible.

Elements of Multimedia
Multimedia learning integrates five types of media to provide flexibility in expressing the creativity of a student and in exchanging ideas: text, video, sound, graphics and animation; thus providing a powerful new tool for education.

Text
         Out of all the elements, text has the most impact on the quality of the multimedia interaction.
         Generally, text provides the important information.
         Text acts as the keystone tying all of the other media elements together.
         It is a well written text that makes a multimedia communication wonderful.

Sound /Audio
         Audio refers to sound recording and its reproduction where sound can mean voice, music and sound effects.
         Sound is used to provide emphasis or highlight a transition from one page to another.
         Sound synchronized to screen display, enables teachers to present lots of information at once.
          Complex images can be paired with spoken explanation. E.g. art-pictures are glossed by the voiceover; or math-a proof fills a screen while the spoken explanation plays in the background.
         Sound used creatively, becomes a stimulus to the imagination; used inappropriately it becomes a hindrance or annoyance.

Benefits of Audio / Sound
         Simple to create with freely available software.
         Audio introductions personalize online modules.
         Audio recordings help students recognize sounds, improve listening (music) and pronunciation (foreign language studies) skills.

Video
         Video refers to the technology of capturing, recording, processing, transmitting, and reconstructing moving pictures.
         The representation of information by using the visualization capabilities of video can be immediate and powerful.
         There are many instances when students, studying particular processes, may find themselves faced with scenario that seems highly complex when conveyed in purely in text form, or by of diagrams and images. In such situations the representational qualities of video help in placing a theoretical concept into context.
         Video can stimulate interests if it is relevant to the rest of the information on the page and is not overdone.
         Video can be used to give examples of phenomena or issues referred to in the text. For instance, while students are reading notes about a particular issue, a video showing a short clip of the author/teacher emphasizing the key points can be inserted at a key moment.
         Video clips can be used to tell readers what to do next.
         It is unlikely that video can completely replace the face-to-face lecture; rather video needs to be used to supplement textual information.
         The use of video is appropriate to convey information about environments that can be either dangerous or too costly to consider, or recreate, in real life. For example: video images used to demonstrate particular chemical reactions without exposing students to highly volatile chemicals, or medical education, where real-life situations can better understood via video.

Advantages of using Video in Education
         Video has dramatic ability to elicit an emotional response from an individual.
         Presents scenarios otherwise inaccessible to traditional classroom.

Animation
         Animations are simulations of movement of graphic images.
         Animations are used to show changes overtime, or to present information slowly to students so they have time to assimilate it in smaller chunks.
         When combined with user input, enable students to view different versions of change over time depending on different variables.
         Animations are primarily used to demonstrate an idea or illustrate a concept.
         Video is usually taken from life, whereas animations are based on drawings.
         There are two types of animations: cel-based and object-based.
         Cel-based animation consists of multiple drawings, each one different from the others. When shown in rapid sequence the drawings appear to move.
         Object-based animation (slide or path animation) moves an object across a screen. The object itself does not change.

Benefits of Animations
         Processes (over time) otherwise invisible to the human eye are made visible.
         Animations add impact to presentations, enliven a message, illustrate individual steps making complex information appear simple.

Graphics
         Graphics are visual elements that include everything from still images, icons, graphs, diagrams, illustrations, photographs, artwork, and maps; taken from spreadsheet, pictures from CD-ROM, or something pulled from the internet. With a scanner, hand drawn work can be included.
         Graphics provide the most creative possibilities for learning session.
         The capacity of recognition memory for pictures is almost limitless. Images make use of a wide range of cortical skills: colour, form, line, dimension, texture, virtual rhythm, and especially imagination.

Benefits of Using Graphics
         Information presented in an alternative format enhances written text.
         Aids visualisation.
         Supports conceptual learning.
          Object analysis is enabled.

Interactive Media
         Educationists have shown that certain forms of learning becomes easier, and is retained more permanently if the learner participates in some way with the learning material.
         The incorporation of interactivity is assisted if the network is capable of two-way communication, and for some applications the sense of interactivity is aided by the ability to deliver a moving picture, or a sound very quickly, so that a sense of two-way human participation can be generated.
Examples of Interactive media:-
         Real time video conferencing.
         Courseware: refers to educational applications within an online lesson (eg multiple choice quiz (MCQ), fill-in-the-blank activity, tutorials, or microcomputer based laboratories.
         Virtual labs: A virtual lab is a virtual world within which students can engage specifically in science lab activities such as microscopy or compound synthesis.
         Virtual worlds (digital worlds):  refer to interactive simulated 3D virtual spaces in which many users can participate. Students freed from the need to be situated within the real environment can learn and receive feedback while interacting within recreated 3D environments such as museums, historical events, crime scenes, hospital wards, chemistry labs.

 Traditional Multimedia
         Multimedia is not confined to modern technology as we think of computers today, but an old combination that traces back to the advent of human learning.
         The use of visual symbols along with narrative forms that emerged at the advent of language symbols are an example of traditional media.
         In a classroom, the teacher may have written a text on print base for learners to read, a chart, map or diagram printed on manila paper for learners to visualize; the teacher may also ask learners to dramatize an event to experience the reality.

Modern Media
         Modern media are only a convenience of traditional media.
         The computer is a multimedia tool that has successfully taken over almost all media combinations. A computer shows films, dramatises, simulates, draws, works out mathematical operations etc.
         When the term is used with computer technology, multimedia refers to a variety of applications that combine media and that use CD-ROM, video, audio, DVD, and other media equipment.
         When the term is used with computer technology, multimedia refers to a variety of applications that combine media and that use CD-ROM, video, audio, DVD, and other media equipment.
When the term is used with computer technology, multimedia refers to a variety of applications that combine media and that use CD-ROM, video, audio, DVD, and other media equipment.

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