PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION: MODULE 5: Student’s assessment and curriculum evaluation

Student’s assessment and curriculum evaluation

Measurement- refers to any quantative description of performance expressed as a numerical value or categorical scale. Eg. G.P.A =3.5, 75% etc. it does not include any quantative description of a behaviuor. In education, measurement can be done through tests, examinations, observations, etc
Assessment- process of collecting data or information on students’ achievement and performance. Tools used to collect data/information are such as tests, examinations, questions. Usually assessment comes after measurement. Assessment includes all activities in the course that enable students to demonstrate their understanding ability.
Classroom assessment refers to all activities in classroom that enable students to demonstrate what they understand, know and what they can do.

Types of assessment:
        i.            Norm-referenced: uses the results of all students to determine the standard
      ii.            Criterion-referenced: standard is determined by administering the examination


Evaluation- is the judgment regarding to quality, value and worth of response, product, and performance based on the established criteria and curriculum standards.

In all human activities, we like to know how well we are doing and constantly seek feedback to help us.
Normally we evaluate the results.
Evaluation does not end with the summarization of results. Its main purpose is to help an organization reflecting what is trying to achieve, assessing how far it is succeeding and identify.
Classroom evaluation- is the feedback from the instructor to students’ learning. Also, it helps teachers adjust his/her teaching in accordance to judgments.

Why evaluate our teaching?
        i.            Evaluation provides feedback to learners to know their own strengths and weaknesses
      ii.            It encourages students in building good study habits
    iii.            It encourage students review and organize course materials for fear of failure and desire to meet the demand of the school
    iv.            It helps in locating the areas which require remedial measures
      v.            It helps teachers on planning, organizing and implementing learning activities so as to improve teaching
    vi.            It shows where instruction has succeeded and where it has not
  vii.            It provides basis for revision of curriculum as it provides feedback to other stakeholder on curriculum
viii.            Planners require evaluation data about T/L to inform future curriculum developing.
    ix.            It helps in inter-institutional comparisons
      x.            Helps the administrator in educational decision making related to selection, classification, placement, promotion, certification, etc
    xi.            It helps in reporting learners progress to their parents

Types of evaluation
Tests and other forms of evaluation are classified according to their role and function
        i.            Placement evaluation- evaluation which determine the students’ performance at the beginning of instruction. They include tests and questions administered at the beginning of instruction.
·         They check if students possess knowledge and skills necessary for him/her to begin program or planned instruction.
·         They also help the teacher to skip

      ii.            Formative assessment
Assessment corresponds to ongoing learning process
Gathering evidence is a continuous process throughout the teaching period and is concerned with identifying strengths and weaknesses.
Purpose:
 helps team members to improve the structure and delivery of their unit in ways that improve the students’ learning experiences.
Helps to monitor teaching and learning progress during instruction.
 It provides feedback to students with regard to their success and it helps to reveal learning errors or weaknesses that need correction

    iii.            Diagnostic evaluation
This is the first step towards determining the nature and significance of the problems and getting the right care. E g. Remedial class.
It is concerned with persistent learning difficulties that are left unsolved by formative evaluation
It is done when need arise

    iv.            Summative evaluation
Is judgmental and generally corresponds to the product outcomes of unit or program.
Purpose, is to determine whether a standard based on established criteria has been reached.
It usually involves long and structured examinations. It is used to determine the extent to which the instructional objectives have been achieved.
Also it is used on assigning Course grade certification at the end of the program

Generally, the three terms measurement, assessment and evaluation are certainly connected but it is useful to think of them as separate but connected ideas and processes

Validity
This is the degree to which the tests and/or examinations accomplish the purpose for which they are being used for.
It refers to the appropriateness, meaningfulness and usefulness of measurement in relation to scores or grades gained by a learner.

Approaches used to test the validity of the measurement (test or examination)
There are three types of validity:
        i.            Content-related validity: refers to the extent to which the content of the test’s items represent the entire body of the content to be measured.
The basic issue is content representativeness. How adequate does the content of the test represent the entire body of contents which the users intends to generations
Content validity refers to adequacy of sampling.
Two things must be done:
a.       Specify content areas to be measured (table specifications)
b.      The solution of the representative sample of a test
      ii.            Criterion-related validity: refers to the extent to which one can infer from an individual score on a test, how well perform some other external task or activity that is supposedly measured by the test in question
    iii.            Construct-related validity: measure specific characteristics of learner.

Testing and use of data in curriculum
Teacher’s task in evaluation is to take reliable/useful data from students
How to assess students
Formal: tests, exams, quizzes, assignments
Informal: taken into action during interaction, example; answering oral questions, discussion, etc

Purpose of evaluation:
·         Provide information on students’ learning (feedback)
Eg.      Students themselves can know where they are weak and improve
Useful to the teacher to improve teaching
Data can be provided to parents for guidance
Government for improvement of education
·         Certification and promotion
·         Selection eg combinations or higher learning
·         Measuring school curriculum, its effectiveness and weaknesses

Construction of a test
For results to be meaningful, appropriate and useful, the test has to be valid and reliable

What makes validity to be low?
·         If level is not considered
·         If vocabulary and structure of sentences are difficult to the level of students
·         Unclear directions or instructions
·         If you provide easy/complicated test
·         Poorly constructed test items
·         Ambiguous statements (having more than one meaning)
·         Tests without bloom’s taxonomy
·         If a test is too short, it will not be good representative sample

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