PEDAGOGY IN TEACHER EDUCATION: MODULE 1: THE HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON THE ROLE OF TEACHER EDUCATION

Teachers are the mothers of all professions. Professional teachers are important in the development of education and development of society. Because of this teachers who are effective and educated are needed to be produced. Teachers need to be updated. Good teachers‘ education is needed to teachers to enable them to be effective in psychomotor, affective and cognitive areas of professions.

CHALLENGES FACING TEACHERS EDUCATION
1. Colleges and universities are blamed for producing incompetent teachers (Mosha, 2003).
Teachers do not have complete qualification. Students in teachers‘ professions in primary education are weakly professional. Much emphasis is put on the pedagogy than in content courses.
2. Globalization;
Very few teachers are updated as a result of globalization. There are new reforms and innovations in educational sectors; teaching and teachers education is keeping on changing. Expansionism (increase in the number of students and teachers) also brings a challenge to teachers.

HISTORICAL TREND OF TEACHERS‘ EDUCATION IN TANZANIA;
Development of teachers‘ education is historical and also based on the economical and further is affected by political content and later social content. Teachers‘ education in Tanzania is not new.it was not started from 1961 or 1964 (Tanganyika and Zanzibar independence respectively).
Abolition of slave trade (1860‘s);
It had a very important beginning in teachers‘ education. Preparation and production of professional teachers begun. Some institutions were started.
Linkage with teachers‘ education: slaves were to provide raw materials. African teachers were educated to provide people who could give education.
In Zanzibar (Mkunazini) was a centre to provide teachers education. Colonial missionaries were supposed to supervise the teachers‘ education; they were also responsible to educate Africans.

During colonial period; Germans decided to educate quality teachers (professional teachers) from local Africans. Teacher education was provided through imitation. Culture was similar.
In Tanzania, Germans started teachers‘ education at the beginning of 20th Century; in 1899 Germans introduced a teacher‘s education center in Tanga School. In 1902 Lutheran missionaries had a teacher training centre at Kidia (Moshi); Germans had 9 teachers who were Chagga by origin. The early preparation of teachers was simply done; there no specific institutions.
Outbreak of WWI; the initiatives of Germans come to an end because was badly affected economically, politically and socially. In 1919 the League of Nations gave Tanganyika to Britain.
British role in teachers‘ education;
In 1919 Tanganyika was under League of Nations with Britain as the oversea for independence. Few colleges were established to train teachers. There was a Director of education appointed in 1920‘s. The main aim of British is to train African teachers and re-open the Tanganyika to the World.
By 1945 British opened TTC‘s with Africans staff. Teachers were of two categories;-
Category 1; grade 2/ village school teachers;
Students were standard IV leavers. There were taught for 3 or 4 years for course. These four years were divided as follows;-
o First 2 years were for academic content subjects.
o Second 2 years were for professional training (pedagogical training) e.g. educational psychology.
Category 2; grade 1.senior primary teachers;
They took 2 years for course after standard ten (10)
Challenges;
1. Training centres were more located in urban areas than in rural areas; so as the European teams of staff to administer the TTC‘s.
2. Education was segregative; some got education while others lacked it. Colonial education curriculum emphasized mostly on western culture and it was theoretical I nature.

o British were to occupy senior managerial positions.
o They were trained to become civil servants
o Asians were trained to occupy middle managerial positions.
o Africans were trained to serve teachers, nurses medical auxiliaries and other assistants.
At independence; Tanganyika inherited all teachers‘ facilities and the curricula. The impacts of if inheritance; were that some European education facilities were integrated in non-colonial education. The condition of teachers‘ education in early 1960‘s was very difficult. The significant challenge was in manpower educational infrastructures;
Teachers‘ education was inadequate.in 1961 December we had few people with necessary educational qualifications to serve in administration in big economics works and social development works. In order to address these, the following were done;-
i. To develop social society and expand provision of education
ii. Curricular were revised, to include Africans contents.
iii. Segregation was abolished; through having single educational system through regionalism and cluster systems.
Dar es salaam university college was established so as to train secondary school teachers ( a branch of east African university, Makelele by then). The impact of this education after independence is that teacher education was divided into two categories namely;-
o University teachers
o College teachers.
When D.U.C was established the important degree was BED and emphasis was pedagogical skills. This created many content courses. When political pressures increased there was demand of university graduates and BED was expanded. The main aim was to prepare teachers who could respond to educational expansion.
Until 1992 more than 90% of the science and mathematical teachers were from outside. In 1962 Tanganyika had hardly 22 TTC‘s for producing teachers. We needed a rapid education expansion and training of our teachers of all levels; more colleges were started e.g. Morogoro T.C, Mpwapwa T.C, Butimba T.C, Marangu T.C and so forth.

In 1967 Tanzania attempted to develop quality teachers through education for self-reliance. The main aim was to democratize education. In 1970‘s more education was required because every one was eager to access education.
In 1977 there was a Musoma Resolution established to facilitate education for all; universal primary education; COBET was established. UPE was put into action in 1977.

The impact of UPE;
A raise of demand of teachers;
Cutting half of the teaching education time to 2 years. One year was sent in college and the other year in school on to get pedagogical skills in schools.
To introduce teachers distant training; the retired teachers were engaged. Primary schools leavers were recruited as Grade C or B teachers. Grade C teachers received crash programme to be taught teaching methodology, for 1 year. Grade B were taught for 4 years. 2 years for academic subjects and 2 years for pedagogical studies. However in 1992 grade B teachers were abolished. Both of them were important for rural education.
To build capacity of teachers and increasing a number of teachers in TTC‘s. Until 1980‘s more efforts were to increase students teachers to teach in colleges but also to help the government when education sector was liberalized. The MOE remained a supervisor of education after join-venture between a government and private sector. Universities had established colleges. Private universities were also established.
Tanzania at present;
Tanzania has adopted liberalization policy. From 2002 to 2007 there was PEDP so as to increase enrolnment and increase the response of teachers to that plan. From 2004 to 2009 there was SEDP so as to expand opportunities for secondary school education.
The impact of SEDP and PEDP;
1. Enrolment increased in Primary and secondary schools.
2. High demand for teachers in schools.
3. Impact on teacher education provision.
o Teacher education programme due to high demand for teachers.
o Form 6 leavers were hired and recruited after short-training (crash programme); they were given licenses to teach.
o There was integration of curriculum in some subjects.

HISTORICAL TREND OF TEACHERS‘ EDUCATION IN KENYA;
It has a long history since colonial period to 1970‘s teacher education was very much respected. People were proud of it and very few people were selected to join;
Why? Only people with qualification experiences and competences were recruited for teacher education. Politics also entered into education and therefore teacher education was politically managed.
More emphasis was on secondary education and primary education leaving aside teacher education. In Kenya there was traditional teacher even before the coming of colonialism because,
1. There were teachers who were used to transmit the cultures from generation to another
2. There is no proper documentation of who were there, where, and how it was.
Teacher education in Kenya during colonialism;
It started in the mid-19th century by European missionaries. They introduced formal teacher education. The main aims were;
i. To increase teachers in the schools already established.
ii. To produce teachers to relieve missionaries from teaching to spread evangelism.
However after WWI (1914-1918) there was more demand for African mass education; therefore more schools were opened e.g. in early 1940‘s the Makelele college was established to train teachers for diploma in education in Kenya, Kenyatta college was established 1965. In 1966 there was Kenya science teachers college. In 1967 Kenya technical teachers college was established to train diploma teachers in technical subjects.
In 1966 the University of Nairobi College started to produce teachers with BA and BSc Education so as to teach in secondary schools. In 1970‘s the Bachelor of BAEd and BScEd was transformed to produce more teachers. In 1972 Kenyatta University College was established to produce more graduate teachers.
Challenges;
There are two main challenges;
o Professional is managed by non-professional teachers. Profession remained two academic (the emphasis is more on teaching subjects than pedagogical knowledge).
o Loss of status of teacher education. Mentoring service (previously) and normal (today).

o In decision-making teachers are not mainly involved, little input for professional development and lastly globalization and its impacts in the world on teachers‘ education.

ASIA AND PACIFIC NATIONS;
AUTRALIA;
In 1950‘s to 1960‘s there was much shortage of teachers in school. But until 1980‘s there was oversupply of teachers in Australia because there was large reduction in teacher resignation and leveling-off of students numbers in schools (maintenance).
In 1970‘s there was expansion of teachers‘ education in which many new colleges if advanced education and university were established. There is collaboration of one college and another college in teacher training. There is collaboration of one college and universities. This creates motivation.
Preparation of teachers;
Mainly BAEd for primary education teachers. Teachers are being prepared for 3 years for study and 1 year for teaching experience plan. Secondary education teachers are those with Bachelor degree in education and diploma of education.
Challenges of teacher education;
1. There are some shortages of teachers in Math‘s, science and computers technology.
2. Initial preparation, organization and development and evaluation of field experience is a major problem. Uniformity of teaching approaches is not available.
3. Induction programmes for career development are not well-communicated between schools and training institutions.
4. Teacher personnel; there are few teachers because many teachers had few students therefore decreased a demand for teachers. Financing teachers‘ education had been reduced.
Future plan of Australia;
The government formed the commission for the future; the main aims are;-
1. To be a focal point for institutions group and individuals in decision-making.
2. To involve teachers and these groups, institutions and individuals in policy development rather than pointing those stakeholders after the problems have occurred.

3. To develop institutions and organizations that responds to societal and individuals need in order to obtain a public participation.

CHINA PEOPLE‘S REPUBLIC;
Since 1976 China put an emphasis on the significance of teacher education. In this year it is a year since the open policy on the male children. After this there was increase if children and hence more demand for education. With open policy teacher education is seen as a machine tool in China because;-
o For education provision
o Important for cultivating a new generation to face the challenges of modern World.
Issues given emphasis;
1. To change and see teaching as a profession; a law was established pertaining to teacher education.
2. Increase of fund and improvement in teaching conditions, priority to distribute finance, distribute personnel and facilities, recruit teachers and admit good students was left to teacher education institutions.
3. Training of junior secondary schools, shortage of subjects, boarder areas and minority regions.
4. Presence of recommended-based administration based on (one board recommended for admission).
o Strong control over academic issues in teacher education.
o Developing morale, physical constitution, willingness to devote to teacher career and intelligences.
5. Establishment of lecture teams for teachers training to work in less-developed areas.
6. Access to self-taught examination systems for teachers in-service and to maintain the in-service teachers‘ development.
7. There was a condition, that after graduation all graduate should return for teaching;-
―teachers are engineers of human soul and the gardeners of the nation‘s flowers‖.
In 2004 MOE introduced a master of education programme called Master of education in China‘s rural areas.

INDIA.
Until early 1990‘s there were about 3.5million teachers in the formal school system.
Preparation of teachers;
Primary education teachers must have 10-12 years to general schooling and 2 years of professional education. Secondary schools teachers must have a minimum of university degree and 1 year of professional teaching or education. Generally there is no deficit of manpower in India but difficulty exists in some parts of the nation for example teachers‘ salaries are lower than other sectors.
Challenges of Teacher education in India;
1. Curricula for PRESET are not revised often to respond for changes.
2. There is mismatch between teacher education and availability of teachers; there is a shortage of teachers in vocational areas, musical and fine arts in secondary level.
3. Lack of higher or good graduates from universities and Boards of secondary education, because of low salaries and poor living conditions.
4. Time for preparation of teachers is not enough-therefore a little attention to competence in subjects‘ matters.
TASK 1. Make a comparative analysis of the history and status of teacher education in the following nations;
1. USA.
2. Britain.
3. Canada.
focusing on the following guidelines;
o Teachers preparation (duration and procedures),
o Status of Teacher education,
o Strategies to improve teacher education,
o Challenges.

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