Colonial administrative systems were the ways of controlling and maintaining colonial power in colonies after the establishment of colonialism.

Colonialists including Germany, French, British, Portugal, Belgium etc; after colonizing African countries they introduced different administrative systems in their colonies depended on the following: 

  1. The nature of the people in the colonies, such as being cooperative, military, strong, weak etc.
  2. Challenges encountered during acquiring colonies i.e. by strong resistance, collaboration etc.
  3. The character of colonial power.for example Germany preferred direct rule while British preferred indirect rule and French preferred assimilation policy.



  1. To change the form or tradition of the African system of administration.
  2. To maintain or ensure effective occupation/ control of the colony socially, politically and economically.
  3. Maximization of profit through colonial exploitation by setting up a system of administration which favored colonialists.
  4. To ensure peace and harmony in colonies after faced reactions/ resistances during the establishment of colonial rule.
  5. To prepare the suitable and conducive environment for establishment of colonial economy.
  6. To fulfill the agreement reached during the Berlin conference of 1884-1885 on effective occupation of colonies.

Therefore; the reasons behind the establishment of different colonial administrative system in Africa after colonialists managed to defeat Africans, was due to many resistances colonialists faced while they were trying to introduce colonial rule in Africa.

Also colonialists introduced different administrative system due to:

  1. Language problems.
  2. Lack of enough manpower since they were few in number.
  3. Colonialists needed a lot of fund to run their activities.

Therefore different challenges which colonialists faced during the time of establishing colonial rule led them to apply different forms/types of administrative  systems.






Direct rule was the form/ type of colonial administrative system applied by the Germans where by Africans were ruled directly without local rulers support. It was applied in Namibia, Tanganyika, Togo etc.


Indirect rule was the form of administrative system applied by the British where by Africans were ruled indirectly through local rulers support. It was applied in Uganda, Nigeria etc


This was the French administrative system applied in her colonies which turned Africans to be like French citizens. African who were assimilated [changed/turned] to be French men were called ASSIMILADORS.


Was the French administrative system which replaced assimilation policy which did not aim at turning Africans into French citizens instead it considered African culture.

All the above colonial systems were different from one colonial power (colonialist) to another. For example British preferred using indirect rule in her colonies such as Nigeria, Ghana and Sierra Leon.

German used her direct rule in her colonies such as Tanganyika, Congo, Namibia, Angola and Mozambique. French used assimilation policies in Algeria and Senegal.



Indirect rule was a administrative system applied (adopted) by the British where by African traditional local rulers were allowed to participate in colonial administration by implementing the colonial policies.

Indirect rule was British administrative system which used local rulers/ chiefs to implement British colonial policies.

Within indirect rule African local rulers (chiefs) were given chances or allowed to govern their fellow Africans through orders and supervision from British colonial government.

British indirect rule adopted in many African countries after being succeed to implement in the Northern Nigeria in the 1900-1906 and the whole Nigeria between 1912-1920 by British governor known as LORD LUGARD.

Therefore indirect rule was first introduced by the British governor Lord Lugard in Nigeria in 1912-1920.


  1. Chiefs who were appointed were required to implement British policies to their fellow Africans.
  2. Indirect rule forced and collected taxes from people.
  3. Indirect rule aimed at getting cheap labours.
  4. Indirect rule forces British law and ordinances.
  5. Indirect rule aimed at maintaining peace and harmony on behalf of the British government.

Therefore the chiefs who were appointed to implement British government policies became a part of British colonial government hence chiefs were favored and given the following things;

  1. Chiefs were given colonial protection.
  2. Chiefs were paid salaries.
  3. Chiefs were given good accommodation e.g. houses.
  4. Chiefs family include sons and daughters were given good social services i.e. education.
  5. Chiefs were given gifts.


  1. Lack of manpower.

British were few in number hence used indirect rule because it was very difficult to rule large African population without assistance.

  1. Communication problems.

British adopted indirect rule because they had no good information links with the Africans than African local rulers such as chiefs and kings.

  1. To avoid resistance.

The British used indirect rule because they wanted to avoid resistance since there was no direct contact between Africans and British but Africans with their rulers.

  1. The system was economically cheap.

The African chiefs were not directly paid by the colonial governments. Also the African chiefs could not demand services from the colonial government such as accommodation, transport and medical services.

  1. Number of colonies, Britain had many colonies in Africa but had very few officials to dispose in these colonies. Colonial offices were not enough to dispose from the grass root levels and above. African natives thought that they were still under their chiefs; orders given by the colonizers passed through the African chiefs who reduced the impacts of the Africans.
  2. The system reduced resistance from Africans. Physical difficulties in Africa forced the British to use African chiefs. Thick forests, hostile climate and remoteness of the area; the British found difficult to penetrate the hinterland because of the named problems.
  3. Language barrier. Some Africans could not be organized through radio and other means of communication therefore the use of African chiefs was efficient. The African chiefs would communicate with their people using their people.
  4. The system ensured the collection of tax from the African communities as the chiefs lived with their people.
  5. It was a suitable technique to govern illiterate African.
  6. Tropical diseases which killed many British personels. e.g Malaria 



  1. Indirect rule created imbalance in development amongst African states. Areas which had local chiefs assisting the colonial government had development in social services like schools, hospitals and roads while those which had no chiefs in their areas had no or inadequate social services. Such situations had led to many conflicts among Africans after independence. The African local rulers were favored in all aspects of life as opposed to ordinary Africans. For example, the colonial education was given to the sons, daughters of the chiefs only while the sons, and daughters of nobodies had no access to such an important social amenity that is education.
  2. It divided Africans along religious and ethnic extractions something which made Africans succumb to colonialism in Africa as easily as possible.
  3. It had created social differences amongst Africans. The chiefs’ families and royal families got privilege of getting social services such as education, hospitals and many more while the rest of the community were not getting such facilities.
  4. Tribalism developed as an impact of indirect rule. African chiefs who were entrusted to rule on behalf of the colonialists considered themselves superior to others in their land. For example, Kabaka Mwanga of Buganda created disunity amongst Ugandans when he declared the Buganda kingdom independent in 1960.
  5. African chiefs became puppets of the colonial administrators and did not serve their people. Hence founding the fertile ground for neo-colonialism in Africa, which is still practiced in Africa?
  6. The indirect rule cemented centralized bureaucracy with the district commissioners.


Indirect rule administrative system which was applied by the British in her colonies was arranged in different structures to ensure effective colonial control over colony and good administrative machinery which will prepare conducive environment for establishment of colonial economy.

The structure of indirect rule was as follows;

  1. Colonial secretary stayed in London [UK].
  2. Governor appointed in UK and hired in colonies.
  3. Provincial commissioner was a British lived in certain regions to represent the governor.
  4. District commissioner was a British [white] lived in district level representing provision commissioner; he lived with people and gave them orders through local rulers.
  5. Local chiefs were local rulers appointed by British who were given orders by colonial officers include provincial commissioners and district commissioners to supervise in the daily activities and local ordinances.
  6. Head men. These were Africans who received orders from local chiefs and implement them to the people [Africans] by using force once people resisted. 




Indirect rule was first applied in Nigeria by the British governor known as Sir Fredrick Lugard in 1900-1906.

Indirect rule in Nigeria was applied after British encountered (faced) a lot of challenges from big tribes which had strong traditional administrative systems like Fulani aristocracy who governed Sokoto caliphate by using Islamic laws in Northern Nigeria.

Therefore the British by using indirect rule which was required as a role model in the British colonial administration. Local native leaders in Nigeria continued to rule their traditional land, collect taxes and implement orders and duties as assigned by the British. So British succeeded to apply indirect rule in Northern Nigeria despite it was not successful much in Southern Nigeria in Yomba tribe.

Through indirect rule Lord Lugard was able to control Nigeria by using their local traditional rulling system and cooperative leaders who performed the following activities;

  1. To collect taxes.
  2. To implement British laws and policies.
  3. To reduce resistance from the people.
  4. To reduce the political, economic and military costs.
  5. To rule their land under the British control.

Despite the fact that indirect rule succeeded to rule Nigeria especially Northern Nigeria, other areas in Nigeria like southern Nigeria was unsuccessful due to poor and less cooperation from YORUBA land chiefs or kings who did not organize and centralize Yoruba people since before.

Therefore the British found the following as the failure of indirect rule in Southern Nigeria;

  1. Chiefs /Local rulers of Southern Nigeria were not given respect by the Yoruba people.
  2. Local rulers were appointed to implement the British polices but they failed i.e. collection of taxes.
  3. Southern Nigerian societies had strong traditional administrative system such as the use of chiefs for example Lagos had no chiefdom system.
  4. Southern Nigeria was decentralized than Northern Nigeria which was more centralized.

Therefore indirect rule became very difficult to be applied in Southern Nigeria by Lord Lugard during his six years of administering Nigeria so as to transform it into commercial [economically] as well as politically and to establish British protectorate by using its local rulers.


  1. Some of the African societies were centralized hence no need of the new colonial administrative system. For example sokoto caliphat, Bugando.
  2. Some of the African communities were not competent to control themselves with the British assistance hence used indirect rule.
  3. British wanted to spread their superiority complex over Africans.
  4. They used indirect rule to avoid administrative costs.
  5. British wanted to avoid communication barriers, for example language problems and poor infrastructures.
  6. British were few in number so indirect rule solved the problem of manpower.
  7. Lord Lugard preferred indirect rule because it avoided resistance and conflicts from local rulers and people.


Despite the British succeeded to rule Africans indirectly through their local rulers, they met a number of challenges, since British indirect rule introduced different policies and systems. in Africa which was new and not existed in Africa before such as:

Payment of taxes, forced labour, land alienation, introduction of coercive apparatus such as police, army, court etc.


The following were problems/challenges /difficulties Britain faced during implementing the use of indirect rule;

  1. Absence of centralized administration in North Eastern Nigerian societies, such as Igbo and Yoruba were not well centralized like the Sokoto caliphate or Buganda kingdom hence made the application of indirect rule to be very difficult due to lack of cooperation and local rulers’ support.
  2. Illiteracy of the masses. Some of the societies in Nigeria such as the Yoruba and the Abeokuta who became independent in 1893; due to their illiterate they organized people to oppose indirect rule.
  3. Harsh British policies. Some of the indirect rule British policies such as forced labour and taxation which was introduced to the people were new and unpopular hence reacted by the people of Nigeria especially Igbo.
  4. Opposition / resistance from the local rulers. Some of the local rulers did not support British indirect rule for example rulers from Yomba and Abeokuta.
  5. Creation of British want/puppet chiefs. Indirect rule faced challenges in Nigeria because British decided to create their own chiefs who were rejected and unpopular hence people opposed against them.
  6. Poor infrastructures. Absence of good infrastructures such as roads, railways, and harbor phones made the failure to access information.



Tanganyika formerly was a German colony from 1886 after Berlin conference. After the end of the first world war of 1914-1918 Germany lost Tanganyika colony to British who took the victory of the war. 

During German rule in Tanganyika they used direct rule system thus faced a lot of resistances from Tanganyika societies such as Hehe resistance, Yao and Chagga resistance.

Therefore after the British took control over the Tanganyika colony; they decided to change the former German direct rule which used Jumbes and Akidas and introduced indirect rule.

The first British governor in Tanganyika who was known as Sir Donald Cameroon initiated and introduced indirect rule in Tanganyika. Sir Donald Cameroon decided to introduce indirect rule in Tanganyika due to the influence and motivation from governor Lord Fredrick Lugard who succeeded to control Nigeria through indirect rule so sir Donald Cameroon wanted to copy that system of indirect rule and apply it in Tanganyika hence he met the following challenges:


Absence of traditional administrative system. Germany removed all local rulers’ administration during their rule in Tanganyika, so it was difficult for Sir Donald Cameroon to introduce them again.

Illiteracy and ignorance of the masses over indirect rule. Tanganyika was controlled and ruled by the German power for a very long time directly so indirect rule was a new system which was not known.

Poor organization of permanent chiefs. Few tribes in Tanganyika recognized their chiefs and they had status and power, less executive, financially and judiciary for example the Chagga.

Poor infrastructure. Indirect rule got a lot of challenges in Tanganyika since the country was big while there was poor network and communication links to reach and coordinate local chiefs.

Absence of local authorities in Tanganyika societies such as; coastal tribes which had no traditional local authorities since Arabs’ domination which introduced Islamic law. Due to this Sir Donald Cameroon get no support of local rulers in his administration.

Despite the fact that Sir Donald Cameroon met a lot of challenges /problems in the introduction of indirect rule in Tanganyika as we have seen above, he preferred and forced to introduce indirect rule through;

The native authority ordinance of 1926 and the coast ordinance of 1919.

These two laws [ordinances] aimed at creating a solid foundation for the indirect rule administration and local authorities.

Through these two laws [ordinance] local chiefs were required and given the following tasks and duties;

Tax collection such as hut tax and poll tax.

Chiefs were responsible for enforcing British laws and orders.

Chiefs were given judiciary power to enforce their decisions according to customary laws.

Chiefs were responsible to implement British policies, law, ordinances and orders to their people.


  1. Exploitation of African resources:- Indirect rule was introduced by the British for the purpose of exploiting African resources easily through local rulers support such as land, labours and minerals.
  2. Indirect rule promoted [boosted] tribalism. Indirect rule separated African societies in ethnic/tribal identities since it favored some tribes including those whose local rulers were given different opportunities than the other tribes.

3. Indirect rule weakened the traditional administration systems.

4. Indirect rule system promoted the problem of education, health and employment opportunities.

5. Indirect rule system introduced and widened social differences among natives.(creation of classes in the society)

6.The system commented and centralized bureaucracy through the use of district commissioners.

7. It excluded African elites, The greatest fault in indirect rule was that it completely excluded from the local government the African educated elites whose number increased over the year.

8. It made Africans hate their local rulers (leaders) who were used during indirect rule and made Africans not to believe in them. 



Direct rule was form of colonial administrative system which did not involve African rulers support i.e. Germany.

Germany preferred much to use direct rule in most of her colonies in Africa such as; Tanganyika, Namibia, Cameroon, Togo etc. direct rule were also applied by the Belgium, Portugal etc. in their colonies.


  1. Local chiefs were not given chances in colonial administrations.
  2. It was very expensive since it needed lots of costs.
  3. It faced many resistances from Africa.
  4. It was not simple to control because German ruled Africans directly.
  5. It faced communication problems because of language barriers.
  6. It faced problems of manpower since Germans were few in number.




Both were based on exploitation of African resources.

Both based on oppression of Africans through the use of force i.e. police, army and court.

Both based on racial segregation since African colour was regarded as inferior over white colour.

Both were capitalist systems.

Both aimed at colonizing /control Africans.

Both faced resistance or opposition from Africans.

Both failed to meet their demands.


Direct rule was used by the Germans while indirect rule was used by the British.

Direct rule did not use local chiefs while indirect rule used local chiefs.

Indirect rule did not face many resistances from Africans while direct rule faced many resistances.

Indirect rule was easy to manage while direct rule was difficult to manage because of language problems.

Indirect rule needed small Europeans’ manpower while direct rule needed large manpower.

Indirect rule was cheap but direct rule was expensive.

Indirect rule created puppet class among Africans who cooperated with the British and support 




Zimbabwe after being colonized by British in 1890’s under the company known as British South African Company (BSACO) led by prominent imperialist named Cecil Rhodes who ruled directly and called Zimbabwe as southern Rhodesia due to his effort and financial resources used to occupy shone territories.

Therefore after Zimbabwe had been colonized by British and named as southern Rhodesia many Europeans came to live in Zimbabwe because it was a huge country having a lot of resources such as fertile land and minerals due to this British ruled Zimbabwe by using direct rule.


  1. Absence of local chiefs/ local rulers of Zimbabwe such as Indunas were no longer existed during the resistance between British and Shona and Ndebele.
  2. Presence of many white settlers in Zimbabwe. Cecil Rhodes influenced many white settlers to invest in Zimbabwe so there was no manpower problem hence direct rule.
  3. The richness of resources in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe was a rich colony having fertile land, minerals etc. made British to wish to rule it directly so as to exploit resources efficiently.
  4. Absence of a centralized state. Zimbabwe had no strong centralized state since imposition of colonial rule disturbed the system hence direct rule.
  5. The effect of the Chimurenga war [Shona and Ndebele]. Chimurenga war left enemity between Zimbabwe people and the Europeans hence difficult to involve Africans in their administration.
  6. People of Zimbabwe did not want to be colonized by the British.
  7. Poor support from Zimbabwe local chiefs /rulers. Local chiefs were not happy with British since their position and status eroded during British colonial rule that is why they did not want to support them in administration hence British used direct rule.


  1. It based on excessive oppression and suppression. Africans were highly oppressed and suppressed by British settlers through direct rule using coercive apparatus such as police and soldiers.
  2. Zimbabwe was proclaimed as a crown colony. Direct rule in Zimbabwe made Zimbabwe as British settlers’ part and parcel of their mother land country [Britain].
  3. It based on emergence of law and order. Direct rule led to increase of many laws and orders in Zimbabwe.
  4. Direct rule led Zimbabwe to be under control of British South African Company [BSACO] in 1890 to 1923.
  5. Direct rule in Zimbabwe made educated people neglected. Direct rule in Zimbabwe made the educated people neglected not to be involved in the British government as a result of the armed struggle during fighting for independence and freedom.
  6. Direct rule gave settlers in Zimbabwe legislative and political rights. British settlers in Zimbabwe were highly empowered politically, economically and favored by laws; for example in 1923 settlers attained their self government.
  7. Direct rule alienated Zimbabwe fertile land. Through direct rule the British settlers acquired massive fertile land left the Zimbabwean’s people landless hence provide labour in the settlers land and farms.

The British direct rule in Zimbabwe brought a lot of negative impact to the people of Zimbabwe such as;

Oppression, exploitation, land alienation, forced labour, taxation etc. as a result people of Zimbabwe took arms (armed struggle) during fighting for independence in 1980.



French in her colonies such Cape Verde, Ivory Coast [cote devoir] Senegal, Saint Louis and Rufisque applied two administrative systems such as Assimilation policy and Association.


Was an administrative system applied by French in her colonies, which aimed at turning or transforming Africans into Frenchmen or citizens. A person who assimilated was called Assimilador. Assimiladors was taught how to behave or think like French people. Assimilation is a term derived from the French word assimiler means cause to resemble.

French introduced assimilation policy to her colonies so as to spread her culture of superiority all over the world. Therefore the introduction or application of assimilation policy in French colonies goes to them with the introduction of French language, institutions, laws, religion and customs. Colonies or persons to follow assimilation policy (assimiladors) were supposed to follow the French culture hence enjoy right just like French citizens.


  1. French revolution of 1789. French applied assimilation policy in her colonies since they said that; the French revolution which occurred in 1789 advocated for the equality, fraternity and freedom to all regardless of Vaile or color.
  2. Assimilation policy applied by the French to spread their superiority all over the world. Since the Africans assimilated would continue to spread French superiority.
  3. To spread French culture and civilization. French applied assimilation policy since they wanted to spread their culture through language and customs.
  4. Assimilation applied to turn African to behave like French citizen.
  5. To facilitate French exploitation. Assimilation aimed at exploiting Africans smoothly by creating false consciousness to those who assimilated [assimiladors] to work for the benefits of the French.
  6. It was cheap economically since assimilators work and behave just like French and became passive.


  1. There were to be commune representatives in the French national assembly. The laws applicable in France were well applied in the territories.
  2. The French Africans were considered as a great obstacle for colonial rule.

iii. The French administrative structure was more oppressive than that of the British.

  1. Africans were allowed to register as French citizens and they could seek elections as deputies in Paris.
  2. The French administrators were given more judicial powers in the provinces.
  3. The French decided not to use African traditional institutions in their administration.



For the African to be regarded as fully assimilated the French colonial masters set a certain condition in which whoever who could qualify has to be given full French citizenship, such conditions are as explained here below:

  1. Must be an adult person over 18 years and a Christian in faith.
  2. Must practice monogamous (marry one wife).

3. Must have passed and qualified military services

4. Must abandon their culture and adopt the French culture

5.Must be fluent in French language both written and spoken.

NOTE: An African who complied with all above condition he / she was given French citizen ship.

However, from 1920 to 1940 the French started to abandon the policy of assimilation while the Portuguese started to abandon it from early 1960, with the abandonment of this policy, they decided to introduced new policy called Association / mature assistance by incorporating the Africans in running the colonies in collaboration.


This was the system of administration applied by France after having seen that assimilation policy had proved failure in 20th C. the policy of association aimed to put the colonial subjects to be involved in the administration especially at the lower levels.

It was also a French colonial policy in which French had to respect the cultures of her colonial peoples and by allowing them to develop independently rather than adopting French civilization and culture. The policy came into practical in 1945 following the abandonment of French assimilation policy.

Generally, Association policy aimed at making participatory administration where by Africans associated (co – operated) with the French in the colonial administration and consolidation. E.g., Africans were supposed to supply military services, labor, pay taxes, while the French had to provide technical knowledge. Again, under association policy Africans were involved in the colonial administrative functions in the following dimensions.

Politically. The French respected political institutions of Africans and African rulers were involved in the lower level of administration Africans were also supposed to be recruited in the colonial army and defend the colonial interest.

Economically: Africans were supposed to pay taxes for development like, construction of schools, hospitals etc. they were also supposed to supply labor, which was essentially voluntary labor to the manual works such as construction of roads, railways and ports.

Socially: Africans were allowed to practice their culture freely, Europeans were supposed to respect Africans culture.


The reasons for the failure of the French assimilation policy

It is historically recorded that the French assimilation policy came to fail due to several reasons like;

(i) The policy was resisted at its grass root in France. The French scholars and politicians expressed their views that it was unwise and unrealistic for Africans to be transformed into Frenchmen.

(ii) The policy was expensive and difficult to implement because the colonial government had to use many funds to finance the project for instance building schools, buying textbooks written in French and so forth.

(iii) The policy-encountered opposition from the West African people especially the Muslims such as the Mandinka people under Toure. This is because their religion allows marrying more than one wife

(iv) The French legal system was based on French civil law whereas the Africans had diverse customary laws and traditions things, which made the policy implementable.

(v) The spread of Islamic religion in West African communes became an obstacle to the spread of the assimilation policy since the system encouraged people to be converted to Christianity.

(vi) The African traditional chiefs discredited the assimilation policy because it threatened their authority over the assimiladors. The assimiladoes did not want accept being under the African chiefs, as they regarded themselves to be superior to them.

(vii) Due to strong resistance from France who opposed a policy of assimilation, since many assimilated Africans were allowed to get all rights like other French citizens such rights would not enable the colonizers to exploit the colonial subjects to the maximum. Thus, they had to abandon it to preserve their interests.

(viii) It was very expensive to assimilate the Africans, as many French elites/philosophers they criticized this system as they said that the system brought a burden to French tax payers, who paid taxes and benefited others so a need to incorporate Africans in administration.

(ix) Due to cultural barriers among the Senegalese who were practicing Islam, which allowed polygamy thus, they failed to adopt western culture of marrying only one husband.

(x) Due to the need to reduce/avoid African resistance against colonialism, as the French spent a lot of their effort suppressing the resistance e.g. Samour Toure of the Mandika empire. Therefore, a need to co-operate with their local institution by becoming friends to Africans to easy exploitation.

(xi) Due to hard conditional ties to quality. Many African could not comply with the conditions given for the one to be regarded as real assimilated in relation to African culture like polygamy and any other conditions accompanied. (Traditions) thus the system of assimilation proved failure.

(xii) Due to inadequate resources to implement the policy. The policy needed many teachers to work in various primary and secondary schools in order to teach the French language and provide the colonial subjects with the basic education. The colonial masters failed to implement this, thus decided to adopt new policy. 

(xiii) Due to poor infrastructures in the colonies. This made poor effective implementation of the policy since it was difficult to penetrate in the interior to reach the targeted colonial subjects because of thick forester valleys, and mountains, which made communication more than impossible in the interior.

(xiv) Due to Language barrier. Many Africans got difficulties in learning the French language at the sometimes; many French administrators could not speak African local language, this created gap between colonizers and the colonized subject. Grasp.

(xv) The assimilation policy was rejected by Africans for their expectations were not met. This is to say Africans had no promotion to the key departments in administration, as all governors’ general was whites. Equally important there were few Africans membership which eventually forced Africans to be unwillingly to attend the French parliament by 1905.

(xvi) The French people feared that African representatives in the National assembly were likely to highly influence the whites in policy and decision-making.

Question: compare and contrast between indirect rule applied by British and assimilation policy applied by the French.



  1. Examine the reasons for the changing nature of the French colonial policy of assimilation in controlling African colonies. (NECTA-2002)
  2. “African resistances against the imposition of colonial rule failed due to Africans’ technological backwardness”. Discuss (NECTA-2003)
  3. Compare and contrast British and French systems of administration as practiced in Africa during the colonial period. (NECTA-2009)
  4. Account for Ethiopia’s successful resistance against colonialism. (NECTA-2010)
  5. With examples, explain six reasons for African resistances to colonial rule. (NECTA-2013)
  6. Analyse six methods that were used by the imperialist in imposing rule in Africa. (NECTA-2014)
  7. Explain six differences between direct and indirect rule. (NECTA-2016)




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