CIVICS          COMMERCE             ENGLISH 



The Concept of Work

any community, people engage in different activities in order to earn
money so as to meet their basic needs. People do mental and physical
activities to sustain their lives. There are those who make bricks for
building houses. Some strive to stock their harvest, while others
cultivate land communally for crop production. Some dance in jazz bands
and others fish. All these activities are referred to as work

Define Work
work can be defined as the use of physical strength and mental skills
in making things or providing services. Examples of work include
farming, brick-making, livestock-keeping, fishing, carpentry, trading,
teaching, nursing patients, etc.

Exercise 1
Mention other types of work that you know.
Different Work Related Activities Done in the Community
Name different work related activities done in the community

Doing work
is an obligation for all adults and able-bodied people to perform
different tasks (work). People work to earn a living in different or
related activities depending on their skills and abilities. However,
some types of work are greatly influenced by the environment in which
people live. For example, people who live beside rivers, lakes, or
oceans tend to engage in fishing, like the people around Lake Victoria
(e.g. Kerewe, Sukuma, Haya and Jita) but in areas which receive reliable
rainfall and have fertile soil, free from pests and diseases, people
engage in agricultural activities (e.g. Nyakyusa, Haya, Bena and Fipa).

Work-related activities
There are two main types of work related activities; namely, physical work and mental work.
Physical work-related activities
are work-related activities that mostly involve the use of one’s
physical strength, and include farming, lumbering, plumbing, carpentry,
quarrying, mining, building and road construction.
Mental work related activities
These are work related activities that mostly involves the use of knowledge and skills. for example nursing, and teaching.

Work and development
People struggle in their works in order to improve their living standards as well as to develop the nation.
is the process of changing the socio-economic situation from one stage
to another, usually from lower to higher. It is concerned with changing
living standards from a lower to a higher level. For instance, if one
qualifies to join a secondary school from primary level studies, or if
one succeeds in building two houses instead of the one as it was before.
All these can be considered as development.

Types of development
are two types of development, which are individual and national
The indicator of individual development is having a good
house, clothes, sufficient food, clean water, education and medical
care. Other indicators include being able to solve problems and good
relationship with other people. Having work and sufficient income, and
being able to accumulate capital can also be considered as indicators of
individual development.
the other hand, national development is indicated by availability of
employment to people, having enough sources of labour, build adequate
infrastructure like tarmac roads and provide good quality education and
other social services. It is also the country’s ability to create
internal and external policies for running the country and the ability
to implement them, and create internal and external markets, where
people can sell their goods. Finally, is the country’s ability to do
research on natural resources and the proper way of exploiting them for
the benefit of the country.
is the condition of either staying stationary or going back from a more
advanced stage to a lower standard of living. For example, having
properties and selling all of them without having developed them or
having a plot of land and keeping it for a long time without building a
house or planting crops. There is individual and national

Individual underdevelopment 
 is indicated by the inability to provide for ones essentials like
shelter, food, clothes together with other needs like education, health
care, water and furniture. Also one remains idle all the time without
doing anything to earn an income.
On the other hand,
National underdevelopment 
 This involve things such as limited number of skilled labourers,
internal and external debts, low level of education, poor policies for
running the country, bad and insufficient infrastructure. Also there is
failure to safeguard and maintain national sovereignty and relying on
external conditionals to run the country.

  1. What is development?
  2. Name two types of development.
  3. How can you know that in a certain place there is low standard of life.
  4. What are the indicators of underdevelopment?
 Importance of Work
The importance of work is directed to an individual when involving oneself at work for own benefit.
The Importance of Work for Self-Development
work is very important for self-development
because it provides human
beings with their basic needs, including food, clothing and shelter, and
the source of income for an individual. For example, peasants earn
money after selling part of their harvest, with which they are able to
buy clothes, food and iron sheets for roofing their houses, as well as
paying school fees for their children.
is also a means of social identity.
For example, society identifies an
individual as a teacher, a lawyer, a nurse, a driver, a trader or a
peasant. Work also helps to promote the cultural aspects of some
communities such as the Makonde carvings.
can be a source of foreign exchange.
For example, mining produces a lot
of minerals for export like gold, diamond and Tanzanite, which bring a
lot of foreign currency to Tanzania, which are used to import other
commodities from foreign countries. It can also be obtained from
exporting cash crops, such as, cotton, coffee and tea.
helps to maintain the physical and mental health
of individuals and, is
a standard of moral belonging and God’s justice on earth. Work solves
the problem of poverty. It also improves life standards of the
individuals. Work helps to check crime or wrong doings, like killing,
drug abuse or robbery. So with work, people are unlikely to engage in
work, the production of goods and services at the individual level will
greatly be increased,
hence, boosts the economic and social status of
an individual.
gives people a sense of dignity, self-worth and respect to a person.
person who works diligently is greatly respected in the society.
Laziness brings disrespect and loss of dignity. Therefore, work stops
people from being poor and improves their standard of living.
Importance of work to the development of the nation
importance of work is directed to improvement of the life of the people
in the country. Therefore, work is very important for the development
of the nation because it helps to reduce the number of people who are
unemployed and facilitates the utilization of material and human
resources in the country. If all able-bodied people in a country are
working, it is easy to bring rapid national development and maintain
peace, security and stability.
it is a source of national income and foreign currency. It helps the
nation to provide public services such as water, education, electricity
and medical care. Lastly, work helps in promoting proper moral behaviour
in the society or the nation at large.

Activity 1
Observe one work-related activity around your school and explain how important it is for individual and nation development.
Exercise 3
A. Write “True or False” against the statements below:
  1. Fishing is mental work
  2. Teaching is not physical work
  3. Work gives a person respect
  4. No food without work
  5. Stealing is legal work
Exercise 4
B: Match the work-related activities with the correct type of services or goods produced
Work-related activities Type of services or goods produced
  1. Teaching
  2. Carpentry
  3. Tourism
  4. Livestock-keeping
  5. Mining
  6. Banking
  1. leisure
  2. skin, meat, milk
  3. cooked food
  4. minerals
  5. provision of education
  6. rich people
  7. financial transactions
  8. transporting goods and people
  9. stealing money
  10. furniture
  11. grinding nuts


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