are basic things that all human-beings are entitled to and which
nobody should interfere with. Such rights include life, ownership of
property, education, marriage, health care and housing. Others are
equality before the law, security, freedom of association, privacy and
freedom of worship.
most countries, human rights are based on the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights. They are also included in the constitution of countries as
the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights shows the rights and freedoms
that citizens have in their country. Freedom is the right to do or say
what one wants without being stopped by any one.

Various Aspects of Human Rights
The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights
of human rights are defined in the United Nations Universal Declaration
of Human Rights. This declaration was adopted and proclaimed by the
General Assembly of the United Nations on the 10th of December 1948. It
has thirty points, known as articles. These points can be summarized
into three categories as follows;
  • Civil and political rights.
    These are rights to life, liberty, recognition, fair and public hearing
    by an independent tribunal, and freedom of movement, freedom of
    thought, freedom of assembly and freedom of expression.
  • Economic, social and cultural rights. These are rights to social security, work, equal pay, education, rest, leisure and cultural life.
  • Environmental and developmental rights.
    These are rights people have to live in an environment that is clean
    and free ofpollution. People also have a right to wealth and natural
    resources, self-determination and peace.
Right to equality
The constitution of Tanzania presents the right to equality in two parts as follows:
  1. Equality to all human beings
    The Constitution states that all human beings are born free and are
    equal. It also states that every person has the right to cognition and
  2. Equality before the law– In this part,
    the Constitution provides people with the right to be treated fairly
    before the law and to be protected without any kind of discrimination or
Right to life
The constitution represents these rights in four parts as explained below:
  • Right to live
    The Constitution states that every person has the right to live and
    have his or her life respected by society according to the law.
  • Right to personal freedom– According to the Constitution, everyone has the right to live as a free person, without being restricted by anyone else.
  • Right to privacy and personal security
    According to the constitution, every person has the right to be
    respected and to live and communicate without public attention.
  • Right to freedom of movement
    Every citizen of Tanzania has the right to move in Tanzania and live in
    any part of Tanzania. A Tanzanian citizen also has the right to leave
    and enter the country.
Freedom of expression
Freedom of expression is presented in four parts as follows:
  • Freedom of expression– Every citizen has the right to form opinions and to air those opinions. He or she is free to communicate without interference.
  • Freedom of religion– Every person has the right to belief of faith, freedom of thought and choice in matters of religion.
  • Freedom of association
    Every citizen is free to assemble, associate and communicate with other
    people. A Tanzanian citizen has the right to express views and join
    lawful associations or organizations.
  • Freedom to participate in public affairs
    The Constitution guarantees every citizen the right to take part in
    leadership matters – that is the right to elect or be elected into
    public office. Every Tanzanian citizen has the right to participate
    fully in making decisions on matters affecting him or her, his or her
    well-being or the nation.
Activity 1
Visit one of the meetings in your area and observe how people express themselves. Do they express themselves freely?

Right to work
The right to work is presented in three parts. These are:
  • Right to work– Every citizen has the right to work, equal opportunity to work and to hold any office.
  • Right to own property– The constitution gives all citizens the right to own property and have that property protected.
  • Right to fair remuneration
    Every citizen who works has the right to a fair salary according to his
    or her work. All the rights and freedom guaranteed in the Constitution
    have their limitations. Every citizen who enjoys these rights and
    freedom must obey the laws of the country. In exercising his or her
    rights, a citizen should also take into consideration the rights of
The Importance of Human Rights in Our Society
Explain the importance of human rights in our society
democratic societies have constitutions that contain a Bill of rights.
The Bill of rights consists of a list of rights and freedoms that are
guaranteed in the constitution. These rights can be divided into three

Civil and political right
rights give citizens liberty and equality. They also allow citizens to
participate in political mattersin their communities or societies.
  • The right to life
    – This right states that everyone has a right to live. It also
    disallows the death penalty for people below 18 years, pregnant women
    and insane people.
  • The right to equal protection by the low – This right seeks to ensure that laws and law enforcing authorities treat all people equally.
  • Freedom of expression – This right helps ensure that people are free to exchange ideas and opinions.
  • Freedom of religious and conscience
    – This right ensures that no-one is punished or penalized in any way
    because he/she chooses one religion over another or opts for no religion
    at all.
  • Freedom of association – This right
    that ensures people are free to belong to any organization of their
    choice. It gives individuals the right to meet and interact with others
    with whom they have common interests.
Social and economic rights
rights give people the opportunity to participate in the social,
economic and culturalactivitiesof their community or society. They are
also concerned with the provision of basic needs such as food, shelter,
health care and education. Social and economic rights are divided into
the following two categories:
  • Social rights
    – These include freedom from discrimination on grounds of race, gender
    or religion, the right to marry and have a family and the right to
    privacy, education, recreation and health care.
  • Economic rights – They include the right to work, housing, reasonable standard of living and housing.
Environmental and developmental rights
Rights under this category seek to do the following:
  • Guarantee
    people’s right to live in a free and safe environment that is clean and
    free from pollution and protected from destruction.
  • Give people the right to have their culture recognized, or to advance themselves politically and economically.
Human Rights and the Provision of Basic Needs
needs are things thatare essential for survival. They include food,
shelter and clothing. Human rights are related to the provision of basic
needs. Social and economic rights give people the opportunity to
participate in social, economic and cultural activities that help them
meet their basic needs. These activities include agriculture, business,
manufacturing, employment and education. Human rights also enable people
to work together as members of society in order to improve their living

The Role of Government and Different Pressure Groups in the Promotion of Human Rights in Tanzania
Promotion of human rights is done to encourage people to respect and value human rights. This is done in the following ways:
The government promotes human rights by recognizing and including them in the constitution.
government accepts and respects international obligations on human
rights. Tanzania is signatory to various international agreements on
human rights.
government has set up a commission on human rights and good governance.
This commission is given power to promote and protect human rights.
constitution of Tanzania allows for a multiparty system on government
in which people are free to join any political party of their choice.
This promotes Democracy and therefore the freedom of expression.
The courts of law have final say on legal matters.
government has allowed Non- Governmental organizations (NGOs) to
operate in the country. These help promote human rights. The following
are some of those organizations:
  • Tanzania Gender Networking Program (TGNP).
  • Tanzania Women Lawyers Association (TAWLA).
  • Tanzania Media Women Associations (TAMWA).
  • Tanzania Human Right and Democratic Development Centre (TAHUDE).
Activity 2
Visit one of the Non-Governmental Organization and find out how they promote human rights.
Protection of human rights
of human right means ensuring that human right are not abused. Human
rights should be protected and respected for the following reasons:
  • They help to regulate and control the power and actions of the government.
  • They are the foundations of justice, peace and freedom.
  • They promote democracy. This means the citizens’ wishes are respected by the government.
  • They encourage people’s participation in economic, social, political and culture activities.
  • They bring about social equality and discourage any form of discrimination.
The following are ways in which human rights are protected in Tanzania:
  • The Tanzania constitution includes a Bill of Rights to protect human rights.
  • The
    government educates the public about their civil rights which are
    guaranteed in the constitution. It also practices the rule of law by
    setting up a system of checks and balance (such as law courts and police
    force) to ensure that human rights are respected.
  • Non-Governmental organizations educate the public and put the pressure on the government to change oppressive laws.
  • The press informs the public about violations of human rights.


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