CIVICS          COMMERCE             ENGLISH 



Promotion Of Life Skills

are the means through which a person can live well in a society.
They are the ways an individual can properly manage his/her life and
that of other people. Promotion of life skills is of great importance in
modern societies because of the prevailing socio-economic, political
and cultural changes that havebeen accelerated by scientific and
technological advancements. The undergoing changes require good
leadership, teamwork, positive relationships, self-worth and
self-confidence from members of societies or communities so as to
survive in this competitive world.
leader is a person who guides or directs others in a group, an
institution, a company, a village or a country. Good leadership refers
to proper leadership which adheres to the important characteristics of a
good leader.
Characteristics of a good leader
The following are the Characteristics of a good Leader:-
  • A
    good leader should be a task-oriented or people-oriented leader. The
    task oriented leader will place emphasis on training and performance
    with the ultimate aim of achieving and winning. He/she should be able to
    identify the community goals or specific targets. The leader then
    should be able to impart these goals to his people and commit them to
    work hard and intelligently to achieve the desired community goals.
  • A
    good leader should not simply issue orders for people to follow, but
    he/she should be able to instill good characteristics to them which will
    make it possible to achieve the stated goals.
  • A good leader
    should have confidence, determination and perseverance. There will be
    many complex issues that must be addressed by the leader; therefore the
    leader should be bold enough to encounter such situations.
  • A
    good leader should be able to create an ideal situation that will
    encourage his/her people to perform. The leader should be ready
    available for his/her people and they should be free to approach him/her
    for consultations.
  • A good leader should be able to identify
    good opportunities that can be utilised to achieve the stated community
    goals. The leader has to be optimistic that opportunities can be
    exploited to yield the intended goals. Good leaders should have a vision
    which they work towards. Good leaders know where they are heading and
    lead their people towards the same vision. Good leaders are not passive
    people. They are usually extremely passionate in whatever they are
  • Good leaders should be wise if they are to be successful.
    Being a leader often means that crucial decisions will have to be made
    at one point. Having wisdom to make a right decision is most important
    in ensuring success. Good leaders have compassion for their followers.
    While they understand they have a goal to pursue, they constantly look
    back and care for the people that are following them. They are not
    selfish people who only think about their own needs and luxuries; they
    also must care for the people who are working for them. In Africa, for
    instance, we have Mzee Nelson Mandela, the former president of the
    republican of South Africa and leader of ANC. Mzee Mandela is the one of
    the few African leaders who possesses such kind of leadership
  • Good leaders should be charismatic, attractive
    to the people through their good personalities. This can be through the
    way they speak. They are extremely well-versed in public speaking and
    they can influence and inspire people with the things that they say. A
    good example of such kind of a leader is the late Mwalimu Julius K.
    Nyerere. The former president of Tanzania.
  • Good leaders must be
    persistent in the attempt of meeting their goals. They realise that the
    goal to success is not simple; despite that, they see that the benefit
    of reaching the goal are greater than that of the setback that they will
  • Good leaders should have integrity. They mean what
    they say, and they say what they mean. They are people who keep their
    promises and they do not play the two-faced political game that a lot of
    others do.
  • Good leaders must be ready to pursue their dreams
    until they become true. The fears are real, but the courageous leader
    pursues them despite the fears. Good leaders are extremely disciplined
    in their pursuit of their goals. While most people would be easily
    discouraged, good leaders make sure they achieve their goals.
our community where good leadership is practiced, a leader adopts a
participatory approach in decision-making. A good leader will always
consult his/her people before any important decision is made. For
instance, in an institution like a school, a good leader should
recognize that his/her employees are more than just employees; they are
also the people to be involved in making decision.
Leadership styles
styles have been classified on the basis of how leaders use their
authority. There are four leadership styles, namely dictatorial,
autocratic, democratic and laissez-fair leadership.
  • Dictatorial leadership.
    This is the type of leadership governed by a dictator that is dominated
    by fear, threats, disgrace, and frequent dismissal of the workers.
  • Autocratic leadership.
    This type of leadership is characterised by central authority. All the
    powers are controlled by one individual; a leader can give or withhold
    rewards or punishments.
  • Democratic or participative leadership.
    This type of leadership involves the leader consulting the subordinates
    on the proposed actions and decisions and encourages their
  • Laissez-fair leadership. This
    is the type of leadership where the leader is really not in control. The
    leader is only consulted if information is required, and he/she can
    make only a small contribution. This type of leadership gives chance for
    the subordinates to decide on their own.
Importance of good leadership
The following are some of the importance of good leadership in a community
  • Earns
    trust from the people by involving them in decision-making. Hence they
    can work together with their leaders to achieve their goals.
  • Increases efficiency and effectiveness in a community, as people are satisfied with their leaders work or performance.
  • Enhances
    public relations in a community. The positive image of a leader
    enhances public relations that will lead to the achievement of community
  • Enhances people’s confidence, especially when leaders are transparency and accountable to their decisions.
  • Reduces
    conflicts in a community. With good leadership neither the people nor
    the leaders shall be involved in conflicts. The community do have proper
    channels to forward their problems through democratic ways based on
    decision making-making procedures.
Activity 1
What kind of leadership is practised in Tanzania? Support your answers with vivid examples.
Good Leadership, Teamwork, Positive Relationship, Self-Worth, Confidence Qualities
Demonstrate good leadership, teamwork, positive relationship, self-worth, confidence qualities
can be defined as interpersonal influence exercised in a situation and
directed through the communication process towards the attainment of
specified goal. Leadership does not mean power, prestige, wealth or
great education butrefers toinitiative and willingness to serve mankind
and showing a real concern to others.
team comprises any group of people with a common purpose. A group in
itself does not necessary constitute a team. However there are many
components that up a team like managers and agents. Teamwork is a joint
action done by a group of people (team) with a common goal. The notion
of teamwork does not mean that the individual is no longer important,
itmeans that effective and efficient teamwork goes beyond individual
accomplishment. The most effective teamwork is produced when all
individuals work together to achieve a common goal.
effectively achieve the goals of an organisation, all the people should
combine their efforts. If everyone does his/her job well, and then it
increases what the team can accomplish. Teamwork has to be recognised by
everyone knowing that great things happen if individuals work together
as one unit. Everyone has a unique role, but each individual role must
be recognised and appreciated.
instance, at school both teachers and student are supposed to live and
work as a team. This will help in building student discipline and
academic performance. However, this can only be achieved through
participation of students and teachers in school governance. Teamwork is
something that must be a high priority and must be given constant
attention. Every player must understand how important for them to work
together if they want to be successful. Each player must be dedicated to
the whole team and be ready to act unselfishly. When challenges arise
the team need to have the resources, accountability and commitment to
deal with them in a constructive and positive manner.
Aspects of teamwork
good and strong leadership is essentially for successful teamwork.
While each teamwork member will be encouraged to share thought and
opinions as well as skills, the leader will be responsible for the final
decisions and implementations that are made. A leader should be strong
and confident as well as competent in his/particular area of expertise
is an essential part of teamwork. A team should set its goal for easy
accomplishment of a task. A team cannot work well and achieve its goal
if it does not have well-defined goals to be achieved. It is also very
important for team members to understand their roles and
responsibilities. The team leader can make it possible by defining the
purpose in a clear-cut manner in the beginning of the formation of the
is another important part of teamwork. The team members must
communicate all aspects of a project and be willingly to listen to each
other. The lines of communication should be open at all times and to all
team members. Teamwork can be very successfully if everyone is
willingly to accept one another and work together for the good of the
team must have a unified commitment. This does not mean team members
must agree on everything. It means that all individuals must be
directing their efforts towards the foal. If an individual’s efforts are
going towards his/her personal goals, then the team will confront this
and resolves the problem.
team must have a result-driven structure. The team should be allowed to
operate in a manner that produces results. It is often best to allow
the team to develop the structure.
team must have high standards that are understood by all. Team members
must know what is expected of them individually and collectively. Vague
statements such as “positive attitude” and “demonstrated efforts” are
not good enough.
team must have competent members. In the education settings this can be
taken to mean that the problem given to the team should be one that the
members can tackle given their level of knowledge and skills.
team must have a collaborative climate. It is a climate of trust
produced by honest, open, consistence and respectful behaviour. With
this climate team perform well and without it they will fail.
resolution. Conflict will rise no matter how teams functions together.
The best way to counter conflict is to have structured method of
conflict resolution. Team members should be able to voice their concerns
without fear of offending others. Instead of avoiding conflict, its
better to resolve them quickly. Its often advised that the team leader
should sit with conflicting parties and help to work out their
differences without taking sides and try to remain objective if
most important compound for team building is the selection of
participants to be in agroup or team. The team leader usually looks
specific things from the members in order to ensure success in the group
or team projects. It’s very important to have members that have
confident and are able to build trust among other participants. Most
importantly, the participants must have a positive attitude at all
on how to work together is also a very important compound of teamwork. A
team must know how to work together in order to be productive and
successful. If a team can work together, It will be able to resolve
issues that are standing on the way to accomplish a goal. Working
together may not come easily at first, but with proper training and
mutual communication the team will be able to adapt quickly.
skills set. When creating teamwork, it’s important to have balanced
skills sets. One way to achieve this is by having experts in different
fields. If some members provide some of their theoretical skills, for
example, individuals that are knowledgeable about the course materials
are confused about technology part of it. On the other hand the
individual may fill that the technical side of the problem is more
important than the theoretical side of it. By combining both sides, the
team can come up with the solutions that benefit everyone.
of roles within the team is one of the elements needed for team
building. Assigning roles to team members help them to know the team’s
place. Each member should be assigned a role that is clearly defined.
This will facilitate easily decision making and will ensure the
completion of the task assigned within the required time
personalities. The personality of some one play a bigger role on how
the team performs. The leader must understand the kind of people and
personality they need to have in order to gain success from the team
group. For instance someone who shows supportiveness is dedicated to the
team’s success. The person who takes more responsibility, is very easy
to work with and listen attentively to the ideas of other people.
Importance of teamwork
ambitious plans usually require people to work together. Thus, team
work has become an important concept for work organisations. Effective
teams are necessary if the industry is going to realise good and
sustainable results.
  • Teamwork
    can make more effective and efficient use of labour and prove
    productivity by maximizing the different strength and skills of team
    members, encouraging team members to undertake a wide range of tasks and
    making team members accountable to customers.
  • Teamwork improves
    quality and encourages innovation of product or services. Innovation
    has been the outcome of many team works initiatives. Involvement of team
    members/workers in productive activity through team work contributes a
    lot to the improvement of the quality of products and various
  • In an institutions like a school, students learn to
    work together in many ways. They learn to rely on each other and take
    advantage of every opportunity they have. Most often high-performing
    students in exams experience the benefit of teamwork at school. They
    consistently perform better than others, especially by attending group
Positive relationships
relationships can be defined as the state of having meaningful, loving,
supportive and cooperative relationships between two or more people.
It’s not difficult to establish meaningful, loving, loving, supportive
and cooperative relationships.
Principles for developing positive relationships
In order to develop positive relationship, someone needs to understand the following principles of human behaviour;
  • Time
    and patience. Building positive relationship is like building a house;
    it take a lot of time and patient to accomplish likewise to understand
    human life it take time and it need patient to cope with them.
  • Applying the principle of brotherhood and allowing others to become more responsible.
  • Allowing people to make choices
  • Every
    human behaviour has a social purpose. It should be notes that some
    people misbehave they are searching for self-attention and some look for
  • Changing your negative behaviour can most effectively influence the negative behaviour of others.
  • Someone’s
    positive relationship are influenced by his/her positive actions, thus
    people must appreciate others peoples positive’s positive behaviour.
  • Avoiding
    retaliation if offended; instead express good will. You will improve
    the quality of relationship. Retaliation stimulates further violence.
  • Avoid finding faults in others; focus on their strength and not their weaknesses
  • Show strong confidence in your team members; this will develop their confidence.
  • If the members lack strong confidence, focus on their past legitimate successes.
  • If it is difficult to speak to a busy person, communicate with him/her through your loving actions
  • Withdraw from conditions that can easily lead to power struggle.
Importance of positive relationships
  • Positive
    relationships are important in maintaining a sense of good among
    ourselves. A destructive relationship is not always good because it
    leads to various problems such as abuse. It’s obvious that people needs
    positive relationships, because they need to be supported, comforted and
    have fun.
  • Positive relationships are important and are a source
    of success in every area of life as they enhance love, family
    happiness, business success and spiritual fulfilment.They also promote
    good principle that ensures success to everyone, partners, family,
    friends and work colleagues. This means that there is a need to identify
    key principles and techniques that attract positive relationships
    because they heal any relationship issues.
  • Positive
    relationships enlighten the people on how to make a right decision in
    relationships, communicating better, enjoying greater intimacy and
refers to a feeling of confidence in yourself that you are a good and
useful person. Its a favourable estimate or opinions of oneself. Worth
refers tohow much we value something, how important it is for us and how
much priority we give it compared to other things.
is a measure of our unconditional self-love. High self-worth means
loving ourselves unconditionally in all areas of our lives. To have a
higher degree of self-worth, we must love ourselves even when we make
is frequently based on our feelings of worth in terms of our skills,
achievements, statutes, financial resources or physical attributes. This
kind of self-worth often cultivates an independence and arrogant
attitude. When we find ourselves not measuring up to societies’ criteria
for worth, we suffer serious consequences.
self-worth depreciates dramatically. The illusion of being successful
and admired gives way to disillusionment as our possessions and
achievements that once nourished our souls fail to satisfy our appetite.
To satisfy every individual experience, hunger, thirst, fatigue and so
forth, we are conditionedtoget food, drinks or rest. By getting these
things we will achieve an acceptable self-worth. Nothing depreciates
self-worth faster than regret, anger or fear.
Aspects of self-worth
good care of yourself shows you really do love yourself
unconditionally. This is a sign of self-worth. If you love yourself
wholeheartedly, you will prioritize your time and resources to reflect
the relative importance of each part of yourself. You will have to
create some balance in your time and life so that you can take good care
of your body and main interest and needs. Spend time and money on
activities wisely.
Importance of self-worth
is a vital belief for empowering oneself. A valid sense of self-worth
is necessarily in order to attain love, peace, joy, power and a sound
mind. A Valid sense of self-worth eliminates the possibility of
committing suicide. Without self-worth, doubts and fears about our very
existence will persist and will destroy dreams and vision and undermine
our greatest accomplishments.
Self- confidence
is a belief in one’s own abilities to do things and be successful.
People with high self-confidence typically have little fear of the
unknown. They are able to stand up for what they believe in, and have
the courage to risk embarrassment, such as delivering a presentation to a
large group of people.
Aspects of building self-confidence
many of the factors affecting self-confidence are beyond your control,
there are a number of things you can do to build self-confidence. These
  • Dressing style.
    Clothes affect the way someone feels about him/herself. It changes the
    way you feel about yourself and interact with other people. I f you
    dress well, you will fill confident in all places howeverif you
    dressimproperly you will feel shy and lose confidence.
  • Good
    posture. By practising good posture you will automatically feel more
    confidence. Stand up straight, keep your head up and make eyes contact.
    You will make a positive impression on others and instantly and feel
    more alert and empowered.
  • Walking fast or quickly also builds
    one’s self-confidence. One of the easiest way to tell how a person feels
    about him/herself is to examine his/her work. Is it slow, tired,
    painful or energetic and purposeful? It is believed that people with
    confidence walk fast or quickly. They have places to go, people to see
    and important work to do.
  • Listening to motivational speeches.
    Another way of building self-confidence is listening to motivational
    speeches. You can feel this need by creating personal commercials. Write
    a short speech that highlights your strengths and goals. Then recite it
    in front of a mirror aloud whenever you need a confidence boost.
  • Compliment
    other people around you and refuse to engage in criticizing them. When
    we think negatively about ourselves, we often project that feeling on to
    others in the form of insults and gossip. To break this cycle of
    negativity, get in the habit of praising other people. In the process,
    you will become more liked and build more self-confidence. By seeingthe
    best in others, you indirectly bring out the best in yourself.
  • Make
    efforts to speak up in a group discussions. During group discussions,
    many people never speak up because they afraid that people will judge
    them for saying something wrong. By making efforts to speak up at list
    once in every group discussion, you will become a better public speaker,
    more confident in your own thoughts, and recognised as a leader by your
  • Sitting in the front row helps in building
    self-confidence. In schools, offices and public assemblies around the
    world, people constantly strive to sit at the back rows. Most people
    prefer sitting at the back because they are afraid of being noticed.
    This reflects a lack of self-confidence.
  • Physical fitness has a
    huge effect on self-confidence. If you are out of shape, you will feel
    insecure, unattractive and less energetic. By working out, you improve
    your self appearance, energies yourself and accomplish something
    positive. Having the discipline to work out not only makes you feel
    better; it creates positive momentum that you can carry throughoutthe
    rest of the day.
Importance of Self-confidence
  • Self-confident
    is essential to success in many aspects of the individual’s life. It is
    the key factor in business success. This is because a confident person
    knows how to balance risk. He/she can borrow money from banks to run the
    business and pay back the dept.
  • Self- confidence involves doing
    what you believe to be right decision, even if others criticise you for
    it, being willingly to take risks and go to the extra mile to achieve
    better things, admitting your mistakes and vowing to learn from them.
  • Self-confidence
    also allows an individual to increase his/her level of control in
    situations that are important. As your self-confident grows your
    excitement and energy will help you to be in a control. People may have
    confident in other people or forces beyond their control. For instance,
    one might have confident that he/she will pass well the final
    exams.Self-confident enable an individual to gain confidence from both
    happiness and sadness.
  • Self-confident is generated not only in
    achievement, ability and success but also from adversity and failure. It
    is difficult to understand happiness unless you have experiences
    sadness. You cannot appreciate light unless you have been in the dark.
  • Self-confident
    also promotes individual’s personality in terms of dressing and
    communication skills. Good and attractive dressing and communication
    skills affect the way someone feels about him/herself. It changes the
    way you feel about yourself and interact with other people.
Exercise 1
A. Answer the following questions by writing “T” for correct statement and “F” for incorrect statement.
  • People with high confident typically have a lot of fear of the unknown, but stand up for what they belief in.
  • Self-worth is a valid sense of attaining joy, power or peace.
  • Oversleeping is one of the aspects of building self-confidence
  • People who always prefer to sit at the back have an aspect of self-confidence
  • Doing what you believe to be right even when others criticise you shows you are less confident.
  • Self-confident can be supported on how ones wears.
  • People with self-confident walk slowly
  • Positive relationships enlighten us in choosing and strengthen our relationships with our spouse, children and companies.
  • Team work is only found in places where there are educated people
  • Good leader always seek for leadership
Exercise 2
B. Answer the following questions.
Write short notes on the following terms;Good leadershipTeamwork
  • Explain the importance of good leadership
  • Mention and explain the leadership styles“Teamwork is important for any organisation to achieve its goals” Discuss.
  • With concrete examples, examine the quality of good leadership in Tanzania.
  • Explain the importance of self-confidence
C. Answer the following questions by filling in the blanks with the correct answer.
  • ———— is the state of having meaningful love, supportive and cooperative relationships between two or more people.
  • ————- means faith in one’s own abilities.
  • A total measure on how one value himself/herself and gives priority to his/her own needs and happiness is ————–
  • ————-
    is interpersonal influence implementing in a situation and directed
    through the communication process so as to achieve specified goals.



Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here