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FORM TWO ENGLISH STUDY NOTES ALL TOPICS

Topic 1: LISTENING TO VARIOUS SIMPLE ORAL TEXTS.
THE LISTENING PROCESS

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Listening is the most important
skill to language and for learning new information. Listening and hearing are
disserunt

– Hearing is the sense through
which sound is received this physical process is the first in the learning
process.
– Listening is a mental process
that requires the receives active participation. Hearing on the other hand is
passive process. No one has to think to hear
E.g. many people like back ground
noise from a radio or tape or to when they work around the house
– Actual listening involves
a) Concentration
b) Interpreting them
LEVELS / KINDS OF LISTENING
1. Listening for enjoyment- for example listening to an amusing
story, jokes, music, movie, or play
 2. Listening for
information
When you listen or informative
speech e.g. news. This requires more concentration than listening for
enjoyment you need to learn the main idea of the speaker
3. Critical listening –refers to an active process it involve listening
for information and eventual that information. This skill help to determine
how information heard in speech can affect a person. It is important to take
notes and later ask the speaker question about his/ her items
4. Precision listening-refers to the exactness or ability to distinguish
clearly listening with precision gives due to a speaker talks of changing in
the volume of the speakers voice can help determine what is most important to
a speaker
5. Emphatic listening –Emphatic is the ability to put yourself in
another place. It enable you to understanding why a person feels, believes
and acts in a certain way when you listen to speaks it is often important to
understanding why the express certain ideas such as understanding will help
you to determine evaluate the information you hear more completely.
-Empathy helps respect the speaker
even if you disagree with what he/ she says. To achieve this level of
listening you must listen for information you must evaluate critically and
you must listen to emotion as well as words. Emphatic listening is considered
as the most difficult level to master it requires only great constetoation
but also you / see back skills.
CAUSES FOR POOR LISTENING
Causes for poor listening can be
categorized into two types namely physical barriers and mental berries
PHYSICAL BARRIERS
a) Partial hearing
b) Noise or other physical
destruction creates barriers to good listerning
c) Speaking too softly
d) Is not speaking Clearly
e) Listeners physical condition eg
tiredness illness or uncomfortable
2. MENTAL BARRIERS
a) wondering mind b) In attention
c) Negative attitude eg If you have negative attitude (dislike ) about the
speaker then it will make you become difficult to listen attentionaly.
d) Listeners’ knowledge especially
when there based on familiar words
 e) Selective listening when people by
selecting black out what they do not want to hear.
HOW TO IMPROVE LISTENING
a) Making concentration – Try to
block out destructions think about what you hear
b) Practice-use every opportunity
you can on what you hear. Watch news and other information programs on TV.
Also spend quiet time and concentrate on what speaker says.
c) Prepare yourself to listen be
read to listen and sit where you can see and hear the speaker
d) Listen to keywords- speaker of
tuil gives clues about what is important most important things or in summary
are help you to organize the information you hear.
e) Take notes: It is not necessary
to write down every word but just outline important ideas. Also listen to
keywords and summarize.
Topic 2: TALKING ABOUT EVENTS
INDEPENDENCE DAY
i. When does the celebration take
place
ii. Where did it take place
iii. Who was the guest of honour
iv. What social and cultural
activities colored the occasion
v. What make you remember the day
vi. What is the significance of
this celebration
vii. Why is honoured and upheld in
our nation
viii. Mention other kind of
holiday celebrated in our nation
ix. If this celebration want be
conducted what will happen
INDEPENCE
DAY
It is celebrate on Dec 9th
each year last year independence day celebration took place at the Dar es
salaam National Stadium.
The President of the United
Republic of Tanzania his Excellence Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete was the guest of
honour. The celebration started at around 8:30 in the morning. The other
invited guest in the celebration were ambassadors, Ministers, government
official and one president of Zanzibar.
The was colored by various
activities such as traditional during, comedy, national anthem the pared by
national defense and security soldiers,
I remember this event because it
mark the government day on which our national obtained her independence. Also
this was among having rain fall in the history of our nation, also it to lose
on this day that I saw the president of Zanzibar for the first time. The day
on which our country became free from Colonial domination.
Every nation in the world honour
and uphold the day which they got their freedom because it is like the
birthday of this country. It is on this day that our nation came into during.
Other kind of holiday celebrated
your by our nation include, revolution day, Union day, Sabasaba, Nane Nane,
Nyerere day, Karume Day, Workers day, Maulid, Christmas, Easter, Id, New year
If this celebration wont be
conducted nothing wrong really will happen, but it is a great day and country
use to remember it, so it must be celebrated to honour our national.
TALKING
ABOUT ACCIDENT 1st April 2008
Write a story about “Terrible
accidents” you have ever seen. Use guidelines below.
i. What is the title of your story
ii. Where did it occur
iii. How many cars were involved?
Were there pedestrians on cyclists
iv. What caused the accident
v. What damage did the accident
cause
vi. What should be done to reduce accidents
vii. What are your opinions
THE
TERRIBLE ACCIDENTS
The accident occurred along
Morogoro road at that place called Manzese. Two cars were involved in this
accident, one push car, furrari which was leading to town and daladala town
bus coming from Kariakoo, going to Ubungo.
This accident is said to be caused
by careless among the drivers, also the town bus had serious mechanical
problems, the driver us the Ferrari was heavily drunk the place had hardly
any road safety sign, road safely regulatory were not observed one of the
drive had no driving license, high speed also is claimed to be the reason so
this terrible accident which took away life of many people.
The accident caused loss of life
and properly, passengers were seriously injured some lost important organs of
the bodies two cars were severely damaged. Other damages registered include
destruction of road lights signs, one bicycles completely crushed.
Measures to reduce the rate of
accidents should be put into action for instant, installation of road signs
the drivers who break road safely regulations should be severely punished
speed governors should be used. Thus please to be educate about road safety.
Drivers should be skilled and traffic officer should inspect all cars and
buses.
Generally speaking cars have
become dangerous be taking away peoples life maliciously . I am of the
opinion that road safely education should be given the same emphasis as AIDS
education
TALKING ABOUT CELEBRATION AS
CONFIRMATION DAY
It was celebrated on 15 th
November 2002. It first take palace on the community church then later on it
was celebrated at Sea cliff Hotel.
My Uncle, Mr. Dennis was the guest
of honour. Therulebration started at around 10:30 in the morning. The other
guest were aunt, Neighbors, best friends also some neighbors.
The event was coloured by a very
big confirmation cake, taskey food, lost drinks and other drink which people
liked, also the some traditiona dance and music colored the event
I remember this event because this
was my first time to get confirmation and it was something which was thought.
I remember this event because Polycap Cardinal Pengo was confrimunting so
also got a chance to see him for the first time. So also got a chance to see
him for the first time.
In Christians, especially in Roman
Catholic every child should get confirmation so as to become a good
Christian.
Other kind as celebration are
communion, baptism, confirmation and others
If the ceremony is not given to a
Christians he or she will not be a good Christian like is supposed to be.
Topic 3: ASKING FOR SERVICES
Talking about shopping
Mussa: Can I help you / what can I
do for you ?
Ali: Yes please, how much is the
flower
Mussa : Two hundred shillings
Ali : Can I have it?
Mussa : There your are
Ali : Thank you
Mussa : You are welcome
Imagine you are in the hotel. How
would you order some food
And drinks?Write a short
conservation between you and the waiter
Waiter Excuse me sir, can I help
you?
Customer: Yes please, how much is
a cup of tea?
Waiter: There you are
Customer: May I have some food
too?
Waiter : What kind of food you
need?
Talking about reservation
Booking tickets
You want to travel to Mwanza by
train, write a dialogue between you and booking office attendant.
Attendant: Can I help you?
Customer: Yes please, I want a
ticket in first class
Attendant: It is 20,000/=Tshs
Customer: I have 19,000/= Tshs
Attendant: OK
Customer; Here is your money
1. → Making telephone calls
Language use
Using the phone
In today’s world, most people use
the telephone for quick answer the questions.
1. Look at the following telephone
conversation and answer the questions:
a) Which conversations are
personal?
b) Which one are business?
c) Which callers did not speak to
the people they wanted to talk with?
d) What happened in phone call
No.3?
Topic 4: LOCATING PLACES
The important terminologies used
i. In front ix. Around ii. Behind
x. Close to iii. Adjacent to xii. The left hand iv. Never xiii. The right
hand v. Beside xiv. North vi. Opposite to xv. South vii. A long xvi. West
viii.Across
1. Where is the dinning hall?
The dinning is
-In the left of our class
-Adjacent to the boys’ dormitory
-Western side of the basket count
-Close to the water resource
-Beside the kitchen
-Opposite the boys dormitory
Where is the church
The church is
-Is the eastern side of our class
-Is beside the school gate
-Is behind the car park
-Adjacent to the Goba road
TAG QUESTIONS
An affirmative statement take a
negative question tag
a) They are doing their home work.
aren’t they?
b) I am going now. aren’t i?
c) John goes to school. doesn’t
he?
d) Children went home late yesterday.
didn’t they?
e) You should go soon. shouldn’t
you?
A negative statement take a
positive question tag
a) She is not going to school. is
she?
b) He won’t play tomorrow. will
he?
c) Doctors did not demonstrate
last week. Did they?
d) Will she come earl? She won’t?
If you ask a question in which you
expect Yes answer they question tag will be negative
a) You like trouble don’t you?
b) You are a student aren’t you?
c) She studied had. didn’t she?
d) Will she come early?she won’t?
If you expect the answer no the
question tag becomes positive
a) You are not Mruma?are you?
b) You are not soldiers. are you?
c) He is not a thief. is he?
We can change a story command into
request form by addition of infirmity. a) Shut up! will you? b) Lets us move
now, shall we? c) Open the window, will you? d) Comes here, will you/e) Stand
up, will you?
Suppose you have met a guest at
Mwenge Bus stop tell him / her the way to go ST.Joseph Sec School
Go along the Bagamoyo
Turn left to kawe Road
Pass through NTUWEMA ST
Then on your left hand side to
TANGANYIKA PACKERS
ANALYSING INFORMATION FROM THE
MEDIA
I. Define information
II. a) what is factual information
b) Explain characteristic of the
factual information
IIi. a) What is non-factual
information
b) Point out the characteristic of
non factual information
IV. Mention the different between
factual information and non factual information
I. Information –are event,
incidents, stories, about what is giving on the society which can be factual
or nonfactual information is transmitted
through the media such as
Television Newspaper, Magazine, poster etc
Ii. Factual Information- Is the
type of information which based on data has evidence, has the source of
information, it is systematic argument reality
CHARACTERISTICS
I. Can be scientifically proved
Ii. It has source
Iii. It base on data
iv. Argumentative reality
v. SystEmatic
vi. No propagandas
Vii.Has evidence
Viii.Based on statistics
Ix.It is objective
iii.a) Non-factual information- Is
the type of information which does not base on data, can not be proved
scientifically their no source
b) CHARACTERISTICS
I. Subjective
Ii.it does not have a source
Iii. Cannot be provided
Iv. It is not systematic
v. Cannot be researched
Vi. It based on propaganda
vii. Cannot be researched
vii.It is marked by words e.g.
Perhaps, I think, maybe
Topic6: TALKING ABOUT CULTURAL ACTIVITIES
– Talking about games.
A VOLLEYBALL MATCH
One day I went to watch a long
waited for volleyball match between Azania sec school and Tambaza High school
teams. A larger crowd gathered at Benjamin stadium. The captain of Azania
secondary school team was the first to hit the ball and the match begin.
The volleyball match is played by
twelve players, each team with six players. Each players has to rotate
through six positions
The player at the center received
the first ball from the rival team. He / She receive the ball with arms
closed together. He/ She hit the ball to the settler or the speaker. The
settle stands between two speakers close to the net. The spikes are the ones
who receive the third ball so as to smash it to the rival team. Then
interfered by asking him how can one score a goal. He continued when the ball
from one team falls on the rival teams side it is counted as a point. Also
when it is smashed from one side to another and if players of the rival team
fail to return the ball or when it goes out after being touched ball or when
it goes out after being touched by one of the players it is counted as point.
The reference counts fifteen (15) points. It is normally the teams that
decide to play three or five rounds. The winning team must win two (2)
rounds.
He stopped for a while; He then
continued The referee should stand on the chair or table near the net so as
to clearly see each ball smashed towards any of the two teams. In addition
there should be two referees use sigh language and whistle for any
communication with the players.
When I was about to ask him
another question spectator from Tambaza High school entered the playground
and started to stone the referee , claiming that he was not fair consequently
our school sports master decided to tell the referee to end the match as the
situation was he becoming worse . Then the referee ended the match as he was
as advised. After that the students of each school were ordered to board
their school Lorries which took them to their fast arrived at Ihungo at
19:30hrs
Comprehension Question
Answer the following questions
1. Which schools competed? 2.
Which team won the match/3. How many players needed for each team? 4. How
many rounds are played in a volleyball 5. How do we get points in the
volleyball match?
EXERCISE
Construct five (5) sentences from the
substitution table below.
DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH
There are two ways of reporting
which are
1. Direct speech 2. Indirect
speech
RULES
i. Simple present becomes simple
past
ii. Present continuous becomes
past continuous
iii. Present perfect becomes past
perfect
iv. Present perfect continuous
becomes past perfect continuous
v. Simple past remain
unchanged/past perfect
vi. Future simple becomes
conditional
vii. Future perfect becomes
perfect conditional
viii. Future continuous becomes
conditional continuous
Other changes
– I becomes he/she
– We becomes they
– You becomes him/her/them
– My becomes his/hers/yours
– This becomes that
– These becomes immediately/ then
– Ago becomes before
– Me becomes him/her/them
– Today becomes that day
– Yesterday becomes the day
before/the previous day
– Tomorrow becomes the following
day/next day
– Last night becomes the night
before the previous night
– At once becomes immediately
– Trust becomes so
– Come/bring becomes go/take
1) TENSE CHANGE
i. Present simple becomes past
simple
Direct: “I study French every
evening,” he sai
Indirect: He said that he studied
French evening
ii. Present continuous becomes
past continuous
Direct: “I’m study French at the
moment,” he said
Indirect: He said that he was
studying French then
iii. Present perfect becomes past
perfect
Direct: “I have studied French for
three years,” He said
Indirect: He said that he had
studied French for three years
iv. Present perfect continuous
becomes past perfect continuous
Direct: “I have been studying French
for three years”, he said.
Indirect: He said that he had been
studying French for three years.
v. Past simple usually remain
unchanged or past perfect.
Direct: “I studied French last
year”, he said.
Indirect: He said that he had
studied French previous year
vi. Past continuous can remain
past continuous or become past perfect continuous
Direct: “I was studying French
last year,” he said.
Indirect: He said that he had been
studying French previous year.
vii. Future becomes conditional.
Direct: “I shall study French next
year,” he said.
Indirect: He said that he would
study Frenchthe following year.
2. Pronoun and possessive
adjective changes
Direct: “I have left my book in
your car,” may tell her brother.
Indirect: Mary told her brother
that she had left her book in his car.
3. Demonstrative adjective changes
Direct: “I borrowed this pen from
my brother,” John said.
Indirect: John said that he
borrowed that pen from his brother.
OR, Direct: “I borrowed pen
from my brother,” John said. Indirect: John said that he borrowed pen
from his brother.
4 .Adverb changes / Adverbial
phrase or time changes as follows:
Direct: “I’ll bring you the photo
tomorrow,” he said.
Indirect: He said that he would
take the photo the next day.
More examples.
5. Commands We make the usual
changes but in addition, the verb is changes into To Infinite
Direct: “Take the book to the
office,” the clerk said to me.
Indirect: The clerk told me to
take the books to the office.
Direct: ‘Come here,’ Mushi ordered
me. Indirect: Mushi ordered me to go there.
Thus, we can use verbs like told,
ordered, commanded after the subject in indirect speech.
Example of direct: “Release
those prisoners once,” said Captain
Indirect: The Captain ordered them
(him/us) to release the prisoners at that moment.
6. Questions
Direct: “Why have you locked the
door?” the teacher asked me.
Indirect: The teacher asked me why
I had locked the door.
Rules: 1. The questions mark is
dropped 2. Questions not beginning with interrogative words like who
questions (why, who, when, what) require the addition of: a. Whether b. If
DIRECT INDIRECT Today -That day
Yesterday -The day before
Tomorrow -The next day/ the
following day previous day Last night -The night before/ the previous night
At once -At that moment Here -There Ago -Before Next week -The following week
Thus -So Tonight -That night Come/bring -Go/take
7. Exclamation
In order to exclamations an
exclamation in indirect speech. It is necessary to use an expression which
will give the idea of the original
Direct: “Never! I will never agree
to such proposal,” he said.
Indirect: He said that he would
absolutely never agree to such a proposal.
Direct: “Good gracious! I have
never heard of such a thing,” he said.
Indirect: He was very surprised
and said that he had never heard of such a thing.
8. Speeches containing not only
statements.
Direct: “I’m going to Nairobi Have
you ever been there?”.
Indirect: He said that he was
going to Nairobi and asked if l had ever been there.
If a speech contains not only
statement but also a question, or command or exclamation more than one
reporting verb will be necessary in the indirect speech.
9: YES OR NO
Direct: “Yes I’ll come and see you
soon,” he said.
Indirect: He accepted that he
would come and see me soon.
REPORTED SPEECH We use indirect
speech (reported speech) when we are telling someone what other person says
or said.
Direct: “I can talk to the
headmaster,” he said.
Indirect: He said that he could
talk to the headmaster.
RULES IN INDIRECT SPEECH
We (i) remove all quotation marks.
(ii) We normally use expressions
such as he said that without putting comma between.
1: USES OF PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE.
Indirect speech can be introduced
by a verb in a simple present tense
He says that ……………..in the
following
(i) Reporting a conversation which
is going on
(ii) Reading a letter and
reporting what it says .E.g. .He says that he is coming on
(iii) Reading instructions and
reporting them.
(iv) Reading statements that
someone makes very often.
E.g. Marlow says that he’ll never
smoke cigarette.
2: NO CHANGE OF TENSE.
When reporting permanent states
facts or habits, there will be no change tense.
It is felt that what was said is
still true when it is reported.
Thus we can keep the tense of
original speech.
E.g.: Reporting a scientific fact.
Direct: “water freezes at 0 0 c,”
the teacher said
Indirect: The teacher said that
water freezes at 0 0 c.
Direct: “Magnet attracts iron,”
the student told us.
Indirect: The student told us that
magnet attracts iron.
NB:
(i) Otherwise when this and that
are used as demonstrative adjectives these usually changeto the
E.g.: Direct: He said, “i bought
this for you.”
Indirect: He said that he bought
the pen for me.
(ii)These sometimes them
E.g. Direct: He said, “we discuss
this tomorrow.”
Indirect: He said that they would
discuss the matter the next day.
(i) We can use verb such as TOLD
ORDERED, COMMANDED after the subject in reported speech.
E.g.: Direct: “Release those
prisoners at once”, said this captain.
Indirect: The captain ordered them
(him/ her) to release the prisoners at that moment.
WOULD, COULD, MIGHT, OUGHT TO also
remains unchanged in speech in all combination.
E.g.: Direct: “you ought to slow
down a bit,” the passenger told the Daladala (city bus) driver.
Indirect: The passenger told the
Daladala driver that he/ she ought to slow down a bit.
IF/ WHETHER.
Direct: “would you have tea or
soup,” the waiter asked me.
Indirect: The waiter asked me
whether life we could leave the next day.
If the question starts with WH
item if / whether should not be used.
WH- QUESTIONS
Direct: “who caused the accident,”
he asked me.
Indirect: He asked me who had
caused the accident.
Direct: “where are you going,” he
asked us.
Indirect: He asked me who had
caused the accident.
Direct: “where are you going,” he
asked us
Indirect: He asked us where we
were going.
WH + subject + verb
Topic 7: EXPRESSING OPINIONS
Expressing opinions, beliefs and
doubts
1. We also practiced supporting or
opposing opinions certain adverbs can be used to express the strength of the agreement
or disagreement
I completely/totally agree that
smoking should banned in public places
I absolutely I wholly disagree
with your opinion that alcohol is evil.
2. When we are not sure of
something in argument or a debate. We can express our doubts.
I’m doubtfully that marriage
parties are a good idea.
EXERCISE
Think about each of the following
topics. Prepare you opinion or point of view and then express it to your
partner should then agree or disagree with your opinion or may be express
doubt
Secondary school fees Smoking
marijuana. School students having love affairs.
II. Distinguish between facts and
opinions
1. What is the difference between
a fact and opinion 2. What help you to recognize an opinion?
EXERCISE
Examine the following sentence.
Decide whether they are making a statement of fact or just giving an opinion.
Making each sentence with either F for fact O opinion
a) Jupiter is the largest planet
in our solar system.
b) People who do not get jobs are
just lazy and do not want to work
c) Boiling water prevents the
spread of diseases
d) Modern music is destroying our
traditional culture
e) The selous Game reserve is the
biggest in Africa.
Structure and Grammar
1. Hardly …….. ……………when 2.
Scarcely ………………… when 3. No sooner ……………… when 4. Seldom ………………
less often
A) Seldom –less often
i. He often did not think of his
responsibilities
Begin seldom did he think of his
responsibilities
ii. Up country train is usually
late during the rain season
Begin seldom does the up country
train on line during the rain season
ii. Mutasa does not visit her aunt
always
Seldom does Mutasa visit her aunt
iv. She did not listen much to her
parents
Seldom did she listen much to her
parents
v. I had little time to read
novels then
Seldom did I have time to read
novels then
vi. He does not go to beer parties
often
Seldom does he go to beer parties
often
vii. She does not play when the
teacher is teaching
Seldom does she play when the
teach is teaching
B) No sooner…. Then
i. As soon as he left the boss called
him
Begin: No sooner had he left them
the boos called him
ii. Humbya had just finished
writing the letter when arrived
Begin; No sooner had Humbya
finished writing the letter then arrived
iii. Dr.Numbi had just performed
the operation then the patient died
No sooner had Dr. Numbi performed
the operation patient died
iv.The moon had barely appeared
when it was obscored by the cloud
No sooner had moon appeared then
it was obscured by the cloud
v. He had just returned from
shamba when his uncle called him
No sooner had he returned from
shamba then his uncle called him
vi. The accused was during when he
was rearrested
No sooner had the accused left
then he was rearrested
C) Hardly ….. When
i. The plane had almost touched
the run way when it burst into flame
Hardly had the planet touched the
runway when it bursts into flame
ii. The sun had nearly set when it
rained
Hardly had sunset when it rained
iii. The farmer had just complete
sowing their fields when there was receives heavy down pour
Hardly had the farmer completed
sowing their fields when there was heavy down pour
iv. He was completing his novel
when he fell sick
Hardly had he completed his novel
when he fell sick
v. Tatu was early seven years old
when she started learning how read
Hardly was Tatu seven years old
when she started learning how to read
vi. Mutasa was beginning to settle
down when her relative died
Hardly Mutasa begun to settle down
when her relative died
D. Scarcely………. When
i. Darkness had not set when we
arrived
Scarcely had darkness set when we
arrived
Topic 8: READING FOR COMPREHENSION
Comprehension
1. Read the following passage
carefully and then answer the questions which follow:
The number of children seen
loitering in cities and towns increases day after day. Between 1960 and 1970,
very few of these were seen in Tanzania. However, from 1970 to date, their
number has drastically increased. There are many questions we should ask
ourselves concerning street children. For example, why do we have them?Where
do they come from?Do they have parents?How do they live in the street?
Some of the questions are not easy
to answer. However, there are some reasons why we have street children. One
of the reasons could be the death of parents or guardians. The course of
death nowadays could be AIDS. Due to ignorance some relative refuse to live
with such orphans for fear that they may infect them with the disease. Other
relatives are reluctant to add children to their families and see them as a
burden. There are also relatives who do not want responsibilities. The
unfortunate children, therefore, end up in the streets.
There are many other reasons that
make children run away from into the streets. Some parents are too strict or
cruel. They punish their children severely for even the slightest or
mistakes. In order to escape this torture and brutality, the abused children
run away. Other parents are just irresponsible and do not fulfill their
children’s needs and rights. Such parents may not be poor, so they do this
through negligence. When children discover that their parents cannot meet
their needs and deny them their rights they flee to the streets.
Separation or divorce due to
drunkenness, harassment or other misunderstandings may be another reason for
street children. The children do not get parental love and care and decide
not to stay with either of their parents.
Inadequate knowledge on family
planning could also contribute to having street children. As the family keeps
on growing, parents fail to sustain and provide for their children
Such children miss their basics
necessities and decide to go to the streets to fend for themselves.
Lastly, there are stubborn
children who, whatever their parents do to them mentally, physically and
materially, are never satisfied. They desire to live like children of rich
families. As they are not satisfied, they go to the street just to search for
“better lives”. These children are just rebels.
There are many other reasons why
some children find themselves living in streets. What the community should do
to limit the number of street children is: First, to educate the parents on
family planning. Second, parents should know that children have the right to
be loved and taken care of, the right to education and to be listened to.
Children also should know that they have to obey their parents and elders.
Questions
2. Choose the best answer
(i) Street children are__________.
(a)Children born in the street
(b) Homeless children
(c)Orphans.
(d) Children without parents.
(ii) Where are street children
mostly found? In________.
(a)Village
(b)Homes
(c) Big cities
(d)Schools
(iii) The word “loitering” simply
means ____________.
(a) Walking fast in busy streets.
(b) Walking about doing nothing.
(c) Dancing in the street.
(d) Playing in the streets.
(iv)Which of the following
statement is true according to the passage?
(a)Parents should not punish
children
(b)Street children suffer from
AIDS
(c)Street children are all orphan
(d)Irresponsible parents neglect
their children
(v) A child whose parents died of
AIDS __________.
(a) Can become street child.
(b) Must become a street child.
(c) Also suffer from AIDS.
(d) Does not need other people’s
love.
(vi) Children whose parents died
of AIDS_____________.
(a) Their parents are not strict.
(b) Their parents give them their
rights.
(c) Their parents do not have
money.
(d) They miss parental care and
love.
(vii) All street children
____________.
(a) Have been mistreated by their
parents.
(b) Have disobeyed their parents.
(c) Are orphans.
(d) Were forced into the streets
by different problems.
(viii) Who is to blame for the
condition of the street children ____________.
(a) The AIDS disease.
(b) The parents or guardian.
(c) The children themselves.
(d) All the three above.
(xi) One way of reducing street
children suggested by the author is to____________.
(a) Assist parents’ separation.
(b) Encourage parental negligence.
(c) Educate parents on family
planning.
(d) Punish the children.
(x) Suggest a suitable title for
the passage ____________.
(a) Orphans.
(b) Homeless children.
(c) Children in cities.
(d) Village children.
3. With reference to the passage
you have read, answer the following questions:
(i)Give one reason why relatives
refuse to live with children who have lost their parents through
AIDS.______________________
(ii)Mention two reasons why some
children run away from home to live in the streets_____
(iii)What can the community do to
help street children? Give one solution.____rf
Topic 9: INTERPRETING LITERARY WORKS
INTRODUCTION OF LITERATURE
Literature is a creative work of
art which uses creative language to reflect social realities
Key terms
Creative work of art
Creative language
Reflect society: – Political
– Economic
– Cultural
– Social
Types of literature
– Oral literature
– Written literature
Oral is a type of literature which
use the word of mouth to reflect social realities
E.g. myth
Written is a type of literature
represented by means of writing
FUNCTION OF LITERATURE
– Educate the society
– Criticize the society
– National and cultural identity
Examples of oral literature
Myth – Story from ancient times
told to explain natural events describe the early history of people related
to supernatural power Fable – Traditional short story that teaches a moral
lesson especially one with animal’s character Legend – Story from ancient
times that may or may not be him Ballad – Is a long song/poem that tells a
story mostly about an love Riddles – A question that is difficult to understand
and has a surprising answer that you ask somebody as a game Proverbs – As
well known phrase or sentence that gives advice or says something that is
generally true Idiom – An expression whose meaning is different from the
meanings of the individual words that you sing Songs – Short piece of music
with words that you sing Poems – Short writings with chosen words from their
sounds and image they are written in lines or stanza Lullabies – Gentle song
that make a child to sleep Short story – Is a story which is usually about
imaginary character and events that is short enough to be read from the
beginning to the end without stopping Tongue twisters – A word or phrase that
is difficult to say quickly or correctly
Example of tongue twisters
1. Kantai is a Massai boy kantai
can tie and untie a tie. If kantai can tie the tie and untie a tie why can’t
I tie and untie a tie like kantai who can tie and untie a tie?
2. Four fools in form five
fighting for food
3. She sells shiny sea shells at
the sea shore but the shiny sea shells she sells are not sea shore shells
4. God made man made money made
man mad
5. The pots that Peter the porter
makes are portable pots which Paul the porters son carried to portal
6. Betty Better bought some
butter, but she said this butter is bitter if I put it in my butter it will
make it will make my butter bitter. So a bit of better butter will make my
butter better than butter and she put it in her batter and the butter was it
bitter. So Betty Better bought a bit of better butter.
Example of fable
MOTHER RAT AND THE LION
Once upon a time in the forest
there live a lion mother rat and her children and other animals. One day as
the lion was walking around the forest looking for something to rat cried and
begged “please don’t eat me spare me for my children are waiting for me to
bring them food at home help me and I may also help you one day!”
The lion thought about the rats
words and tried to imagine if it was possible for the rat a very small animal
to help a very big animal like him since the rat insisted the lion decided to
let her go
The next day the lion was moving
around the forest as usual unfortunately he stepped on a trap and was
therefore trapped luckily mother rat was passing nearby when she saw the lion
As her promise she went and started
cutting the trip because it was made of nets by using her teeth she succeeded
in helping the lion out of the trap and the lion was so happy and thankful.
The lion was happy and glad that the rat kept her promise
Types of written literature
-Plays
-Novels
-Poetry
-Verse – writing that is arrange
in lines often with a regular rhythm or part of thyme
-Stanza – a group of lines in a
repeated pattern that form a unit in some types of poem
-Rhymes – a word that has the same
sound are ends with the same sound as another word
Example of a poem
Beautiful hands are those that
weave
Bright threads of joy in lives
that grave
Beautiful feet are those that run
On errands of merry from sun to
sun
Beautiful lips are those that
spread
To comfort the mourner
And hearten the weak,
Beautiful eyes are those that glow
With the light of a spirit pure as
snow
Beautiful faces are those that
seem,
With the very love of God to beam,
Beautiful forms are those that
grace
With gentle service the lowliest
place
Beautiful live are those that
beat,
For other lives their burden of
care,
Beautiful souls are those that
show,
The spirit of God where they go
Types of poem
Traditional – strictly follows the
rules of rhymes and meter Modern – do not follow the rules of rhymes and
meter
Characteristics of poem
– Uses short lines/verse
– Use of stanza
– Use mostly figurative language
– Multiple meaning
FUNCTION OF LITERATURE
i. Educates the society
– Transformation of knowledge
ii. Criticize the society
iii. National and cultural
identity
iv. Entertain the society
v. Develop and improve the
language use
Examples of proverbs
– One man’s meat is another man’s
poison
– A stitch in time saves nine
– Hurry has no blessings
– Too many cooks spoil the broth
– An apple never falls far the
from the tree
– An apple a day keeps the doctor
away
Examples of riddles
I have no wings but I can fly. An
aeroplane.
READING SIMPLE LITERARY WORKS
The important things to consider
when reading a story
1. Heading / Tittle: Mabala
2. Writer/ author: Richard S.
Mabala
3. The most important characters
as Mabala
The story is centred on him. The
main character he appears in every chapter of our book.
4. The character you like most and
why?
Sekulu – He is kind
– Hard working
5. The character you dislike most
and why?
Mabala – He is why
– Careless with his money
– Greedy
6. What is the story about?
-Laziness is unacceptable in the
society because it cause poverty
7. Will you advice your friend to
learn the story. Gives reason
_because the story eg laziness in
real sense laziness is unacceptable.
_because the book emphasize that
hard working is a key to success
8. What lesson do you get from the
story?
From the story I learn that if
some one is laziness will never succeed in doing anything
Reading literary works
Write a letter to your friend John
who lives Nairobi tell him about the story book you have read. Sign name
Bahati P.o. Box Dar es salaam. Use the guide lines
-What is the tittle of the book?
-Who is author writer of the book?
-Which character do you like most
(give reason)
-Which character do you dislike
most (give reason)
-What important lesson do you
learn?
-What is book about?
-Would you advice your friend John
to the book why
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
Conditional sentences can be
grouped into three
i. Conditional type one(LIKELY)
ii. Conditional type two
(UNLIKELY)
iii. Conditional type three
(IMPOSSIBLE)
CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE ONE
(LIKELY)
Conditional is formed by two
causes
1. If I eat too much I will get
stomachache 2. I shall call you if I know 3. If she studies French, she will
go to Paris 4. I will go to school, if I pay 5. If she studies too much, she
will go mad 6. If I write my easy the afternoon I will go out 7. I will play
basketball, if I get the ball 8. I will be kill the master, if I get the ball
9. I will be the first, if I study hard
Unless -> if not
I. Unless I get the ball, I wont
play basketball
II. Unless she studies French, she
wont go to London
III. The harvest will fail unless
it rains
IV. Unless I study hard, I wont be
the first
V. I will be the first, if I study
hard.
VI. Unless they come late, they
will find me.
a. If he wake up early he (catch)
the bus
– If he wakes up early he will
catch the bus
b. If he speaks English, he will
go to London (use unless)
– Unless he speaks English, he
will go London
c. If they comes late, they wont
find me (use unless)
– Unless they come late they wont
find me
d. If he does not play, he will
study(Begin with Unless)
– Unless he plays, he will study
CONDITIONAL TYPE TWO
I. If i played crack, I should be
a soldier. II. If he wakes up early, he would catch the bus. III. He would go
to London, If he spoke english. iv. If i run fast, I would be the winner.
CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE THREE
Also called impossible is made up
with two clause
I. They would have collected, if
they had written the work
II. Had I gone to pemba, I would
have got a lot of money
III. Had I come could have
celebrate.
CONJUNCTIONS
Contrastive conjunctions
Contrastive conjunction include
word such as
– Although
– Though
– Inspite of
– Despite
– Despite the fact that
– Even if
– Even though
I. Although
Example
a. I. John woke up early
II. He missed the morning train
-Although John wake up early in
the morning train
b. I. Fidelis has eaten some food
II. He is hungry
– Although fidels has eaten some
food he is hungry
c. I. He has gone to school
II. He does know how to write and
read
– Although he has gone to school
he does know how to write and read
d. Although he was in our group he
is not same like us
e. Although I had I gun, I did not
shoot him
II. THOUGH
a) Though he sought, he was killed
b) Though it was wrong he resist
that it was right
c) Though he has two cars, he walk
on foot
d) Though she resisted rapper she
was rapped
III. INSPITE OF +NOUNS
i. She did not write the competition
although she was beautiful
– She did not win the competition
inspite of her beaut
ii. Though they ran fast they did
not finish the race (inspite or)
– Inspite of ruining fast, they
did not finish the race
iii. They called him bad name, He
was not angry (use inspite to join)
– Inspite of calling him a bad
names he was not angry
iv. He is intelligent, he failed
to answer the question
– Inspite of his intelligence he
failed to answer the question
v. He was sick, he came to class
– Inspite of his sickness he came
to class
IV. Despite
1. Despite his poverty, he went to
school 2. Despite her beauty ,she sold flowers 3. Despite his poverty, he
bought a car 4. They passed the exam, despite of studying hard 5. They failed
their exam, despite of studying 6. They passed the exam, despite the problems
V. The fact that
1. Despite the fact that he was
rich he failed to pay school fees 2. Despite the fact he was tall he ran fast
3. Inspite of the fact that he worked hard he did not get good harvest 4.
Inspite the fact that he was drunk, he saw the snake
Exercise
Re-write the sentences below
according to the instruction given after each
1. Although she speak French she
does not go to Paris
– Inspite of speaking French she
did not go to Paris
ii Despite the success they did
more practices
– Though they success they did
more practices
iii. I did not stop I saw the thief
– Despite the fact that I saw the
thief I did not stop
iv. If I had gone early I would
have been seen him
– Had I gone early I would have
been seen him
v. He (die ) if their car had been
envolved in the accident
– He would have died if their car
had been envolved in the accident
1. Purpose clause 2. Result clause
3. Relative pronouns
1.Purpose clause
Purpose clause include the
following words
1. So as to 2. In order to 3. In
order that
So as to
1. I come to school so as to get
education 2. He does a lot of physical exercise he want to became a good play
(Join so as )
– He does a lot of physical
exercise so as to became a good player
3. He studies biology so as to
became a doctor 4. I read many story book so as to improve English 5. The
plans is designed so as to motivate the employees
In order to
1. I go to school in order to meet
my friends 2. I bought a house in order to live with my family 3. I joined
the way army in order to fight for my countries
So that
Model auxiliary verb
Will – would
Shall –should
Can – could
May-might
1. I read many story book I want
to became an author (join using so that)
– I read a many story book so that
I can became an author
II. Jesus sacrificed himself so
that our sin can be forgiven
III. He goes to school so that he
can help his parent IV. I played judo so that I could be Tanzanian Ninja
In order that
Model auxiliary verb
Will- would
Shall-should
Can- could
May- might
1. I go to town in order I can
meet my relative 2. They study in order that they can communicate with foreign
3. He work hard in order that I can pass my exams
Re write the sentence according to
instruction given after each
1. The students went to Bagamoyo
so as to observe historical remaining
– The student went to Bagamoyo so
that they could observe historical remain
II. They play football. He want to
became the professional player(in order that) – The boy plays football in
order he can became the professional player
Iii. He goes to London. He wants
to see the queen (so as) – He goes to London so as to see the queen
IV. They study day and night. They
want to be experts(in order ) – They study day and night in order to be exper
V. John read many story books. He
wanted to became flunting English
– John read many story so that ha
can became fluenting English
RELATIVE CLAUSE / PRONOUNS
Relative clause include such word
as who, whom, which, whose, that, what
A)WHOSE; ( Possessive relative
clause)
i. A boy is my friend. His mother
is a doctor( join using whose )
– A boy whose mother is doctor is
my friend ii. The girl whose leg was injured yesterday is coming iii. The boy
whose book is lost is crying iv. The house whose doors is red is burned v.
The boy whose hi father accused Mr. Richmond is here with us
B) WHICH
i. The book which I read is very
interesting
ii. The pen which I bought is not
writing iii. The story which we listening is very horror iv. The love they
have is strong v. The book which is used is very expensive
C) WHO
i. The boy who come here yesterday
is my friend ii. The women who is boarding a bus is my mother iii. The woman
who taught you sports is my mother iv. The woman who was caught cheating on
her husband is divorced v. The boy who was caught with the girl is in form
three
D) WHOM
i. The man whom I saw is not here
ii. He is a person to whom I gave
the book iii. They are people whom she said
Exercise
Complete the following sentence
with a suitable expression from the alternative
a) Jane is the girl whose father
work at IPP media
b) I have been waiting for his
examination for four years now
c) I traveled to Kilosa by train
d) Simon is a tall, Jangala is a
taller than him, but Muhugo is the tallest
e) All the children have eaten
their meal
2. Re write the following sentence
according to instruction given after each
a) Had you been careful you could
have come first in her examination
b) Dotto was nervous kurwa was
equally nervous
– Dotto was as nervous as Kurwa
c) Lillian does not speak as much
as English as her brother (rewrite than)
– Lillian does not speak English
more than her brother
d) Tina has never seen a lion on
her life(never)
– Never has Tina seen a lion on
her life
e) I saved some money in order to
TV
– I saved some so that I could by
TV
3. Supply question to tag to the
sentences
a) She does well in all her exams
Does she?
b) They do not know what they are
doing Do they?
c) Could you use phone. Couldn’t
you?
d) He know what will happen.
Didn’t he?
e) You never come early. Do you?
f) The police helped us a lot.
Didn’t they?
4. Change the sentence below into
passive voice
a) I am studying history and
English
– History and English are being
studies by me
b) They have written the story to
the D.C
– The letter has been written to
the D.C by me
c) They where beating the dog
– The dog was being beaten by them
Topic 10: WRITING CARDS AND MESSAGES
WRITING CARDS:
Cards are written pieces of
information we send to our parents, relatives or friends.
They help us to invite our friends
or relatives to parties or any other social functions. Cards are also used
for giving information about a variety of events like deaths, sickness and
the like. In addition cards are used for exchanging greetings and expressing
certain feelings to our friends or relatives. Such feelings include sympathy
when friends are in trouble or congratulations when they succeed in a variety
of life stages. Events like death, birthday, wedding, graduation and
Examinations are the one for which cards are mainly written. Unlike in
letters, the information written on Cards should be short and clear.
There are several kinds of Cards.
But we can categories them into three major types which are post cards,
greetings and invitation cards.
INVITATION CARD
Are these one which people
normally send to their friends or relatives to invite them to certain
functions or parties. Below is an example of an invitation cards.
Accepting
1 st November, 2006.
Dear Mr. Juma,
Thank you very much for your kind
invitation to the graduation ceremony on Saturday 3 rd .
I have pleasure to tell you that I
will come on that day I do not have any other commitment
Your sincerely
A.A Jamii
Regretting
The following is a layout of an
invitation cards.
Writing messages
Messages are immediate information
we send to our parents, relatives and friends. Messages are usually shorter
and clear than other forms of conveying information like letters. Messages do
not offer online conversation instead the information is communicated in
written form.
The sender of the message must
indicate clearly, where the message is from and to who it is sent. Therefore,
the words or phrases like from …… to …. Date …., to me …. Signature. …… etc.
Message layout
Example
Leaving a written note message
Written messages are especially
important in organizations or working places like offices, schools and
hotels. These messages are equally.
Important at homes. Most often we
leave messages or notes to let people know about our whereabouts when we
happen to be absent.
Short messages are written to
quickly pass information notify somebody of something or to make arrangement
for something. You can put at an open space, on the table on the door or
anywhere you think your addressee can easily see and read it.
Example
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