OTHER ENGLISH STUDY NOTES
Topic 1: LISTERNING TO AND UNDERSTANDING SIMPLE TEXTS ABOUT A VARIETY OF EVENTS AND
Listening To and Understanding Simple Oral Texts on Events
It was Sports Day at our school so students gathered at the playground which was
full of students from different schools within the Morogoro region. At 4pm, a
match between Kilakala Secondary School and Bigwa Secondary School, a sister
school began. The referee called all players to line up at the centre of the
football pitch and the coaches directed their teams to the centre of the
football pitch. Spectators gathered and cheered at their teams. One of
players, Siha, injured another player, Janet, on her leg. Janet was given
first aid and treated for her injuries.
When the match approached the to end, two students ran into each other, and one of
them, Jane, fainted. Five minutes before the end of the match, the Kilakala
football team scored a goal, declaring them the winners. The referee blew his
whistle and the team members left the football pitch.
Meaning of Common Vocabulary used in sports story example
(a) Suddenly –
(b) Spectator – People who are watching something
(c) Exciting – something you enjoy so much
(d) Attract – make people like to see something
Give the meaning of the following words as used in the story:
Graduation – a party of student who has finished school
Activities – work
Arrange – plan
e.g. The teacher said that we should arrange our chair
Imagine – think of it
Example: Imagine a female present in Tanzania
Make two sentences using the words; Graduation and
Prepositions of Time “At” and “in”
(a) The party started at 8:00
(b) The guest of honor arrived at 12:00
(c) We ate lunch in the evening
(d) The sleep at right
(e) We arrived at school in the morning
Listening to and Understanding Simple Texts
The school Head Master’s office is next to the laboratory which students use to conduct different experiments in
biology, chemistry and physics. At 2 pm, students go to the assembly hall for
daily announcements on routines and activities. The dining hall is between
the school lab and the dormitory; students eat their meals in the dinning
hall. There are many fruit vendors near the dining hall selling apples,
pineapples, oranges, and bananas. After their meal at 5 pm, students go to
their dormitories to shower and clean up. There are several bathrooms and
laundry rooms where the students take baths and wash their clothes. After
their evening meals, students normally go to the classrooms for personal
MY FIRST DAY AT SECONDARY SCHOOL
My name is Evelyn Livoga, my father’s name is Mr. Livoga
and my mother’s name is Mrs. Grace Livoga. I am fifteen years old. I am black
in colour and tall, thin in size.
My first day at secondary school was exciting. I was very
excited. When I arrived at school saw some of my friends who come to me and
helped me with my luggage to the Head Mistress office for checkup. I waved by
to my parents and they gave me a hug.
When I went to the office they checked my luggage and they
showed me the way to the dormitory. I went to the dormitory hurriedly and
keep my luggage. Then I took bath and I went to class.
When I reached to the class I made my friends and they
gave me a lot of loving company. After a half an hour the bell rang and
everybody followed the bell.
All the teachers come in front of us and started
introducing themselves and lastly the Head Mistress introduced herself. Her
name is Sis. Magreth.
When it reached seven O’clock we had our first dinner at
this precious school called St. Joseph Millennium Secondary School. After one
and half hour we had our evening prayers and we went to our dormitory to
sleep, since then our patron come and showed everybody her room.
After that I prepared my bed and I have my bed ready to
sleep. My room where very charming and the patron was very good. I pray for
myself and I slept. I hope my road of success will be successful at the end.
Make two sentences using the words spectators and Exciting
LISTERNING TO DICTATION
is the act or process of saying or reading words which are written down by
another person. It can take place in school seminars or certain training
Write down the text as read by the teacher
A terrible accident occurred last Sunday along Morogoro Road; a lorry hit a
pedestrian crossing the road at the Msamvu junction. The pedestrian died on
the spot. The police arrived at the scene of the accident and called an
ambulance from Morogoro Regional Hospital. The body was taken to the
hospital’s mortuary before being collected by relatives and buried at Kola
Write down the words below as read by a teacher
Topic 2: GIVING DIRECTIONS
Giving direction helps to show where someone he/she want to reach also through this topic
students could have a knowledge on how to ask for directions and identify the
four points of a compass; The Common words (prepositions)
used includes: left, right, straight, crossing, opposite,
near to, in front of, beside, behind, under, adjacent to, between, on, in,
to, by, at, into, onto, etc. for different situations.
The main purpose of this topic is to give compass direction mainly four cardinal points
i.e. East, West, North, South
The compass is instrument for find
direction. It has magnetized needle which sits on a face. The face has
different directions drawn on it. The needle always points to the magnetic
north. The compass sometimes called Magnetic compass.
Learning words and expressions related to the directions below:
Asking for and giving directions
Rehema: Excuse me could you tell
me the way to the pharmacy?
Suzy : yes, it’s that the way,
just go straight away after two houses turn left, it’s on the corner
opposite the post office.
Rehema: Thanks, I’ have only been
in town for a few days, so I really don’t know my way around yet
Suzy: Oh! I know how you feel. I was
born in this town so I know where everything is.
In giving directions:
- Use transitions: After that, then, next, when
you get to……… go
- Specify distance: Some people feel better
knowing how long it will take to get to their destination, example
“it’s about five minutes away.”
- Use landmarks: “You will see large
clock”, “You will see blue large building.”
- More useful language: It’s on [street name], It’s
opposite …., It’s near…..
- Repeat yourself: If you repeat the direction
again, the other person will feel comfortable.
- Clarify: Make sure that the person
understands your directions, example “did you get all that?”
- Don’t guess: I am sorry, I’m not from
here, I’m afraid I can’t help you.”
Look at the Map below. Imaging
your one of the children asking for the direction. Practice asking for and giving
1 The mosque 2. The dispensary 3.
The market 4. The school 5.The agriculture office
Locating places Discuss the
location of the school
-Where the school situated in
Tanzania? (north, south, East, west or central)
-Is it in town or in the country side?
-Are there any houses, shops or offices
– How many roads lead to the school? -Do the roads leading to your school have
|Topic3: USING A DICTIONARY |
Dictionary: It is a kind of a book or reference that containing words
of a language, arranged alphabetically and showing class and uses. We often
use a dictionary to look up a word. We do this when we do not know what the
word means. Dictionaries are organised to help us look up word easily
Importance of Dictionary book
1. Gives meaning of words
2. Shows words of
the same meaning
3. Shows words which mean the opposite
4. Show the classes of word (verb, nouns, objectives)
5. Show how words are used
6. Show how words are made
7. Show how words are pronounced.
Synonyms: words, which mean the same, a called synonyms Examples: -Angry – mad Cried – shouted Huge – big Hate –
dislike Clever – bright
Antonyms: A dictionary also shows words which mean the opposite
words which means the opposite are called antonyms Examples:
o Hate – like o Ugly – beautiful
o Slow – fast
o Friendly – enemy
o Strong – weak Word formation A dictionary also shows how words are made. This is called
– A noun can be made from a verb or from an Adjective Example vacate (v) –vocation (N) Some Nouns end with
(i) …………….. ion (examination)
(ii) …………………ty (beauty)
(iii) ………………….ness (politeness)
(iv) ……………………ce (importance)
Some of the objectives end with
(i) ………… ous (poisonous)
(ii) …………. Al (trial)
(iii) …………..ic (electric)
(iv) ………….. an (African)
(v) ………….. ful (helpful)
Pronunciation: A dictionary shows how words are pronounced English words
are pronounced differently from Kiswahili. The way the English words are
written is different from the way they pronounced.
Example: see –pronounced as /si/ and not see Exercise Write the following words as they are pronounced in the dictionary
Example: King –/KiÅ‹/ (i) Sing = (ii) Cheek = (iii) Cart = (iv) Chest = (v) Dish = Exercise Show differences of pronunciation of the underlined words.
1. Please sit on the seat 2. I left my hat in the hut 3. Pull
the boy from the pool 4. Do not hurt my heart
Topic 4: EXPRESSING PERSONAL AND
GROUP ROUTINE /HABITS
Every person or group of people
who stay together (school) has daily routine or activity. This can be
expressed by different works, everyday, often, usually, daily, every month.
Usually action is expressed in present simple tense or habitual aspect. The social area/ focus is on the
At 10:00 A.M break starts. We go
out for a break of 30 minutes. During break time, I drink tea with some
snacks. At 10:30 A.m. I go back to class. Classes end at 2:00 p.m.
After classes I go home at 2:45
P.M. I eat lunch.
As a student’s what is your Daily
Take a shower – wash the whole body
Attendance – counting people
Supper – food eaten at the right (a right meal)
“ON” –is used with days and dates
– I go to church on Sundays.
– I go to the Mosque on Friday
– I was born on 03 rd May 1978
“AT” –is used with exact time
– He come at six o’clock
– We traveled at night
– The lesson starts at 8:00 am.
“IN” –is used with parts of the
day, months and years
– He came in the evening
– School will be closed in
– He was born in 2009
We can also ask questions using
Note: Does –is for singular nouns
Do –is for plural nouns and
(i) Does she speak English?
(ii) Does he come to school late?
(iii) Does she smoke?
(iv) Do they speak English?
(v) Do they come to school late?
(vi) Do we have to write our
Make question using does and do
1. Does …………………………..?
3. Do ….…………………………..?
4. Do ….…………………………..?
Topic 5: EXPRESSING ON GOING ACTIVITIES
This activity can be done by
individual or somebody else. They refer to what is going on at a time of
observation guessing, talking and so on. This is PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE or
– The verbs end with …ing
(i) Martha and Consolata are
sweeping the floor
(ii) It is looking at you
(iii) They are eating rice
(iv) You are playing nicely
– When you go to school in the morning there are a lot of activities going on, you will see
(i) Some students sweeping the
(ii) Some students watering the
(iii) Some students parading
(iv) Some teachers shouting to the
(v) Parents paying fees.
Flowering, watering, chasing,
snoring, reading, shouting, waiting, glorying, drinking, ringing, banking,
blowing, cutting, shrinking .
Note: present continuous tense He
She is It
I am + verb ……………ing They We are You
Topic 6: EXPRESSING LIKES AND
The word like (v) means to be
sound as or pleased with from the verb we get the word like (vi) and dislike
(Ti) opposite or antonym. Grammatically likes/ dislike are not nouns but only
used in everyday talks (spoken English) whether like or dislike the force
behind them are human feeling, taste experience traditions.
– Usually like and dislike are
expressed in non-verbal forms of communication such as gesturers, social
expressions movement nodding.
– Non- verbal –communication is
also called body language
Question : what game do you like
Answer : I like football and
Question : what music do you like
Answer : I like bongo flava
Question : what drink do you like
Answer : I like orange Juice only
The most suitable is ……..to…………
Example: I prefer———
(i) I prefer tea to coffee
(ii) I prefer English to Kiswahili
(iii) I prefer reading to writing
Exercise Make ten (10) sentences using the
following words below
Topic 7: TALKING ABOUT ONES FAMILY
– Expressing family relations:
A family is smallest social unit.
The family consists of father, mother, children and relatives. This kind of a
family is called Extended family
1. Uncle – The brother of your
father or mother
2. Cousin – The child of your uncle or aunt.
3. Nephew – The
son of you r brother or sister
4. Niece – The daughter of your brother or
5. Sister –in –law – The sister of your wife or husband
6. Father in-
law – the father of your wife or husband
7. Grandfather – The father of your
father or mother
8. Brother in- law – The brother of your wife of husband
Grandmother – The mother of your father or mother 10. Aunt – The sister of
your father or mother
A family tree Mabula married
Kalunde.They have two children ,Robert and Rose. Robert got married to Rehema
and they have two children Tyson and Diana Rose at mrried to Juma and they
have two children;Bush and Sijapata Study the following diagram:
Expressing occupations of family
Members of a family usually has
daily activity for production or social services
Vocabulary; Venders, Tailors,
Sailors, Plumber, Nurse,Teacher.
Fill in the following table with
the right information. The first one has been done for you.
OWNERSHIP OR POSSESSION
Possession refers to one having
his/her property such as school, pen, houses, car, home, and farm
– Most occurring words
(i) Possessive pronouns: e.g. my,
her, his, our, their
(ii) Other terms: posses, belong,
own, property of….
– My father owns a boat
– My sister own a big house
– I have a hen
– We possess a big library
– That bus belongs to my father
DESCRIBING PHYSICAL APPEARANCE
People differ in physical
appearance in terms of height, size, colour,[complexion] morphology, hair,
eyes, ears, nose, teeth, fingers, legs, toes, chest head.
Study the following text
Mr. Kibakaya is a light coloured
skinned man in our street. He is baldheaded and his remaining hairs gray.
Older people say that he has a fair complexion. His daughter is skinning,
tall but tenders. She is beautiful and attracts attention whenever she
passes. Her twisting eyes confuse young man. She puts on her-heals on every
weekend. Her young brother is shot and fat, he looks handsome and magnetic to
girls his chest is wide as well as frightening nose
Every person has a particular
behavior that display his/her character: Example: cruel, greedily, rude,
rough, carelessness, generous, gentle, sincere, open, lian
(i) He is a rude boy at our school
(ii) She is careless that her
uniform is full of sports
(iii) A sincere student is liked
(iv) You’re a liar
Character changes because of age
education and people around, character reflects moral and cultural value.
People from broken families usually show bad character. Character can also be
understood through a language that a person uses.
We can also ask questions using
the words in the box
(i) Who is shouting?
(ii) What are you doing?
(iii) Which boo is yours?
(iv) Whose pen is this?
(v) When do we go home?
Topic 8; EXPRESSING OPINIONS AND
What is your opinion?
Do you like city life or rural
There are some people who want to
go to live in towns. They think that life is cheap and simple there. They
think they can buy cars, houses, good clothes etc.
Giving opinions can be easily
expressed during debates
1. Boarding schools provide better
education than day school 2. Co- education school are better than single sex
school 3. Special ability schools are not special in rolling students 4.
Students failure in examination is due to poor teaching.
Look at the following ways in
which we can express opinions in English
a) Asking for opinion
b) expressing an opinion
In my opinion,school rules are a
waste of time
c) supporting opinion
d) opposing an opinion
e) Expression doubt
Chief proposer and opposes,
audience, guest, speaker, secretary
Suggest, view, evaluate, propose,
against, think, argue, advise, disagree, equally, feeling can be expressed.
I feel hungry
You are happy
Expressing state of health
Examples Are you sick ? What are
you suffering from? Yesterday I had a headache Exercise Write conversations
between a doctor and patient
Topic 9: TALKING ABOUT PAST EVENTS/
This give a particular form of
verb endings it is sometimes called PAST TENSE
Note: common adverb
Last week, yesterday etc.
My brother got married last Friday
Last week they closed the school
Expressing past activities
Tense is expressed by verbs. These
verbs in the past tense be have with regular ending with-ed,-ed, and others
behave with irregular ending. Example see-saw, get-got, cut-cut.
Adverbs that show past tense
1. Yesterday – I saw him yesterday
2. Last – we were at club last Friday 3. Ago – they met two years ago 4.
Previous – she experienced this problem from the previous.
– Such characteristics of
irregular verb also apply to helping or modal verbs
Note: the past tense of the above
modal helping verbs are common in conditional clauses that is if………
Past perfect tense
Subject + had + verb in participle
I had seen several football games
I had done the job
Adjective: is a word that is used
to describe a noun or a pronoun
General classification of
(i) Adjectives of colour
e.g. black, yellow, green, purple,
(ii) Adjectives of size and shape
e.g. small, giant, round, etc
(iii) Adjectives of quantity
e.g. many, few, little, much
(iv) Adjectives of age
e.g. old, new, middle, young.
(v) Proper adjectives or
adjectives of origin
e.g. African, Kenyan, French
(vi) Adjective of use
e.g. useful, useless
ORDER OF ADJECTIVE
Where there is more than one
adjective before a noun in a sentence, the order of adjectives is as follows:
(a) 1 st adjective – Describes the
(b) 2 nd adjective – Describes the
general size and shape
(c) 3 rd adjective – Describes age
(d) 4 th adjective – Describes
(e) 5 th adjective – Describes
where it comes from (origin)
(f) 6 th adjective – Describes
what is made up of
(g) 7 th adjective – Noun Examples:
Topic 10: EXPRESSING FUTURE PLANS AND ACTIVITIES
Future exists in different forms
(1) Intention – necessity -shall
(2) Probability – possibility -will
How to form future?
Subject + shall/will + be + main
It will be there tomorrow
Subject + will + be + clause
When we want to talk about things
what we shall do tomorrow, next week, next month we use words like
– Going to
Tomorrow I’m going to write my
mother a letter.
She will tell you something good
We shall visit you next month
Going to, will and shall show
Future continues activities
Subject + will or shall + (be) +
verb ……..ing + clause
You will be leaving the school at
We shall be singing in the church
Mention 4 things that you are
going to do after you have finished form four
1. Mention three (3) things which
will happen to someone who has HIV/AIDS
Note: will is used all persons in
the singular and plural for example i) you will be wait ii) I will go to the
market tomorrow Shall is sometimes use instead of
will, It is used in statement in the fist personal singular or plural, It
shows determination or promise about future activities for example i) We shall
play hard and we shall win the game: (determination) ii) I shall write to you
as soon as i arrive in Mpwapwa (promise)
Topic 11: READING A VARIETY OF TEXTS (INTENSIVE READING)
Reading refers to slow and careful reading in details which specific learning aims and tasks. Intensive reading involves reading for composition.
Read the following composition then answer the question.
A FOOLISH CUSTOMER
One day Mr. Juha seat in a hotel drinking some coffee. A boy come to him that he was selling afternoon papers.
“Which papers do you have? Juha asked. “I have the Daily news and The
Guardian”, the boy said. “Well, give me both. How much do they cost?” Mr.
Juha asked. “One thousand two hundred for both. The Guardian sells at seven
hundred” the boy said, “Oh, that is very expensive; just give, The Daily
Mr. Juha gave the boy ton thousand
shillings note. The boy said he had no change. “Let me go for the change
sir”, the boy said “No! No! No!” you will run away with my money! Leave your
papers here with me” Mr. Juha said. The boy left happily leaving Juha with
the papers after two hours Mr. Juha counted the papers that the boy had left.
They were only three! Juha laughed Kwe! Kwe! Kwe! Of course the boy never
Write True (T) or false (F) to the following sentences
(i) Juha sat in a hotel reading the Daily news
(ii) The Guardian costs five hundred shillings
(iii) Juha change was 8,800/=
(iv) Juha counted his change
Provide meaning of the following terms.
i) someone who buys things from
the seller, buyer, client
ii) The price of something e.g. my
shoes cost me five thousand shilling only
iii) Money left buying something
iv) An item whose price is very high
Make two sentences using the words
expensive and cost
Topic 12: INTERPRETING LITERARY WORKS
Intensive reading: Involves comprehension and summary while reading a class reader (books) its chapters,
the following activities should be done.
1. Understanding the writing and pictures on the front cover, usually they summarize or give a piece of
information of what is in the class reader (book)
2. Title of the class reader (book)
– A name or topic which is discussed in the chapters
3. Author: A person writes a book must be memorized.
4. Main or chief character(s) he/
she is the main actor
5. Minor character persons or
animals in the story
6. Setting (venue –A particular
place in which the story take place Example, Dar es salaam, Nairobi, Kampala
7. Difficult words should be selected and their meaning understood either by using a dictionary (decretive
memory) or according how they are used in the book.
8. To summarize each chapter in one or two sentences and finally the whole book into one to five sentences.
9. The lesson one can learn from the book.
10. The importance or significance or relevant of the book in society
It is still useful or not Intensive reading therefore means reading deeply while extensive reading refers to reading widely (a lot of
Skimming –Narrow information into
one sentences or passage Scanning – Reading intensively for specific
Definition of teams
1. Author – A person who write a book or storing
2. Plot – The main sequence of events in a play, novel
3. Theme – Subject of a taller,piece of writing
4. Chapter – main division of a book
5. Character – Particular nature of someone
6. Setting – way of place in which something is setting
7. Summary – A brief statement of the main point
8. Comprehension- The ability to understand
9. Publisher – A company or person that Publisher, book, News, Paper, Journal
I. Who is the author?
The author is Richard S. Mabala
II. List of what you see in front
(a) Hawa the bus driver
(b) The bus
(c) Ubungo plaza (the weather building)
(d) 114 (the number route of the
(e) UDA (the name of a car)
(f) Isuzu (the name of the company of the car)
(g) T 140 ADS (the plate number of the car)
(i) Route of the bus K/Koo
III. Mention the name of the publish.
The publisher is Ben and company Ltd.
IV. Who is the main character of the whole book why?
Hawa is the main character of the book because she is the one who the whole story is taking about her being a
V. Names of the character
(i) Selemani (ii) Hawa (iii) Mzee
Athumani (iv) Saada (v) Hassani
Hawa the bus driver
– Famous in Dar es salaam
– Very strong woman, tall, tough
– Weight 82kgs
– Bus driver
– The lioness
– Husband of Hawa
– Worker at Urafiki Texttile Mill
– A medicine operator
– Tall, strong
– Smilling, cool
CHAPTER II, HAWA’S DAY
– Hawa lives in Manzese, suburb of
Dar es Salaam.
– Two children Hassan and Sauda
– Primary school teacher George
– A nurse Chausiku, best friend of
CHAPTER III HAWA AND THE DRUNKED
– Hawa focus trouble from a
– The conductor, Meshack
co-operates with passengers to help Hawa comfort the drunkard
– The drunkard is taken to police
CHAPTER IV HAWA AND THE THIEVES
– During the night shift, A man
with a pistol pointed at Hawa
– Hawa hijacked and ordered to
drive to Mbezi
– Made attack with a passenger who
was in a blue overall
– Hawa stopped the bus abruptly
– The thief was overcome by
grabbing the pistol
– The passengers helped
– The thief was taken to the
– Hawa becomes the Heroine with
mind that arms are like baobab trees.
Accidents are common in Dar es
salaam due to drivers negligence, driving to fast disobey traffic lights,
ignore other cars
Changu ni changu chota chako
Bus coach hit a primary school boy
– Hawa takes troubles to take him
– Passengers are angry as well as
police officers her hart is as sweet as ripe mango
CHAPTER VI SELEMAN IS JEALOUS
– Seleman is jealous because his
wife is more famous
Hawa the great
– Some of Selemani’s friends
advised him that it is wrong for a wife to be famous and bad to drive a bus
– Selemani orders his wife a stop
driving and stay at home.
– Unwilling Hawa decides to resign
– Before submitting a resignation
letter her fellow drivers advice her not to do so until they take with her
– After a long discussion selemani
changes his mind and allow Hawa to drive after seeking his opinion to.
– Hawa and Seleman, continued to
live happy together.
Lesson or significance or
Generally, Hawa the bus driver is
still relevant in society.
– Heroine drivers
– Role of women to prepare
breakfast/ meal for the family
– Mockery against women who exceed
in society above men has no place anymore.
– Hijackers of business and planes
– Accidents in urban areas/ cities
– Healous of husband who do not
like to hear their wife.
a, an, the, are called articles
A: uses of article “a and an” (Indefinite Articles)
(i) “a” is used for countable
Example: a book, a boy
“an” is also used for countable
singular Nouns but those which start with a pronunciation of a vowel a, e, I,
o, u etc.
Example: an elephant, an egg
But we can also say an honest man
because although the word honest start with “h” yet “h” is not pronounced. In
pronunciation the word starts with a vowel “O” /Onist/
(ii) a/an are used to refer to
things which are not clear to us (indefinite)
– A national party (which one?)
– A man is outside (who?)
(i) a/an are used to introduce
something or a person for the first time.
I bought a radio.
The radio was stolen after two
(ii) an/a are used with illness
I have a cold/ a headache
I have a stomachache
Note: we don’t use articles with
Example: measles, mumps
We also don’t use articles with:
blood pressure, flu, gout or hepatitis
You cannot say
I have a blood pressure but you
I have blood pressure
(iii) an/a are used when
describing someone’s nationality.
She is an American
He is an African
She is a Tanzanian
Note: Do not put a if the Noun is
Example: I saw a boys (No!)
But: I saw boys (Yes)
Put in the space below article a
or an or put a dash (-) if no article is needed
(i) I can repair __________ car
(ii) I can write__________ letters
(iii) I can eat______________
(iv) Use_______ ruler to draw
(v) I am ________Tanzania
DEFINITE ARTICLE “The”
Uses of “the” is used with the
E.g. the OAU, the UNO
E.g. The M.V Express
(iii) before certain expressions
e.g. –in the afternoon
– on the previous day
(iv) On public bodies
e.g. the police, the RTD
(v) HISTORICAL EVENTS:
e.g. The Arusha declaration
The majimaji war
e.g. The UMD party
(vii) The press e.g. The Daily
(viii) River E.g. The Ganges, The
(ix)Before musical instruments
e.g. He plays the guitar
(x) Mountains e.g. The Alps The
(xi)Ocean e.g. The Atlantic
(xii) Things mentioned for the
e.g. I bought a shirt and an
umbrella, The shirt is now old
(xiii) Used before the name of a
country which consist of an Adjective! Example: The United Kingdom The Soviet
Union The United Arab
The West German
The Great Britain
The New Zealand
(xiv) Things which are unique (the
only one) e.g. The stars,
The Kilimanjaro hotel,
(xv)Used before superlative e.g.
The biggest boy The most beautiful girl
(xvi) The only thing found in the
house e.g. The wall The window The roof The kitchen The floor
Note: Do not use articles
(i) In front of uncountable Nouns
e.g. I like butter
(ii) With languages
e.g. English is a world language
(iii) In front proper Nouns
e.g. Mwamsiku is our Headmaster
Definition: is an art which uses
imaginative language in a pattern of lines and sounds to express deep
thought, feeling or human experience. However there are different definitions
of the term poetry depending on the author, we can generally define poetry as
the art of composing or writing poems.
Note: poems are meant for singing
Structure of poetry
1. What is a poem?
It is a piece of writing arranged
in patterns of lines and sounds.
2. What is poet?It is an artist of
writer who composes poems
3. What is stanza?It is a group of
lines divisions in a poem
4. What is a verse?
It is a single line in a poem
5. What is simile?
It is a way of comparing things
using words like……………as…………or like……………………….
6. What is metaphor?
It is a way of comparing things
without words of comparison
7. What is imaginary?
It is an art of drawing word
picture by comparing the reality of what is talked about to different but
relevant aspect of reality.
8. What is rhyme?
Words with some sound at the end
of the verse e.g. fly, tie, pie.
9. What is alliteration?
Words with some sound at the
beginning of words in verse reinforce the meaning.
Example: pixpox ,pax pox etc.
1. What is reiteration?
It is repetition of a word, a
verse or even a stanza for a particular effect
e.g. You are dead and dead and
1. Content –What the poem is about
or what to describes
2. Themes/ Message –Lessons we
learn from the poem or novels message e.g. ignorance, exploitation, friendship
3. Form –how the poem is arranged
(stanza and verses)
4. Mood – attitude of the poet
e.g. happiness, anger,
5. Symbolism –using a person or
object /animals as if they are people
EAT MORE GRASS (JOE CORRIE)
“Eat more grass” the slogan says
more fish, more beef, more bread but I’m on unemployment-pay my third year
now and weed.
Read the following poem very fast
Katai is a Masai
Katai can tie and untie a tie
If katai can tie and untie a tie
Why can’t I tie a tie?
Like katai, cantie
And untie a tie?
(i) Which tribe is
(ii) What can katai
Between – is used with two things
Among – is used with more than two
– Kibile is standing between two
– Riwa Kariwa is standing among
– The car is between two buses – Ruth is among ten girls who
failed the exams.
TOPIC 13: ANALYSING INFORMATION
Analysing Information from the Media
Facts from Media
Identify facts from media
Facts are pieces of information
regarded as truth beyond reasonable doubtthatcan be proved or verified.
Read the article below extracted
from a newspaper and identify factual information from it.
It is a shame that many girls do not
know how to say no to boys who make sexual advances on them. Some girls say no
yet still use non verbal actions that suggest a ‘yes.’ What do you think the
boy will believe? ‘Boys assume that ‘no’ is a half hearted yes’, said the
minister for social and welfare development. For example, when a girl says ‘I
don’t think we should do it,’ while looking down at the floor, eating her
fingers or killing an unseen insect, her ‘no’ does not get across. Why don’t
you say ‘no’ while looking directly into the boy’s face? There are some girls
who don not know how to explain themselves when they are asked by boys why they
have refused – they start laughing instead of saying ‘no’ and meaning it. For
girls to be valued by others, they have to value themselves first. Remember,
there are many ‘hit’ and ‘run’ boys who are only after sex. Please say ‘no’ to
them, and mean ‘no.‘ You will be preventing pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and other
sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Look out for your future, mean what you
say, if it is ‘yes’ then say it knowing what you are getting into, and if it is
‘no’ it must be a strong ‘No’!
Write ‘F’ for facts and ‘NF’
for non fact in the following statement extracted from the passage above
- Girls should say ‘no’ to mean ‘no’ and not ‘yes’ to
boys who are hit and run.
- Girls should say ‘yes’ and get into sexual intercourse
- Girls should value themselves before being valued by
- Some girls don’t know how to express themselves when
they asked for sex by boys
- Girls eat their finger and insects around when they are
raped by the hit and run boys.
Analysing Non-Factual Information from the Media
Non-Factual Information from Media
Identify non-factual information
Non-factual information refers to information
which is not true, lacks an element of truth, and cannot be proved beyond
doubt. It contains some elements of uncertainty.
Read the texts below and answer the
questions that follow:
I think Tanzania’s forests are in
trouble. It is possible that Tanzania could lose its entire forest cover in
under a century if more is not done to reduce the current rate of
deforestation, estimated at round one million acres each year. There is a
possibility that Mt. Kilimanjaro itself is severely affected by environmental
damage. Perhaps, for thousands of years, the Serengeti winds would sweep over
the cool and humid forest air carrying this moisture to the top of the
mountain, but this is occurring at a smaller scale due to environmental
It might be the deforestation on the
slopes of mountain Kilimanjaro has contributed to the melting of its glaciers
causing the East African trade winds to stay dry and warm accelerating the
demise of the snow caps as this air flow reaches the summit. The dry winds also
is no longer replenishing the glaciers, therefore, aiding in the demise of
these magnificent mountains of ice. According to UN, Tanzanians population
probably may be growing by over 2 percentages per year. It is possible to
increasing rate of deforestation due to the demand of charcoal as a cheap
source of energy. In addition burning down and cleaning of forests for crop
cultivation in order to cater for this growth.
- Analyse the non factual information from the text
- Identify five indicators of non factual information
from the text above.
- Give the meaning of the following words as used in the
passage: a) Ice, d) Fauna, b) Snow, e) deforestation, c) Flora, f) land
- State whether the statement below is fact or non
fact, according to the passage above. a) Tanzania’s flora and fauna
may lose its habitat because of deforestation. b) Tanzania’s population is
growing by over 2 percent according to UN, c) There is a possibility of
melting of glaciers due to the dry winds in the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro.
d) The snow and glaciers from Serengeti go up onto Mt. Kilimanjaro summit.
Listen carefully to the newspaper
text on gender read by your teacher and point out five facts and five non facts
orally and in writing.
Topic 14: WRITING A PERSONAL LETTER
Friendly or personal letters are
means of communication through letter. We normally write letters to loved ones,
including mothers, fathers, uncles, aunts, sisters, brothers, lovers, wives,
husbands, teachers, friends, etc.
We normally use statements such as
‘Dear mother’, ‘Dear father’, ‘Dear sister’, ‘Dear friend’, ‘hi daddy’,’ hi
mummy’, ‘hi aunt’. in the greeting (introduction part). We use expressions such
as ‘your loving daughter’, ‘your loving son’, ‘your loving………’, ‘missing
you……..’in the closing remarks.
Components of a friendly letter
- Writer’s address -written on top right hand corner.
- Date – below the sender address.
- Salutation – comes after the address.
- Main body-states the aim or purpose of the letter.
- Closing statement-ending the letter.
- Signature and name of the writer/sender- extreme end of
Kongani Secondary School,
P. O. Box 340,
It is my hope that you are doing
well. It’s been a long time since I last wrote to you. I am generally fine and
continue with my studies. By the way, we will close school for a short holiday
this Saturday till early April. I ask that you send me some money for a bus
fare from school.. Please send me the money very soon so that I may pay the
transport officers. Greetings to brothers Jorum and Maven and sisters Jacky and
Joan, as well as all my friends.
I hope to see you during holiday and
pray for you with best wishes.
Your loving daughter,
Nasra Shomari Mohamed.
Pretend that you are Nasra’s mother
and reply to the letter, informing her that you will send her some money before
Topic 15: TAKING NOTES
This is the process of taking notes,
either from spoken or written text. For example, from radio, television
broadcasting and different stories or speeches or in the papers.
Important Points from Oral Texts
What to consider when taking notes
from different sources.
- To note down important information.
- Write in short phrases, not long sentences.
- To use dashes and other marks to separate points. These
marks are used to separate the noted points to avoid mingling and/or
Listen carefully from the text and
Early marriage puts girls at great
risk. Due to their young age, they are not physically mature enough to become
mothers. Early marriage also results in early and frequent childbirth, leading
to large families. Forced early marriage also denies girls the right to enjoy their
childhood, the right to education and the right to choose a husband they love
and of their own age group. When girls are forced to marriage with older men,
they are likely to become widows at an early age. When this happens, the young
widows are left to take care of the children themselves or have to remarry.
Many of these women struggle because African customs and traditions do not
allow a young wife to inherit her husband’s property as most customs deny women
the right to own property.
Write down the important points from
the passage read to you.
Important Points from Written Texts
Write down important points from
Kino jumped forward as the rifle
fired and his large knife swung and cut through the man’s neck and chest. Kino
was a terrible killer now. He took the rifle with one hand and with the other
he pulled his knife out of the man’s body. Kino moved very fast. He turned
around and hit a second man’s head. The third man crawled away into the pool.
He then began to climb up the rocks where the water was coming down from. The
man’s head and feet were caught in bushes. He cried and tried to climb up but
Kino had become hard and cruel. Kino raised his rifle and fired, then saw the
man falling backward into the pool. Kino walked into the water; in the
moonlight he could see the man’s frightened eyes. Then Kino fired the rifle
between the man’s eyes.
Kino stood and looked up to the
cave, something was wrong. The insects were silent now. Kino listened and heard
a sound. He knew the long, rising cry from the little cave on the side of the
mountain. It was Juana’s voice. The sound was the cry of death.
Write notes from the passage above.
Topic 16: WRITING A VARIETY OF TEXTS
Filling in Forms
Imagine you are filling in this
registration card for your friend. What questions would you ask him or her to
fill it in?
this visitor’s card.
|Name of visitor:|
|Flight arrival time……………………|
Writing Things/Notes in a Diary
Diaries or journals are books where
you write what has happen each day, year, month, week, etc. It is written to
help the writer to remember important events and thoughts. In their diaries,
writers comment on what they have seen recently or previously. They also
describe their thoughts and feelings. They record the reasons for doing or
liking certain things. The language used in diaries is usually informal and the
writer will often emphasize certain events and feelings that mean a lot to
them. A calendar diary has printed dates, months, days and sometimes years.
This helps the writer not have to write them over again but only write when
there are details; they are mostly used for work. In it, people record
appointments, reminders, meetings, and plans for each day in the future.
A diary is a book with pages for
each day of the year in which you can write down what you do each day and what
you plan on doing in the future. A dairy can also be used to write our private
thoughts and feelings, views or opinions.