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OTHER ENGLISH STUDY NOTES
Topic 1: LISTENING FOR INFORMATION
FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES
Here the student should be able to give specific
information, reproduce in writing what is heard. To give general opinion
about a text he/she has read and give a general theme/idea /meaning of a text
The student should do that by reading the text based on a
variety of issues including challenges facing the youth in relation to
HIV/AIDS, form of child labour and effect of drug abuse in society Affect
reading the text, the student should be able to respond to different
questions about the text he/she has read. And also she/he should know
vocabularies used in the text such as symptoms ,virus ,infection, transmit,
prolong, ill-treat, HIV etc
Vocabularies in HIV/AIDS TEXT
HIV – Human Immune Deficiency Virus
AIDS- Acquired Immune Deficiency Virus
Stigma – segregating HIV Victims
Syringes – A plastic or glass tube with a long hollow
needle that is used for putting drugs into a person’s body
Virus – A living thing, too small to be seen without a
microscope that causes infections disease in people
Lazar blades – A thin shape piece of metal that is used in
a razor symptoms
LISTEN FOR INFORMATION FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES
Since and for Since is used for point of time and for is
used for period of time in perfect tense.
i) They have eaten nothing since yesterday.
ii) We have eaten nothing for two days.
iii) Aisha has been ill since last week.
iv) She has been ill for two weeks.
v) We have stayed here for two weeks.
vi) You have stayed here since the previous weeks.
vii) John left the country for ever
viii) He has been out of the country for many years ago.
From and Since From is used for both time and place. Since
is used for time only. From can indicate time in both past and future; since
indicates duration from a point of time in the past to the time of speaking.
i) He came straight from home.
ii) He was busy from 6 O’clock to 10 O’clock.
iii) Rehema has not eaten anything since morning.
iv) Jimmy has been here since he finished his university
studies in 2005.
i) He has been in the office for only a few months, he
has, however achieved more than any of this predecessors.
ii) He will never pass however hard he may try.
iii) However beautiful you are, you will never get married
i) Poor as we may seem, we are still proud of our culture.
ii) As it is fine, I shall go out
iii) Much as he liked to travel, he could not afford the
i) Simon is as strong as Samson of the Holy Bible.
ii) Joyce is as healthy as her father.
iii) He promised to arrive at the seminar as early as
In spite of
i) In spite of being angry, he listened to me.
ii) Annett cannot get a job, in spite of doing well at
iii) In spite of being sick, he passed all the exams.
NB: the correct form is “in spite”. This means that “in”
and “spite” should be written as two separate words and not as one word. So,
it is incorrect to write “in spite” as one word.
“So as” goes with the preposition “to” which is added at the
i) He studied thoroughly so as to pass the test.
ii) Agnes cooks delicious food so as to impress her
iii) James has visited his fiancée so as to discuss their
iv) They are playing vigorously so as to win the match.
“So that” does not go with the preposition “to” instead it
is followed by the personal pronouns or nouns.
i) He prepared supper so that the President could eat
after the meeting.
ii) He studied thoroughly so that he could pass the test.
iii) They are playing vigorously so that they can win the
iv) Aisha cooks delicious food so that she may impress her
i) He is preparing supper so nicely that the President may
eat it all.
ii) He studies so thoroughly that he can pass the test.
iii) They are playing so vigorously that they can win the
iv) Aisha cooks so well that her boyfriend can be
In spite of the fact that
i) In spite of the fact that Baga was sick, he came to
ii) Anna came to my room in spite of the fact the teacher
on duty was around.
iii) In spite of the fact that Mercy was not studying
hard, she passed the exam on legal methods.
iv) Mwajuma slept very comfortably in spite of the fact
that she was alone.
In order to
i) They study effectively in order to perform well the
ii) Ruth wants to leave for town in order to see his
iii) Theodora went to Tanga in order to visit her fiancée.
It is similar to “in spite of” but it does not go with the
preposition “of”. For example:
Incorrect: Despite of his sickness he passed the exam.
Correct: Despite his sickness he passed the exam.
i) I got married to him despite his poverty.
ii) Despite poor life, she got married to him.
iii) You should exercise regularly despite your old age.
iv) Despite his big stomach, he emerged the winner in the
v) Despite her beauty, no one approached her for a
Despite the fact that
i) Despite the fact that we crying in class, we understood
what the entire teacher taught.
ii) They went to the music hall despite the fact that the
headmaster was so vigilant.
iii) Despite the fact that your parents are not supporting
you financially, I shall pay school fees for you.
iv) Despite the fact that your parents are not supporting
you financially, I shall pay school fees for you.
v) Despite the fact that Agnes was late, Mr. Mubenzi never
i) Even though I have other activities to do, I would like
to help you.
ii) I shall attend his graduation ceremony even though he
has not invited me.
iii) I won’t buy you such even thought I can afford to do
i) For all his sickness, Kamoga went to Kibila to write a
ii) For all his frequent attendance to church sermons, she
is still possessing superstitious beliefs.
iii) For all her old age, Mrs. Apollo still wears tight
mini-skirts like a teenager.
Among and Between
“Among” is used to show a relationship in which three or
more persons or things are considered as a group. Examples:
i) Slavery still exists among certain tribes.
ii) They have friendship among themselves.
iii) There were only three students in the class; among
them one was suspected to have a love relationship with the head prefect.
“Between”: is used to show a relationship involving two
persons or things or to compare more than two items within a group or to
compare one person or thing with an entire group.
i) He stood between two girls.
ii) A quarrel arose between his two brothers.
iii) Mkina was standing between Aisha and Amos.
iv) The ship sails between Mwanza and Kilimanjaro.
i) Though he has an extended family to attend to, he still
gets money for recreation.
ii) He is not contented though he is very rich.
iii) I will not see her though she comes.
Not only…………..but (also)
i) She is not only short but (also) slim.
ii) Not only is she short but (also) slim.
iii) They are not only noisy but (also) naughty.
iv) Not only does he look after cattle but (also) does his
v) John does not only look after cattle but (also) does
vi) Annie is not only beautiful but (also) charming.
i) Don’t say anything even if they beat you.
ii) Even if you don’t feel sick, go to the hospital.
iii) I won’t forgive her even if she repents.
i) The teacher will teach us tuition; nevertheless we
haven’t paid him money.
ii) Nevertheless she has not born me a child, I won’t
iii) Jameson passed the University exam very well
nevertheless he was sick.
(1) QUESTION TAG
Question tags are often used to ask for more information
or confirmation to what we are saying. Using question tag well also promote a
keen understanding of the use of various auxiliary verbs
Question tag is made up for Auxiliary +personal pronoun
A question tag is therefore a school questions that
Put a comma before the question tag, and put a question
mark after the question tag
E.g: He is sick, isn’t he?
Rules 1. If the statement is positive, the question tag
should be negative
E.g: You are my friend, aren’t you?
2. If the statement is negative the question tag should be
positive E.g: You are not my enemy, are you?
More examples 1. She can ride a bicycle, can’t she?
2. He doesn’t like riding, does he?
3. He rode a bicycle yesterday, didn’t he?
Exercise Complete the sentence with the correct question
1. Mr Juma is from Tabora
2. The car isn’t in the garage
3. They play cards everyday
4. He should write a letter
5. He collects used stamps
(2) EXPRESSING FUTURE EVENTS
There are four ways of expressing future events as
described in a –d below
Think of any three events that will happen in the future
.Example are what you will do after school today or how you will celebrate
your birthday. Write about each event
Using the four patterns given above.
1. I will celebrate my birthday next week
2. I celebrate my birthday next week
3. I am celebrate my birthday next week
4. I am going to celebrate my birthday next week
PROPOSITION OF TIME
At and in are preposition of Time
Examples. The party started at 8:00
The guest of honour arrived at 12:00
We sleep at night
We ate lunch in the evening
We arrived at school in the morning
“On” is used with days and dates
Examples: I go to church on Sunday
School starts on Monday
Tanzania became independent on 9 th Dec. 1961
“At” –Is used with exact time
Examples: He came at six O’clock
The lesson starts at 8:00 A.M
“In” –Is used with parts of the day, months and years
Examples: He came in the evening
Classes start in the morning
He was born in 2001
School will be closed in December
Exercise Fill the blanks with appropriate propositions
(1) He is coming _____________ noon. (2) We left
____________2.00 pm. (3) We go to church _________Monday. (4) He celebrate
his birthday __________ 15 th November this year. (5) He is coming __________
Topic 2: USING APPROPRIATE LAGUAGE CONTEXT AND STLYE IN
What is debate?
A debate is a formal discussion
during which people take sides to express their views or opinions support or
opposition to a given subject. A debate therefore is inevitable every time
people are faced with a controversial issue or subject.
Things to consider during the
When participating in any debate
in school in or any other place, remember to adhere to the following
a) Introduction: start with a good
introduction. In the introduction do the followings things:
i) Greet the debate participants
according to their status or positions in that debating session.
ii) Extend appreciations to the
chairperson and other special people who have organized the debate. You may
simply say ‘thank you’.
iii) State your position, whether
you belong to the opposing side or the proposing side.
b) Repeat reading the motion and
start giving your opinions and arguments according to your stand; whether you
are opposing or proposing the motion.
c) Be clear during your
presentation. The language should be understandable and the voice should be
d) Present your ideas or facts
logically and fluently. For more emphasis you can use words or phrases like;
in fact, due to the fact that, to prove my point, for more clarification,
e) Where possible or necessary,
support your arguments with evidence.
f) Be straight to the point in
order to keep pace with time.
g) Finish your presentation by
simply saying ‘thank you’.
h) Be patient when other participants
unleash a scathing attack or level pricking criticism at your arguments.
One needs to be aware of the
language diction to employ during debates. Most often, language diction
should always focus on expressing ideas, opinions, language. some of the
phrases/words used in debates include: I think, in my opinion, in view of
this, having said that/this, therefore, however, finally, eventually,
moreover, despite the, even thought, etc. observe the following extract:
Despite the good comments given by
the contemporary commentator, in my view, I would rather comment the other
way round that abstinence, being faithful or condom use (ABC) alone are not
the only solutions against HIV/AIDS infection. Some people are being infected
with HIV/AIDS through sharing razor blades, shaving machines, blood
transfusion, etc. here, the main speaker from the opposing side views the
spread of HIV/AIDS in a very myopic way. The speaker has to be aware that
sexual intercourse is not the only way which accelerates HIV/AIDS infections,
but it is among several factors which accelerate HIV/AIDS infections in the
Another important thing in debate
is that one needs to practice on how to play with words of the particular
language in various situations. A speaker should bear in mind that the
audience are normally interested with the message that the speaker has. So,
one should use simple language when presenting his or her arguments during
the debating session. This means that a speaker should avoid using difficult
and complex words or phrases. If one needs to employ bombastic words, they
should make sure that they use those words appropriately.
Furthermore, the arguments should
be presented in a convincing and attracting way so as to avoid boring the
audience. It should be borne in mind that the primary goal of most academic
debates is to improve language competence, performance and develop persuasive
Study the following example of a
debate then answer the questions which follow below:
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY HAVE
BROUGHT MORE HARM THAN GOOD TO THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES
The speaker greets all the
important participants in accordance with their social status: For example,
thank you chairperson, secretary, matron / patron, timekeeper, principal
speakers from both sides, the guest of honor, and all the
participants/audience. I first of all thank the chairperson and his/her team
for organizing this long-awaited debate.
As far as the motion is concerned,
I am here as an oppose of the motion which says, “Science and Technology have
Brought More Harm than Good to Third World Countries”.
Make short and precise elaboration
about the motion
If the chairperson has not
elaborated the motion, principal speakers may do so. Other speakers from the
floor the may begin directly to describe their main points so as to avoid
tautology and also because of limited time. Example on how to elaborate hey
concepts of the motion:
Science is the body of knowledge
and skills which may be natural, learned or acquired in various ways.
Technology is the application of science. Technology tries to put that
knowledge and skills into use. These two terms are interrelated and they may
simply mean that science is the software and technology is the hardware.
Start giving your arguments
according to your stand in the debate. The points for each side may be given
Moral erosion due to acquiring
different kinds of information from televisions and other information media
like tabloids, newspapers, magazines, internet, etc. All forms of pollution
like air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, land pollution, etc.
are caused by outdated vehicles which are imported in third world countries.
Land degradation and soil erosion due to the use of artificial fertilizers
and other modern forms of farming system. Spread of diseases like cancer,
diabetes due to the use of genetically modified food and other imported food
stuffs; HIV/AIDS due to social interaction with different people from
different countries, and eye diseases due to the use of computers, etc.
Spread of western culture into Africa, which tends to be more powerful and
thus dominating the African cultures. Killing of the indigenous industries
and skills due to frequent use of computers, calculators, and other
electronic equipment which simplify work. Deterioration of education and
African languages caused by computer and internet technology. Most materials
given to students and mode of teaching do not reflect the African setting.
The African environment does support the use of computers and other forms of
electrified equipment due to inadequate power supply, especially in the rural
Science and technology have brought
less harmful effects to developed countries and instead have boosted the
socio-economic growth of almost all the developing countries in the following
– Improvement of transport systems
like roads, airways, waterways, etc., which also facilitate the movement of
people and goods within the countries and outside the countries and
– Advancement in information and
communication technologies: People can now communicate with anyone at any
place within a flash of a minute by using cellular phones, e-mail technology,
– Creation of employment: people
are employed in various companies as computer experts and thus improving
their life standards.
– Dissemination of information
through various mass media like television, radio, newspaper, etc.
– Improvement of agriculture and
other economic sectors through the use of modern machines and other forms of
– Advancement in the provision of
medical services by using computers, ultra-sound machines and other forms of
services on the one hand; and education services by using computers, liquid
crystal display (LCD) projects, over-head projectors and other modern forms
of classroom presentation facility, on the other hand.
Judge’s judgments and
Judge’s judgment and determination
concerning the motion and arguments given by the proposers and the opposes
depend on the points given by both sides and the views of the audience. In
this case, the affirmative side has a great chance to win the debate because
they have seven points.
What is dialogue?
Dialogue is the interpersonal talk
that basically involves two people, but in some circumstances, it may involve
more two people. Dialogue involves spoken language or speech and is
characterized by typical features of speech sounds. Dialogue is very wide in
its meaning. However, it is important to the spoken language like in drama,
interviews, telephone and the like.
Dialogue interview involve verbal
interaction between two sides. Unlike written interview, dialogues interview
need special attention and accuracy because the interviewer and interviewee
engage themselves in a face-to face interaction. Dialogue interview may also
be referred to as a face-to face interview between an interviewer and the
In most cases the interview is
done when one conducts a research or study, when one side seeks for an
employment, scholarship visa, etc and the other side wants to know the
background, intention, and the experience of the interviewee. The interviewee
(respondent) must know the basic regulations that apply before and during the
interview. These regulations are based on the appearance of the respondent,
the style of presentation and the content or the theme he/she is interviewed
Dialogue interview can also be
conducted online by using a telephone. This interview can be done with
someone who is far and cannot easily reach the interviewer. For example, a
person in Dar es Salaam may interview someone who is in Mbeya or London by
using a telephone or a cellular phone.
Things to Consider Before
Appearing for an Interview
Before appearing for an interview,
the respondent should:
i) Know exactly the theme/topic or
content he/she is going to be interviewed on.
ii) Prepare important documents
that might be required by interviewers. E.g certificates and other crucial
iii) Imagine possible questions to
be asked during the interview and find their answers.
iv) Make a rehearsal on all the
processes, especially on the speaking style.
v) Avoid awkward dresses, funny
hair styles and do not be under or over dressed.
vi) If possible. Make a
preliminary visit to investigate some important things through people who
have been employed in the particular institution or company. You may
investigate things like salary, the nature of questions asked, etc.
The following are some tips on how
to prepare for job interview
a) Read widely on the subject you
are to be interviewed on
b) On the night before the
interview , prepare all the documents you need to carry with you for
interview ,such as certificates,publications and testimonials
Make sure you sleep early
c) On the interview day, dress
smartly, decently and formally. Do not use too much make up
Arrive at the interview venue at
least an hour before the interview
d) When you walk into interview
room, remain standing until offered a eat
Maintain eye contact without
staring at them and be relaxed
e ) Give a clear, precise and
Do not digress into irrelevant
details If a question is not clear, ask for clarification in a polite manner
Thank interviews at the end of the interview and remember to carry your
documents with you Thank the interviewers at the end of the interview and
remember to carry your documents with you
During the interview
i) Avoid awkward mannerism like
playing with a key holder, chewing gums or swinging your legs.
ii) Be confident and make yourself
comfortable; sit on the chair squarely not on the sides.
iii) Listen carefully to what is
being asked. If it is not clear, ask for clarification by using. “I beg your
pardon”, but not too often.
iv) Try to be brief in answering
and avoid saying “Yes” or “No” to most of the questions. If you don’t know
the answer, say so politely.
v) Look straight at the
interviewer when answering a question, and be yourself, i.e. don’t imitate
vi) Use simple and clear language;
also be audible to everybody in the room.
vii) Don’t try to impress the
interviewers. Be grateful for anything done for you say, “thank you sir
viii) Don’t interrupt the
ix) When the interview is over
say, “thank you”.
Impromptu Speeches and Discussion
Impromptu speeches are those which
are delivered or offered while the speaker is unprepared. The main
characteristic features of impromptu speeches are that they are unplanned,
not rehearsed, ad hoc, etc. these speeches are also referred to as informal
People frequently make informal
speeches. These speeches can be brief as an introduction of one fried to
another. They are also as casual as telling a group of friends what you did
during your family’s vacation. Impromptu speeches require rarely advance
preparation because of their brevity, informal nature and casual style.
Unlike impromptu speeches, formal speeches are rehearsed and are delivered in
a more formal setting.
Guidelines for an Impromptu
speech: (a) Do not panic. Be calm and composed. (b) Quickly take down a few
important points about the topic. (c) Walk slowly to the platform if you are
required to do so. (d) Remember the points already made by other speakers and
avoid repeating them. (e) Be brief and relevant. (f) Maintain eye contact
with the listeners as you speak.
Presentation (a) Introduction:
Inform your audience that you are organizing your thoughts as you speak This
will help you relax, when you realize you had forgotten an important point
(b) If the topic is controversial, state your position very clearly (c) Give
your points, the facts statistics (if you have any) and example, supporting
your approach in the introduction (d) Conclusion: If it is a controversial
topic briefly restate your position and only recommendations as you conclude
You can also summarise your points
in your conclusion
Impromptu speeches are neither
written nor organized but may involve informal discussion in an informal
The major items of an informal
a) Salutation – when we address
the audience, we start by mentioning with the most superior people,
b) Make an introductory remark on
the item you are going to speak about, i.e. any background information on
what you are going to say.
c) Provide some information that
is new to the audience about the subject.
d) Introduce a little humor
(funny, interesting comments) to entertain the listeners.
e) Avoid hurtful, offensive or
aggressive comments that may embarrass the audience or particular
f) Apology – if it is a farewell
speech or a speech that calls for an apology.
g) If there is a reward, it should
be given at the end of the speech.
h) Express best wishes at the end.
Language patterns Possessive
pronouns Possession is indicated in pronouns in two different ways: a) With
person pronouns the possessive forms are: Mine, yours, his, hers, theirs,
ours, whose and its.
For example: i. This car is
mine;yours is over there. ii. Whose books are these? My brother took his.
b) With indefinite pronouns like
someone ,anyone, nobody etc, we add an apostrophe and an S For example: At
this point, it is anyone’s guess who will win the trophy Note: it is
important to distinguish between the possessive pronouns: Its, whose and
contractions its (it is) and (who’s) who is respectively for example in A dog
wags its tail when it’s (it is) happy. Who’s (who is )coming to open the
seminar? Whose chair is this?
Exercise Write down the possessive
form of the personal pronouns given in brackets This book is (you)
____________ The luggage is (he)____________ This house is (we)_____________
The care is(I)_________________ The blue house is (we)__________
Topic 3: READING FOR INFORMATION FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES
READING FOR INFORMATION FROM
DIFFERENT MEDIA SOURCES
Reading Intensively for
When reading any comprehension,
one needs to recognize the logical and grammatical relationship among parts
of the concepts. Information can be obtained from newspapers, internet,
television, radio, and other public documents. Usually, information should be
researched and must have facts. Most comprehensions are with questions to be
answered by the reader. There are some important things to understand before
one attempts to answer the questions.
Things to consider when reading
i) Comprehension questions are
designed to test how well one understands what he/she reads.
ii) However competent you are on
the subject, don’t use outside knowledge to answer the comprehension unless
stated by the questions.
iii) You have to concentrate o n
the passage and come out with all the answers to the comprehension questions.
iv) Before reading a passage, read
the questions that follow it in order to know what information is being
Reading Extensively for
This involves reading a variety of
books/stories for information and pleasure from different sources,
particularly the library and other books centers. This part also provides
students with sample short stories. However, students should be provide with
a number of books which have various stories, both for information and
pleasure. Remember to write a summary of the story after reading it.
Extensive reading involve reading
novels, plays ,short stories ,poems, biographies, autobiographies, magazines,
journals and many other reading materials.
Extensive reading will improve you
English language, will give you information entertain you
Tips on how to read extensively
1. Read the blurb and the table of
contents 2. If you are reading a non-literary task, like history, lines book,
take notes of the main points and supporting point you read 3. If its
literary text, at the end of you reading write a report showing :
The title of the book ,novelist,
playwright or poet The setting of the story The plot of the novel ,play or
poem The central character in the story The main theme or central message of
the literary work Any new vocabulary or expressions that you have come across
Read any novel or a play that is
not part of the literature set texts and then write a report using the
We form negative sentences by
adding the word not between the auxiliary verb and the main verb, when these
is no auxiliary verb in the affirmative sentences, we add do, does or did
In less formal language use, the
auxiliary and the word ‘not’ are contracted so that we get can’t from can not
,doesn’t from does not ,didn’t from did not etc
Exercise Change the following
statement to negative sentences 1. Your house is made of wood 2. The car i
traveled in was fast 3. This hurts are built on a hall 4. She can play a
WRITING A BIOGRAPHY
When you write about someone else,
it is called Biography .It includes information like where the person was
born, who the person’s family is, where they went to school, what job they
have had, how and why they made major decisions in their life and the impact
of those decisions on themselves and those around them. When you write about
someone else you need to know this person very well. You can not write
anything that is not true or that you can not prove . The best way to know
this person is to conduct the research. Find information from different
sources like newspapers, radio or internet.
Write a brief biography about your
Reading intensively This is the
reading where by you read widely and deep
This involve reading a text
quickly in order to pick out the main features , including:
1. How it is organised
2. The general nature and purpose
of the text
3. Key points of information and
How to skim a book
a) Read the cover review and the
information about the author.
b) Read the table of content
c) Read through the sections and
subsection headings if there are any
d) Read the first and last sentence
of each paragraph, they often contain the major points.
e) Take note of names of persons,
places and events
Looking quickly of a passage but
this time it is in order to identify relevant features or information.
This skill is useful when reading
a passage that requires you to answer questions at the end of the passage.
How to scan a book
a) Skim the book first
b) Read the questions at the end
of the book
c) Look quickly through the book
to find answers to the questions asked
When we are making (forming)
Yes/No questions, the auxiliary verb is moved ,to the beginning of the
sentence as illustrated below:-
E.g. Tayana has finished her work.
Has Tayana finished her work?
If the statement does not have an
auxiliary verb, the appropriate form of the auxiliary do is introduced.
For Example (1) The boy played
Did the boy played football?
(2) Babu Jose gets up early even
Does Babu Jose get up early even
(3) They like to dance on Monday
Do they like to dance on Monday?
When forming Wh-questions from
statements, we bring the auxiliary verb before the subject and then we start
the question with the Wh –word. Look at the example below
(i) Veronica is cooking ugal in
(ii) When is veronica cooking?
(iii) What is veronica doing?
When these is no auxiliary in the
statement, the appropriate form of the auxiliary verb ‘do’ is used
(i) Yuster studied in the library
(ii) Where did yuster study?
(iii) What did yuster do?
These are the words that show how
much is of something is used with. It can be a single word or phrase and can
be used with both countable and uncountable nouns.
MUCH – Is used with uncountable
nouns, like milk ,jam, money and time E.g: (a) I don’t have much time (b) How
much money do you have?
MANY – Is used with plural
countable nouns like bottles of milk, jams, dollars, bannas and books. E.g:
(a) I don’t have many mangoes (b) Many people come here in January.
A LOT OF – Is uses with both uncountable
and countable nouns E.g: (a) I have a lot of pen (countable) (b) I have a lot
of time (uncountable)
Also: A lot of can also be used
with some slightly meaning as in the following sentences (1) I like ripe
bananas a lot (very much) (2) We saw him a lot last month (several times)
LITTLE :- Is used in a negative
way , to indicate that amount is not enough or that it is less than the
expected These was little work to do , so they did not want to employ many
A LITTLE :- We use it when we want
to say that the small quantity was enough or more than expected. – A little
has a positive meaning ,we use it when we are happy with the quantity E.g:
There was a little money left ,so we were able to compete the project.
FEW –is used in a negative way
E.g. there were few members of the
committee, so they could not hold the meeting
A FEW –Is used positively
E.g. there were a few members of
the committee so they were able to make decision
Complete the sentences below using
much ,many ,a lot ,a little, a few, little and few
1) We have __________ oranges
2) We don’t have_______ bananas
3) Edward has ___________ rice,
but Alfred doesn’t have_________
4) They asked many questions but
_________ were answered
5) The soldiers seemed to have
_________ idea whom they fighting and why
Topic 4: READING LITERARY WORKS
is the work of arts which use words / creative language to express human
realities in social, political, economical, cultural and love
is the work of art which use language and transmitted in spoken and written
TYPES OF LITERATURE
There are two types of literature,
a) Spoken or Oral literature
b) Written literature
a) SPOKEN OR ORAL LITERATURE
Is the literature which represented/expressed
through oral or spoken form.
b) WRITTEN LITERATURE
Is the literature presented /
expressed in written form.
There are two element of
Is the outer shell of the work of
arts. This means that author (artist) organized his / her work of arts.
The form in literature comprises
/consist of the following things;
1. LANGUAGE USE (DICTION)
Is the work of arts we use simple
language, difficult language by employing figures of speech, proverbs,
idioms, saying etc
Is the technique or method which
artist used in constructing/performing a work of arts such as Narrating,
Monologue, dialogue, straight forward, oral traditional style etc.
E.g. Once upon the time
Is the environment where the work
of arts events taken.
E.g. (“This time
tomorrow” it’s setting in Kenya)
Is the way which an art organized
or arrange event in his / her work of arts e.g. flash back, straight forward.
a) A character –Is a person in a
story. Character donate the beliefs habits of mind moral choice and
b) Characterization –Is the
creation of imaginary a real person who exists for the leader as real.
In work of arts there so many characters
– Expository character
– Dramatic character
– Flat character
– Round character
– Per eloping character
– Stock character
But all those character can be
grouped into two
a) Main (Central ) character
b) Minor (Assistance) character
A: MAIN CHARACTER
Main character: Is the person or
people who appear the work of art from the beginning of story the end of the
Main character conveys carry the
message of the story.
B: MINOR (ASSISTANCE) CHARACTER
Minor character is the person who
appears and disappears as a story continues.
refers to what is being said or conveyed or content is what is described in
the work of art (literature).
Content involves the following
iv) Philosophy and climax, crisis
A central or dominating idea in a
literary work, Themes of most African work of arts are love, Betrayal
corruption, oppression women position, culture, Alienation etc.
In any work of arts which written
or Spoken there must be a theme. Also they are center of any literature
This is the use learn from a
literary work. Normally message is occurred after read a novel titled, a
wreath for father Mayer you can get a message that you to have to fight
against injustice to build Justice Society.
Conflicts is misunderstanding,
collision of ideas Antagonistic
Or Opposition between one side and
Conflicts arise between characters
and their environments, or
Circumstances, or Character himself
(internally) conflicts Made a work of arts to precede events.
IMPORTANCE OF LITERATURE
1. Educates the society
2. Criticize the society
3. National and culture identity
4. Entertain the society
5. Develop and improve the
PASSED LIKE A SHADOW
Atwoki – Son of Adyeri
Adyeri –Father of Atwoki and
Vicky –An orphan
Amoti –Wife of Adyeri
Abooki –Daughter of Adyeri and
Atwoki is sister
Aluganyira –Vicky’s husband
ANALYSIS OF THE BOOK (NOVEL)
PASSED LIKE A SHADOW
BY BENARD MAPALALA
PASSED LIKE A SHADOW
It’s relevant to content of the
book once it takes about life of the people whose life seemed to pass like a
ADYERI: Is an educated man who
reached the level of being the head of the school. Became famous one married
with a good reputation in his society however later he changed to be
alcoholic, womanizer took his secretary (and squared)
– Use the money to entertain
Birungi (Secretary) Picked women from bar and slept with them.
– He used to mistreat his family
after being drunkard; he beats his wife and uses a lot of abusive language
“Have Married a Pig”. He also demanded a respect from his children while he
did not deserve, he demanded delicious food while he did not leave enough
money to buy such a delicious food for his family.
Vicky Atwoki’s cousin brings a man
called Akena Opoto from Pallisa who owns a garage but coming from another
tribe she wants to introduce him as her husband. “He is the man who wants to
The book tried to reveal the way
Vicky is treated in her uncle’s family. She is chased away by her uncles and
found nowhere to go as a result she made a decision to find a husband who
would make her life comfortable.
Her mother dead before telling
Vicky who is her father therefore Adyeri’s wife is Lamenting to be given a
burden i.e. Caring Vicky.
Akena is rejected by Adyeri’s wife
that he is Munyamuhanga means a man from another tribe she said (Amoti). A
person from another tribe cannot marry Vicky especially the tribe from north.
Adyeri is against Amoti’s view, to
Adyeri something important is dowries and not anything else “I don’t care who
married Vicky. Whether is a person or a con or a donkey all I want is dowry.”
Adyeri analyzing the dowries as he
said is head cattle, including 3 bulls, but marriage negotiation fail dowry,
then Vicky is completely disappointed and she wishes in other were alive
because her uncle’s wife is no help but she is jealous of her.
The Author “reveals” to us the
talent of Atwoki that when he is at primary school a little Atwoki is very
good at football, it is ambition is to be prominent person as exemplified his
argument he has with his age mate. The behavior of his father drinking much
is hurting him when is mentioned any other person.
The Author reveals that Atwoki’s
father is irresponsible person. This happened when Atwoki’s under pays visit
to Atwoki home and kind home has got no food.
Araali (Atwoki’s uncle) is a best
friend of children as always tries to show true love to them “Uncle Araali
drew out a box of biscuits to them.”
“What are you thinking Vicky?”
In this chapter Vicky is persuaded
by her friend “Tusiime and Kunihira to find herself a man to look after her.
“Why didn’t you run a way with the
Kunihira is complaining that the
parents they have considered marriage as a business. Since when one wants to
marry, parents tend to put some conditions that can hinder smooth running of
marriage process………… They demand a lot and put impossible condition”.
Kunihira is also complaining that too much demanding of this things have
become the reason to why people get marriage without official marriage.
The author tries to show that,
friends or peer group can change the behavior of a person example because of
some advice or influence given to Vicky by her friends she started to use
cosmetics, she also started to attend disco but all in all she did all this
so as to attract men
As a result from started to find
Vicky “Men started chasing her up the way flies chasing rotting meat”
Vicky behavior is completely
changing as she is going with sugar daddy being some money where sometimes
she managed the budget and later Vick went for good with a man from Kassese.
Adyeri is invited to Kanyamasika
as the one of teachers started at that school the time it was starting.
The song that was sung by pupils
of standard five touched Adyeri and gave a friction of his whole life.
One of the Adyeri’s life was that
he was a drunkard person, a womanizer therefore however he was employed still
he had nothing, he lived in a poor life.
Example: A part from Atwok’s
mother Adyeri had another woman called Birungi she was a secretary when
Adyeri the time when he was the head master at ST. LUIS high school.
This made Adyeri to acquire a
disease that was called a (slim) AIDS as he was found asleep.
Atwoki and Abooki are living with
their mother at Katumba in a home built by Atwoki while still a High School
Student at St. Luis. Atwoki gets the money from rewards and gifts given to
him by the president following the classic goals he scored in the Africa Cup
of Nations. He was the national team striker while a school boy. The two
Atwoki and Abooki have completed high school and they are at home.
Amoti informs her children about
the news of their father’s sickness back at Kachwamba. The children have not
been aware since there has been no communication between them and their
father, Adyeri for several years. Though Adyeri know about his son’s fame as
football star in Uganda, he has sworn never to beg or ask for any financial
assistance from him.
Amoti informs the children about
the broken relationship between Birungi and their father. Atwoki feels sorry
for the father especially on the disease but the mother claims that has been
the right time for Adyeri. An elderly woman comes to Amoti’s house to plead
with her in order to have mercy on the husband who in a pathetic sight back
at Kachwamba. Amoti refuses to heed this request and instead she advice the
woman to go and tell concubine Birungi that Amoti is very bitter with the
husband such that she not ready to forgive him.
Adyeri is brought by a group of
people to his children and wife. He is very thin and barely recognizable. In
fact he is stinking because of the sores all over his body. He is brought on
a stretcher to one of the rooms in their house. The people who bring him are
football fans who know Atwoki so well.
They have found it wise to bring
the dying father despite the poor family history. They are sorry for those
decisions to bring him there as they suspect it will remind them the family
wounds. Atwoki accepts his father back despite the strong objection from his
mother, Amoti. All that the children can do is weep uncontrollably what has
be fallen their father. They really pity him.
Atwoki pays a visit to his friend,
David, who lives in Kampala. While in Kampala Atwoki is introduced to a girl
called Edda whom they meet in a restaurant. Everybody in the restaurant knows
Atwoki as a football star nicknamed “the foot portal Bullet,” while at the
restaurant, girls keep eying Atwoki. Some even sit directly opposite to him
in a very provocative careless posture. It is revealed in this chapter that
by the time Atwoki goes to Kampala; he is twenty two years but has never
slept with a girl all his life. His sister Abooki has always warned him
against girl even back at portal frontal.
During his stay in Kampala, Atwoki
falls in love with Edda as a result of the peer pressure and the
environmental influence at David’s home. David’s father, being rich and in
the governmental influence at David’s with all the luxuries they need.
Despite the information made available it about AIDS over the radio, TV, and
magazines, David’s father never seems to care. He attends bar and picks girls
together with his son, David, who a university drop out. Atwoki is provided
with a room at David’s home where he sleeps with Edda during his stay in
Kampala. David assures him that the girl is healthy and free from AIDS
judging from her appearance. “Eventually the foot portal Bullet” falls a prey
Vicky and her husband, Aluganyira,
go to a witch doctor at night. Their aim of visiting the witch doctor is to
get a charm which makes them have a child. Aluganyira had married twice and
divorced before he married Vicky. His former wives have given birth to two
children each. They are now being taken care of by Vicky, as their step
Aluganyira is a rich man and
therefore, needs more children with Vicky. Vicky does not welcome the idea of
visiting witch doctors but the pressure and anxiety to have a child makes her
agree with the husband’s plan to make her to the witch doctor. At the doctors
place they find six people lying on the Floor. Two of them are very thin and
have rashes all over the bodies. At the corridor there are five other
customers, probably AIDS victims must have been among the witch doctor
The witch doctor makes pricks on
Vicky stomach and tattoos it. He uses the same knife on the other patients
who are probably infected AIDS. Vicky fails to object to the situation
because she is desperately in need of a baby. Instead they receive something
else, AIDS from the infected knife of the witch doctor. Victims must have
been among the witch doctor.
Adyeri passes away and people
mourn him bitterly, especially his drinking mates. Everyone knows the causes
of Adyeri death. Judging from his love for ladies, they know he has swell
died of AIDS (slim) probably infected by one of his concubines in the
It revealed that Adyeri’s wife,
Amoti, is also sick and the only hope is in the children. However, the Foot
portal Bullet is rumored to have changed and become a reputed womanizer in
Kampala. They say he has taken after his father and would probably die the
same death because AIDS never discriminates people on the basis of race, age,
wealth or education. The drunkards are wondering where the disease come from
such that they are afraid it will wipe the whole of Uganda.
After his father’s burial, Atwoki
goes back to Kampala leaving behind his sick mother under the care of Abooki.
Atwoki neglects his mother and sister, Abooki back at home without enough
money while the mother is sick, Football fans who are frequent Kampala say,
he is tied to a lady with whom he is living. Despite his mother lamentation,
Atwoki does not respond to the call of his sister. This makes their mother
very bitter and complains a lot.
Abooki boards a bus to Kassese in
order to see Vicky so that she (Vicky) may help in the financial situation;
she is shocked by the health of her cousin and the husband. They are very
thin, weak and they look old. Vicky confesses to her cousin, Abooki that she
is an AIDS victim, therefore she as no hopes of living long. Vicky counsels
her cousin by teaching her never to step hunting money. She says money will
kill her. Then Vicky regrets for her past life.
Back at their home, Abooki
continues nursing her sick mother. A boy, called John, from a rich family
uses to visit them frequently. The boy helps her so much during her mother’s
sickness. The boy having created trust in her invites her to visits her to
his home where he play a trick. John drops a Valium tablet in her glass when
Abooki goes for a short call. She drinks the contents in the following days
when she finds herself in John’s bed naked minus her virginity. Abooki is so
warned that he may be able to have inquired AIDS or unwanted pregnancy with
the loss of her virginity to the cruet, John.
Abooki blames herself for honoring
the appointment to visit John’s home she feels as if her life is over a as
she is sure her mother will die soon leaving her under no one’s care as
Atwoki has seemingly neglected them forever, Abooki becomes thin from the
worries about her health. She has concurred to have been a victim of the
virus following what John did to her.
Abooki goes for pure-blood test.
She receives concerning by a councilor called Jonathan before the test.
Jonathan informs her he ways through with the virus is spreads from one
person to another. After narrating her story to Jonathan, the test is carried
out in which both the HIV test and pregnant test results are negative. Abooki
is very happy now that she is lucky to have acquired neither AIDS nor
Jonathan warns her to be extra
careful now that she has contracted no AIDS. He says that the only hundred
percent protections guaranteed from acquiring the virus is abstinence for un
married people mutual love and loyalty among couples. The two Jonathan and
Abooki seem to have fallen in love after this exercise.
Atwoki arrive home sick, just
after the burial of his mother. The foot portal bullet has been completely
disfigured by irritating skin burns and rashes all over his body. Atwoki
acquired the disease in Kampala together with his friend David who has been
trying to spread it to other girls. David’s father died earlier and now it is
the mother and house girl who are on their death bed.
Abooki and Atwoki decide to visit
their uncle Araali, who lived at Kitangwenda. They board a bus and drop at
Kitangwenda from where Atwoki is to be carried on a bicycle for 20 kilometer
to Thinga village, where their uncle says, uncle Araali welcomes them to his
home where Atwoki decided to stay until the time of his death, since he knows
that he will soon die as their parents and cousin died of AIDS. Only Abooki
is spared in Adyeri’s family.
ANALYSIS OF THE NOVEL
The title Passed like a Shadow is
a symbolic title of a customer or experience of a family catastrophe, that
attacked all the members of her Adyeri with HIV/AIDS and left only Abooki as
it passed her like a shadow ever –since she was situated by the environment
of acquiring the disease and also by being deceived by John who got her in
bed unwillingly without using protection.
Hence the title Passed like a
Shadow fulfills the author’s intentions into sending his message to the
society or there is one to one corresponding of other title and content of
The setting of the book is in
Uganda after independence during the end of the Uganda and Tanzania war at
the period of Iddi Amin rule in Uganda it was during this period where a lot
of Uganda citizen dead of HIV/AIDS, popularly known as “SLIM” In the story
“Passed like a Shadow” we see that the whole family of Adyer’s vanished off
from the earth except only one number Abooki because of poor precaution on
fighting against AIDS.
The novel has a straight forward
narration as it is straight by portraying Atwoki and Abooki as the main
character their relation to the family and the society at large. The first to
forth chapters are narrating about Adyeri aggressive treatment towards his
family as it is seen how he usually drink and end up beating his family as it
seen how he usually drink and end up beating his family until his children
and wife decided to run away from him.
Chapter 6-8 narrate about Atwoki’s
success as they explain how he become a Uganda football star and how he
managed to build the house from his mother and sister and lastly people bring
their father to their cowries house as a victim of HIV / AIDS to die in their
arms. Atwoki doesn’t learn from his daddy as he was old womanizer when he
went to Kampala. To conclude they said, death finally catcher up with him and
let the HIV/AIDS passed Abooki (his sister) like a shadow.
CHARACTERIZATION AND CHARACTERS
Adyeri is the father of Atwoki and
Abooki. He was the former headmaster of St. Luis High school. He becomes a
hopeless drunkard and womanizer after losing his job. He is a very
irresponsible father and husband as provided by his failure to provide for
the family. He resorts to beating his wife and children on any slight
provocation, Causing fear and frustration to the family. He later becomes a
victim of the AIDS pandemic in a lonely home when the wife and children
cluster him. His concubine also throws him out after establishing that he is
a victim of HIV/ AIDS. He drink’s and smokes heavily. Adyeri dies very
miserably of the disease after suffering for a long time. He is a greedy man
as portrayed on the bride price on Vicky’s marriage.
Is the wife of Adyeri and the
mother of Atwoki and Abooki
– She is hot tempered
– She is portrayed as a jealous
woman from the way we see her refusing Vicky’s man who is from another tribe
– She plays the rule of a caring
– She dies of the AIDS pandemic
– She is superstition and
Ignorant. She always think of disease to be the result of witchcraft but not
– Is the son of Adyeri
– He suffers from poor upbringing
by his father
– He later become a famous
football nick name “Foot portal bullet”
– He build house for his mother
who has been separated from her father.
– He falls in love with a girl in
Kampala despite his awareness of AIDS.
– Is Adyeri daughter
– Is a decent and disciplined girl
– She take care of her sick mother
,father and brother
– Adyeri niece and cousin of
Atwoki and Abooki
– She is a victim of poor
upbringing as seen by her mistreatment by her uncle and his wife.
– She goes into exile where she
meets Akena but he frustrates her intention to marry him.
– She resorts to sell her body
– Vicky seems to be aware of the
diseases and its Causes unlike her husband Aluganyira.
– Is Adyeri’s concubine who lives
– Is a prostitute and crud
exploiter of man.
– She chases Adyeri away with the
police when he needed how most.
– Adyeri’s former secretary when
he was headmaster
– She is Ignorant of the disease
– Is the son of a rich and
important man in Kampala
– He is Atwoki’s friend and a
– He is a womanizer who influences
Atwoki to start hunting for woman.
– He becomes a victim of AIDS
– His father died of AIDS having
infected his moth
– Is a prostitute who hunts for
men in town, she traps Atwoki
– She is cheap going as seen by
how she kisses and hugs Atwoki
– Is a boy from a rich family
– He is merciless and exploitation
– He misuses Abooki to his
– Vicky’s husband, rich and
– he exploits women
– He is superstitious because he
lives in charms and the power of which doctor.
TUSIIME AND KUNIHIRA
– These are Vicky’s female friends
– They sell their bodies and
– They convince Vicky to be
engaged in prostitution
– They are ignorant of the disease
– Uncle Araali is the brother of
Adyeri who lives Ilunga village at Kitangwenda.
– He supports the family of his
brother as seen by paying school fees
– He is a kind and loving man
– He welcomes Atwoki and Abooki
when the farmer is sick
– It is a technique or uniqueness
of the writer’s say of writing a work of art. In “Passed like a shadow” the
author used a creative technique as he used a simple language with the use of
familiar language devices as he used the following in his form of language.
HYPERBOLE- EXAGGERATION BEYOND THE
1) Abook was in a nightmare : To
mean she was in a deep thought (page.2)
2) Daddy gave him a classic slap
to mean a heavy slap (page . 3)
3) Amoti’s eyes nearly popped out:
To mean the high surprising state, Amoti was in at the moment(p.9)
4) She told him breathlessly to
show how exciting Abooki was (p.4)
5) The catastrophic that had been
him to mean hard time(P.25)
The situation where by a
comparison of two unlike things is made using words like, as or like.
1. She walked to wards him or
fearless as a lioness (p.3) 2. He was humble as a dove (p.8) 3. His face was
us him as a child(p.21) 4. She was a hard working as a donkey (P.14)
Are popular says made by the
notion of people which are mostly conclude as the truth.
1) Life is not easily (p.9)
2) I have hit the jack pot (p.9)
3) Men are like a buses (p.6)
4) Like father like son (p.39)
5) East or west home is best (p.
A metaphorical representation of
an animal or inanimate object as having human attributes —– attributes of
form character feelings, behavior, and son as on. As the name implies a thing
or ideas is treated as a person.
i) His eyes near heart (p.28)
ii) Amoti’s eye nearly popped out
Amoti don’t have a hard
Imagery: It is an act of an author
to create an imaginative picture in the mind of a reader. E.g. The birds were
really a wonderful sight (Pg 49) Due to her well shaped figure(Pg 19) With
electricity speed (Pg 26) Symbols: Is the use of words in such a way that one
thing stands for something else.For example the cross stands for
Christianity.In this novel ,the following symbols have been used. 1. A big fish
– means a rich man(pg 19) 2. Slim – HIV/AIDS. 3. I regret to have married a
pig -Unsuccessful man 4. He is so green – Outdated people.
Code Switching. Chill – poor me
(pg 2) Munyamahanga – Down and foreign can outcast who doesn’t belong to the
tribe of Batooro (pg 6) Juju – Magic power(Pg 37)
1) AIDS PANDEMIC (SLIM)
The main theme is passed like a
shadow is the AIDS pandemic which has invaded the setting of the story in
western Uganda. The disease, which is referred to as a slim, is wiping the
population. Indiscriminately, the writes has revealed some of the practices
and beliefs that speed up the spread of the disease among the people.
The generation is dying miserably
of the disease before the right age. The title of the novel PASSED LIKE A
SHADOW reflects on how the young and energetic men and women perish from AIDS
(slim). Their life span lasts as short as that of a shadow. Man power and
talents are worded by the disease. Before the talents are utilized fully, the
people pass away like shadows.
The characters in the novel ,like
Adyeri, Amoti, David, Vicky, David’s, father and mother, Aluganyira and
Atwoki are example of the people who fall victim of the AIDS pandemic. The
writer reveals the factors that exposed them to this tragedy as follows:
2.Position of Woman: This is the
role of woman in the family.A woman is portrayed as a tool of pleasure for
men. This is when David and his father pick different girls from the bar and
restaurants because they think women are instrument of pleasure.Aliganyira
divorces two women after having children with them and marries Vicky as the
third wife. A woman is also portrayed as weak and cannot be involved in
decision making .For example Aliganyira forces Vicky to visit witch doctor
who could give them a charm forgetting children. Also the woman takes care of
the home and give birth to the children.
3.The influence of Power. The
position that we hold in the society plays a very big role in the exposure to
AIDS infections. The rich business people like Aliganyira and David’s father
use their position to influence young little girls into their trays using
money and power.Atwoki falls a prey to the trap of Edda ,and the other girls
in Kampala because he is a football star and famous.
4. Influence of Parents and Their
Children. a) The jealous of Amoti influences Vicky’s life style.Amoti has
always been jealous of anything that concern Vicky,especially of the man who
wanted to marry her. b) Atwoki falls a victim to David’s influence because of
the poor life in their family. c) David is exposed to infection because of
very free, leisure and fair environment in their family.The tendency of
David’s father to pick girls and shares drinks with his son in the bar.This
influences David so much . d) The negligence and greed of Adyeri, Atwoki ‘s
father exposes Vicky to infection.
5. Peer Pressure and Influence.
This is the influence of age mates , friends and colleagues in making
decisions.In the novel ,the following people fall victims of peer pressure
and influence . The pressure from relatives and her husband expose Vicky to
further infection when she accepts the services from witch doctor so that she
can have children.The witch doctor use the same knife he used to another
patients who are probably victims of slim. Atwoki is influenced by his friend
David who used to take him to girls and even finances their cost.This lead
him to become an HIV victim. Vicky is also influenced with her friends
Tusiime and Kunihira .She sell her body so that she can take care of herself.
6.Ignorance and Superstition.
Ignorance is situation in which people are unaware of the vital information
within their society.Most of people in the story are ignorant because they
can not tell the truth about AIDS- people are not aware of the disease. Vicky’s
husband takes her to witchdoctor so that they could have a child.In process
she got infection of slim. Amoti associates her husband’s sickness to
witchcraft.She thinks that her husband ,Adyeri is bewitched by Birungi. The
victims of slim are taken to witchdoctors with the belief that they are
victims of bewitching and evil spirits.
7. Family Conflicts. These are the
misunderstanding within the family which lead to instability of the
family.These conflicts play a big roles in the spread of AIDS (Slim)
1.Conflict lead Atwoki falls victim of the disease. 2.Amoki separates from
her husband 3.Vicky get into prostitution when her uncle chases her from the
house and also later refuses her fiance.
Infidelity/Prostitution. This is a situation of some one having many sexual
partners who are not married legally to him/her. Adyeri is promiscuous
because he has a lover called Birungi,besides his wife . Apart from that he
also has other lovers in the streets. Vicky had several men before she married
Aliganyira. David and his father are promiscuous because they are pick girls
from the streets.
Is a lesson we get after reading a work of art.In passed like a shadow is
mostly concerned with the HIV/AIDS pandemic where we see people are negligent
and ignorant of the disease as they practice promiscuity and
infidelity/prostitution without precaution on protecting their health as a
result they acquire the HIV virus
This is misunderstanding between a person and himself or a person and a group
of people or a group of people and a certain group of people. In this book
the conflicts are divided into two parts.
1.Personal Conflicts. Vicky going
to the witch doctor unwilling since it as an order from her husband (pg 37)
Amoti did not know what to do when he was brought to their home without her
concent (pg 29)
2. interpersonal conflicts Vicky
with her aunt because she always felt jealous of any success of hers (p7)
Vicky’s uncle with Vicky’s fiance(P 11) Atwoki and his age mates about his
Philosophy of the writer.
Philosophy of the writer is that HIV/AIDS is spread to people because of the
ignorance and negligence of the people. Also the main cause of spreading
HIV/AIDS is the sexual intercourse between two partners having unprotected
Relevance of the Book. This book
is relevant to the society as it brings a teaching message to the society of
Uganda,Africa and the world wide which encounter the HIV/AIDS pandemic. It
criticizing the society’s way of life with its act of prostitution and
infidelity at the same time it educates the society and lastly entertain the
society by different songs in the book so as to bring up awareness.
1) Explain how the Author of the
book have used characters to bring massage to the society
2) Parents are the agents to shape
their children by using their parents are either good or bad.
1) Solution qn. 1
Character is the agent which
carries the message to the society. In the novels passed like a shadow which
written by BERNARD MAPALALA and wreath for father Mayer which written by S.N.
NDUNGURU the author of this book are try to use characters to bring message
to the society.
The following are the characters
from the book Passed like a Shadow which used to bring message to the
Adyeri is the head of the family
not only but also is the head master of St. Luis high school. He becomes a
hopeless drunkard and womanizer after losing his job so the message which
brings from these characters to the society is irresponsibility.
Irresponsibility shown by Adyeri who failed to provide for the family basic
needs. As the book says “uncle pays visit. Atwoki’s home and find the home
had gated no food.
Aluganyira is rich person,
exploiter and Vicky’s husband also he is superstitious because he believes in
the power of witch doctor. The message which we get from this character is
local beliefs. Local beliefs are the beliefs of existence of goods and the
activities that are concerned with their being the worshiped. Shown when
Aluganyira takes his wife to witch doctor in order to get child. As the book
says “The witch doctor make prinks on Vicky stomach and tattoo’s it”
Abooki’s is Adyeri’s and Amoti’s
daughter she is a kindness person is the message which we get from her.
This character is kindness.
Kindness showed when Abooki’s is taking care of her sick mother, father and
her brother. As the book says, “Abooki back at home without enough money
while the mother is sick”.
Also characters from the book
wreath for father Mayer bring the following message to the society.
Father Den’s Moyo: He is the
parish priest at Mkongo parish. Also is sympathetic about twenty parish
owners who dead cholera and also used to visit patient at the dispensary. He
is important figures in the society who think and solve issues critically.
The message which this character brings to our society is prisoners. As the
book says “Father Moyo continued to help villagers with used kerosene fins.
This message are show good example to our society also it teach us how should
be to live in our communities with other people who suffered from different
Bwana Pima: He real home of Omary
Mtepa. He is medicine man at character is infidelity. According to this book
wreath for father Mayer infidelity is shown by Bwana Pima. As the book says
“Bwana Pima has five wives ——-still he has many combined in
village—–“in other side this message he bring in the society is so bad
because infidelity may cause different disease especially HIV/AIDS for those
people who apply or concerned with it.
Paul: is Bwana Pima’s son the only
Rozina child. He is twelve years old and he is a standard five pupil at
Makongo mission school. The message we get from this character is
transparency. Transparency shown by Bwana Pima’s son who very important
figure in this book is through is a minor character. As the book says “He
revealed about secret use of tetra cycling at his home——–“This message
he bring in our society is very good so is a good example for people to
The following above are the
characters and the message which are bring to the society which are still
found in our daily activities and surrounding
Answer qn 2
Parents are the agent to shape
their children by using two books explain children can learn something from
their parent be either good or bad.
ANALYSIS OF THE PLAY ‘’THIS TIME TOMORROW’’
TITLE: THIS TIME TOMORROW
AUTHOR: NGUGI WA THIONGO
SETTING: KENYA (Uhuru market)
PUBLISHER: Kenya literature Bureau
‘’This time tomorrow’’ is a play
which shows disappointment among the majority who are being humiliated and
made to suffer. It also unseals the weakness in the government that doesn’t
take decision and affects masses and their interest.
TITLE OF THE PLAY
The title of the play is direct
because it simplify explains the disappointment made by the new government to
the majority who live in slums and also the government decision on the ‘clean
the city’ campaign which demanded the demolition of slums without a clean
statement to which place that majority will leave soon after the demolition
because of this situation, Njango is asking herself a question ‘’where will
we go tonight? “Where will be, this time tomorrow”
STYLES AND TECHNIQUES
i) POINT OF VIEW
– The writer used both 1 st and 3 rd
person point of view
Example wakes up! I tell you
– The Writer used 3 rd person
Point of view for narration i.e. By explaining those words in brackets,
Example (the journalist resumed
typing, then he stops …………) Pg 31 (as she sweep she hears a tune) Pg 34.
ii) A FLASHBACK STYLE
Pg 38, when Njango explained about
her man and what caused his death
Pg 42, when Tinsmith explained
himself to the journalist about different kinds of jobs he had.
Pg 43, when shoemaker explained to
the journalist about how they fought for freedom
– She is the central character in
the play. She is a protagonist and the mother of Wanjiro. She is a widow
since her husband is killed in the forest during Maumau movement.
– She has come to town after the
death of her husband.
– She engages herself in petty
trade at the Uhuru market (selling soup).
– She earns a poor life. Her house
is made of cardboard and share the floor with her daughter as a bed.
– She is tribalistic due to
conservatism. She is against inter-tribal marriages.
– She is one of the victims of the
Clean-the- city Campaign. She laments, “Where Shall I be this time tomorrow?”
– She is abandoned by her daughter
Wanjiro who decides to go with Asinjo.
– She warns or advises Wanjiro to
be cautious with city boys.
– Daughter of Njango.
– She is naturally beautiful but
not smart due to poverty.
– She has not been sent to school
like her brother but does work at home.
– She loves Asinjo and wants to
marry him but her mother forbids her.
– She helps her mother with
domestic chores and in her petty business.
– She is unhappy with the poor
life in the slums and wants to go away with Asinjo.
– She admires we ring like white
people and walks like an European lady.
– She is not touched by the demolition
– She finally goes to marry
– Conscietizes the people about
their rights and makes them aware of humiliation and exploitation.
– The people think that he has
magical power to save them.
– He advises the people to unite
in their opposition against the demolition of the slums.
– He is aware that in order to
succeed, there should be a strong determination, organized struggle and
– He is courageous. He remains
alone when others run away until he is arrested by the police Officer for
inciting people into violence and civil disobedience.
– He is one of the slum dwellers.
– He is illiterate and does not
know his age.
– He is married to one wife and
his five children.
– He is among the freedom fighters
in the forest.
– He earns a living by mending
– He protests against the
government’s decision to demolish the slums.
– He is once arrested and sent to
Manyani Concentration Camp.
– He easily despairs to struggle
against the City Council.
– Is among the slum dwellers.
– He buys soup at Njango’s place.
– He is also against the
demolition of the houses.
– He suggests that they should
hold a meeting with the stranger. He believes in magical powers and thinks
that the stranger can use his magic.
– He is coward. He tells the
people at the meeting that the police are coming and cautions them that they
have got batons.
2 nd Customer
– He is another person who buys
soup at Njango’s Place.
– He complains to Njangu about the
price of the soup.
– He believes that the stranger
has magic to save them.
– He is coward. He tells others to
run and he runs away.
3 rd Customer
– He is also a slum dweller and
buys soup at Njango’s place.
– He also protests against the
government’s decision to demolish the slums. He therefore, does not want to
– He supports the idea of uniting
(standing together) as suggested by the stranger and encourages people to
accept what the stranger says and stand firm.
– He is also courageous like the
– He works with the City Council
Health Department, therefore, he reminds the people in Uhuru markets to move
away since the slums are going to be demolished in a bid to clean the city,
because the filthy slums are an eyesore to the city.
– He is not among the slum
– He is among the few people
enjoying the national cake; living a good life.
– He helps in forcing the people
to move away from the slums. He drives Njango out of her hut.
– He is a young man fom another
tribe who loves Wanjiro and wants to marry her.
– He was chased away and insulted
by Njango because she does not want him to marry her daughter.
– He tells Wanjiro that he is a
taxi-driver and owns a house in old Jerusalem.
– He convinces Wanjiro to go with
him and ignore her mother because she is old.
– He is aware that slum will be
demolished that day. He therefore, uses that chance to convince or win
Wanjiro. So, Asinjo in this case is depicted as an opportunist because he
takes advantage of the demolition process to get Wanjiro.
– He is also a slum dweller who
lives a poor life.
– He is illiterate. He is not sure
of his age.
– He came to the city many years
ago, and does not remember exactly when.
– As the journalist takes his
photograph, he tells him that he has done many jobs including cooking,
– He cooks for the White people
during the war and after. He also works as a porter.
– He has terrible experiences in
his life that involve sleeping on shop-verandahs, trenches and in public
– He makes water buckets, pangas,
– He report different events in
the society like the state of sanitation, the government’s decision to
demolish the slums, the people’s reactions, etc.
– He gather the people’s views on
the decision to demolish the slums.
– He is not among the slum
– He takes pictures of different
people like the tinsmith and Inspector Kiongo.
– He works with the media.
– He tells the journalist to hurry
up writing the article.
– He is also not among the slum
– Is among the people in the civil
– He is representing the
government in the implementation the Clean-the-City Campaign.
– He arrests the stranger for
inciting the people into violence and civil disobedience.
– They implement the government’s
decision to demolish the slums.
– They face some resistance
thought not strong.
– They storm into the slums and in
the meeting, and start hitting people with batons until they run away.
– The majority in the slums. The
group of people suffering and living a poor life.
– Most of them are freedom
fighters fighting for Kenyan freedom and against land alienation.
– They struggle against injustice
exercised by the new government. They are against the demolition of slums
which takes place so abruptly without due consideration of their impending
– Since they are not properly,
united struggle against the government fails. As the beginning they manage to
stand together, but later they split due to lack of coherence and confidence.
– They are superstitions. They
believe. (Have illusions) that the stranger can perform magic and save them.
Due to their weaknesses, their slums are
Topic 5: WRITING USING APPROPRIATE LANGUAGE CONTENT AND
The Meaning of Composition.
This topic deals with compositions
that engage pupils/students in writing using appropriate language, content
and style. Composition refers to a short text that is written at school,
college, etc. as part of exercise. In composition a student/pupil generates
his/her own ideas to explain, narrate, argue/persuade or describe something
or event. Composition involves writing of essays, poems, stories, songs, and
Types of composition.
There are various types of
compositions, they include.
(a Narrative compositions.
(b) Expository compositions
(c) Descriptive compositions.
(d) Argumentative or Persuasive
Narrative compositions refer to
stories of different events. These stories may be personal, historical or
fictional. Personal stories focus on important events of the author’s life.
Historical stories capture a moment from the past and present it in a story
format. Fictional stories use imagination and figurative language to produce
a short story.
A narrative composition is the
composition that tells a story. When writing narrative about an event, the
following should be included.
When did it happen? What exactly
happened? When did the event start? How did you know about the event? Did you
witness or where you told about the event? Were you involved in the event?
How did the event end?
Basic elements of Narrative
There are several basic elements
that should be considered when writing a narrative composition. These
include: plot, characters and setting.
Plot: is a
sequence of events or actions in a story. It has conflict that is a problem
to human experience, and a resolution, that is the outcome of the conflict.
Most plots develop in the five stages, namely: exposition, rising action,
climax, falling action and resolution.
1. Exposition is a background
information about the characters and setting
2. Rising action is a part that develops the
3. Climax is the point of the highest
interest, conflict or suspense in the story
4. Falling action is a part that
shows what happens to the characters after the climax
5. Resolution shows how the
conflict is resolved, or the problem is solved.
are animate or inanimate things that perform certain roles in literature.
Animate things are living things like people, plants and animals, while
inanimate things are non living things like stones, air, wind, soil, pieces
of wood, etc. when inanimate things are given human attributes, they are
is the time and place in which the events of a narrative occur.
Steps in writing Narrative
There are several steps to follow
when writing a narrative composition. They include: finding a story idea,
developing characters, setting the scene, communicating a theme and choosing
a point of view.
Finding a story idea:
The story should have a conflict/topic/problem that can be external or
internal, intra-personal or inter-personal, at the level of an individual,
group or society. Story ideas come from everyday life experience, newspapers,
magazines or books.
Assign roles that relate to their physical descriptions, thoughts,
personality traits, actions and reactions to one another,. Include dialogue
to let readers witness the characters, conversations. In writing a dialogue,
use the language that reflects age, background and personality of each
Setting the scene:
in setting the scene, include information about time, place, weather and
historical period. Often setting will affect the way characters act.
Communicating a theme:
Theme is a main idea of a story that the writer conveys through the
narrative. One way to express the theme of narrative is through description
of the setting and the title.
Choosing a point of view: The decision is made by the author whether to use first
person (i/we), second person (You) or third person (he/she/it/they)
narration. In first person point of view, the narrator is a character in the
story. In third person point of view the narrator is an observer of the event
An expository composition is a
piece of writing or story that gives directions, explains an idea or term,
compares one thing to another and explains how to do something. The purpose
of an expository writing is to explain something to the reader or audience.
Types of Expository composition
There are five types of expository
composition as follows;
Explaining a process (explanatory)
Uses a step –by-step organization
to explain how something happens, works or is done. For example, how to
prepare oxygen in the laboratory.
Cause and effect
This examines the causes or effects
or both of a system, or certain phenomenon. For example, the causes and
effects of AIDS, poverty, the desertification, drought etc.
Compare and contract
This examines similarities and
difference of certain phenomena. For example, compare and contrast weather
and climate, animal cell and plant cell, rocks and minerals, etc.
It explains a concept by listing
its qualities and characteristics. For example, define a cell, metamorphic
rock, climate, poverty, globalization, technology etc.
Problem and solution
This examines aspects of a problem
and proposes possible solutions. This means that a writer investigates a
problem and explains it to the readers, then he/she proposes solutions,. The
problem can be HIV/AIDS, famine, environmental pollution, floods,
overpopulation and migration. The measurers to address these problems can be
suggested in the essay and they should be as many as possible.
Descriptive composition is the
type of writing that describes about events, actions or phenomena which exist
or happened sometime in the past. It tells that a phenomenon is, like by
giving the details of the features or characteristics. A writer can describe
the colour, size, quality, feeling, smell, taste, sound, speed, or age of
someone or something.
For example, one can write an
essay describing the Kilimanjaro Mountain, or Lake Victoria or the shape of
In writing a descriptive
composition, avoid the following overused modifiers: good, bad, really, so,
and very. Instead you may consider the following modifiers: completely,
definitely, especially, exceptionally, largely, mostly, notably, oddly,
particularly, strikingly, surprisingly, terribly, thoroughly and unusually.
Also, use precise verbs and words
that appeal to sight, sound, taste, smell, and touch, so as to capture the
essence of actions.
Argumentative or persuasive
composition is the type of writing aimed at convincing, motivating, arguing,
or persuading readers to accept, change or take action on something or topic
or subject in whatever form that might be. For example, an essay can be
written to persuade readers to join a certain political, party, or buy
something, or vote for a certain candidate or use certain medicine in
combating malaria or AIDS.
Things to consider when writing a persuasive composition.
Varied opinions about the topic:
You must argue for a point and try to convince readers to support your
opinion. Your opinion should be disputable or argumentative. If your opinion
can’t arouse argumentation then it is worthless. For example, it would be
pointless to argue that the sun rises in the west and sets in the east
because almost everyone would not agree with you. However, your might argue
on a certain theory which states that the sun accounts for 90% of
Audience receptiveness: Take into
consideration your audience and their opinions, are well as their age, level
of education, sex and problems they encounter when choosing a topic. For
example, one can write about HIV/AIDS, importance of education, the problem
of pregnancy in primary schools, floods, outbreak of diseases etc.
Sufficient evidence: Provide
sufficient evidence to support your arguments. If give little support for
your opinion, you will be fighting a losing battle.
Use inductive and deductive
reasoning: Reasoning is an important aspect in providing arguments. Reasoning
can be inductive or deductive.
Inductive reasoning proceeds
logically from limited facts to a general conclusion, that is, reasoning from
specific aspects to general aspects.
The meaning of Creative Writing
Creative writing involves the
figurative use of language in a more artistic way. Creating writing goes hand
in hand with competence and performance of a certain language. Creative
writing becomes more effective when one becomes capable of using literary
devices and skills. Literary devices are tools which make a story or any
piece of writing figurative.
Some of the literary devices which
are used in most literary works include: personification, hyperbole, simile,
rhetorical questions, irony sarcasm, tautology, onomatopoeia, alliteration,
reiteration, assonance, consonance, proverbs, riddles, just to mention a few.
(For more details about literary devices refer to Chapter Four)
FIGURES OF SPEECH.
Simile: it is used to compare two
different things having a common quality.
(i) Janneth is as beautiful as a rose.
(ii) He is running very fast like
Metaphor: It is used to compare
two different things treated as one. It is also called and implied simile
without using words such as ‘like’, ‘so’, ‘as,
(i) Education is a key to life.
(ii) An elephant is the king of
Allegory: A form of extended
metaphor in which objects, persons and actins in narrative, either in prose
or verse, are equated with meanings that lie outside the narrative itself.
Personification: It is a way of
giving inanimate and other lifeless objects the qualities of human beings
such as speaking, walking, thinking, etc. Example
(i) Hyena requested Hare to give
him some water
(ii) The sun sheds his beams on
Hyperbole: It is used to
exaggerate facts. Example
(i) I thanked him a hundred times.
(ii) He is as tall as the P.P.F
Euphemism: It is used to say
unpleasant thing in a pleasant manner. Example:
(i) ‘I am going to the comfort
station’ instead of ‘I am going to the toilet’.
(ii) ‘My mother has passed away’
instead of ‘My mother has died’.
Irony: It is used to express the
opposite meaning which is different from the real meaning . Example:
(i) You are very beautiful (to
someone who does not look beautiful)
(ii) You have scored very high (to
a student who has failed to test)
Rhetorical questions: It is a
question which does not need an answer because the answer is known to the
person who is asking the question. Examples:
(i) Will there be a tomorrow?
(ii) Now! Why don’t you act?
Alliteration: Repetition of
identical consonant sounds at the beginning of word or of stressed syllable
within a word in a verse. Example: after, life fit fever.
Assonance: Repetition of similar
vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonant sound.
(i) Lake and fate.
(ii) Clean and cream.
(iii) Side and wide.
Archaism (Barbarism): Using
different languages in conversation or writing. The worlds which are not
acceptable in that language (language used) because it is foreign. In short
this term refers to the borrowed words.
Litotes: A form of understatement
in which a thing is affirmed by stating the negative of its opposite. Example
(i) ‘She was not unmindful’
meaning ‘she gave careful attention’
(ii) ‘It wasn’t easy’ meaning ‘It
was very difficult’.
Onomatopoeic: The formation of
words by the imitation of sounds resembling those associated with the object
instead of object itself. Example: “hiss” “buzz”, “whir”, and “sizzle”.
Satire: A literary manner that
blends a critical attitude with humour and wit for the purpose of improving
human institutions or humanity. Example: it seems there is no salon nearby.
Your hairs are very cooperative.
Sarcasm: Bitterness. It may not be
ironical but it always cuts bitter and ill natured. It aims at inflicting
(i) If you are the son of God
rescuer yourself from the cross.
(ii) If you are a mechanical
engineer, tell us the problem of this car.
Humour: Funny and amusing. It can
be a comic speech, a comic behavior or comic appearance. Example:
Wife: I have been watching you for
almost half an hour concentrating on our marriage contract certificate. What
Husband: Nothing wrong! But I am
just trying to find out the expiry date of our marriage contract.
Wit: Clever and humorous
expression of ideas (intelligent and understanding). With raises a sense of
awareness. Example: Oh! Why didn’t you tell me that those mosquitoes are your
beloved friends? I can see you visiting the pharmacy daily. But I have two
mosquito nets. Can I give you one to dress your bed so as to attract more
Sympathy (sympathetic): Feeling of
pity and sorrow; capacity for sharing the feeling of others. Example: I
really recognize your current situation. It is God’s work. Let us pray for
her soul so that God may rest her in eternal life.
Climax: A figure of speech which
is used to express a series of ideas in the order of increasing importance.
(i) I heard, I followed, and I
(ii) Some are born great, some
achieve greatness and some have greatness thrust upon them.
(iii) I came, I saw, I conquered.
Litotes: It is used to convey an
affirmative meaning by employing a negative word. Example:
(i) ‘The car is not in bad
condition’ meaning ‘the car is in good condition’
(ii) ‘Elizabeth is not a lazy
woman’ meaning ‘Elizabeth is a hard worker.’
(iii) ‘Tanzania is not a
mono-party system nation’ meaning ‘Tanzania is a multiparty system nation.’
Ellipsis: It is the omission of
words or letters to avoid repetition in the sentences.
Thesis: An attitude or position on
a problem taken by a writer or speaker with the purpose of providing or
Contrast: A device by which one
element is opposed to another for the sake of emphasis or clarity.
Antithesis: A figure of speech
characterized by strongly contrasting words, clauses, sentences or ideas:
(i) Man proposes and God disposes.
(ii) To err is human but to
forgive is divine.
Allusion: A figure of speech that
makes brief reference to a historical or literary figure, event or object.
Ambiguity: The expression of an
idea in language that gives more than one meaning and leaves uncertainty as
to the intended significance of the statement. Example words like bank,
Tautology: The use of superfluous,
repetitious words. Tautology differs from the kinds of repetition used for
clarity, emphasis or effect, in that it repeats the idea without adding force
Exclamation: A figure of speech
which is used to express an idea in the form of an exclamation. Example:
(i) What a piece of work is man!
(ii) What fall was there my
(iii) How sweet is the bed that is
slept by the queen!
Conditional Sentences can be
grouped into three;
I. Conditional type one (likely)
II. Conditional type two (unlikely)
III. Conditional type three
It expresses conditions that are
likely to be fulfilled
1. If I eat to much, I will get
stomachache 2. I will send her an invitation, if I find her address 3. Unless
I get the ball ,I won’t play basketball 4. The harvest will fail, unless it
It formed by two clauses
We use present simple in the if
clause and will in the main clause You can have the main clause or the if the
clause at the beginning of the sentence. When the if clause it at beginning
of the sentence you need comma before the main clause ,as seen in sentence
Always suggest that a situation is
unlikely, impossible, imaginary or hypothetical Here we use simple past tense
in the If clause and would or conditional tense in the main clause. E.g: If
were an angel, I would lead all carjackers to a trap He would go to London,
If he spoke english If I played crunk, I should be a soldier If I ran fast ,I
would be the winner
Also called impossible is made up
with two clauses
Conditional are used to talk about
unreal situations in the past or possible consequences of something that did
not happen in the past
We use past perfect in the if
clause (if + had) and conditional perfect (would have) in the main clause.
I would have given up if you had
not encourage me If you had not encourage me, I would have given up If he had
gone ,he could have called me If I had come ,I might have been sick
Prepositions of movement
Study the examples below
a) The children came from the
village the other day
b) The young came by daladala to
c) Some other came all the way on
d) They stopped at marishoni for
By and on indicate means of travel
while to movement toward the destination. From indicate movement from a place
of origin. At indicate a point along the journey
Fill in the blank spaces using
from, to, at, or by
1) Let us go ___________ the
village this weekend
2) Shall we drive _____________
mwama or shall we go____________ air?
3) She called to say she arrived __________-
Nairobi last night
4) What time did you reach
5) The old lady stood
______________ the bus stop for two hours
1. How to send a text message
(SMS) using a cell phone
a) Ensure you have credit in your
b) Go to write massage and type
c) Look to the number of person
you want to send a massage to
d) Send a massage you have written
by pressing send on the phone
Gender neutral language
When we use the English we need to
be careful that we do not discriminate against men or women. Language that
excludes one sex is said to be gender insensitive. This insensitivity occurs
in the use of nouns and pronouns.
a) If you lose your way in the
city, it is safes to speak to the policeman
b) The response of fireman was
slow so the fire destroyed everything in the shop
c) The fireman pays the workmen
The use of the underlined nouns
suggested that all police officers, firefighters, and supervisor are men. The
nouns police officer, firefighters and supervisor should have used instead
because are gender neutral
Provide the gender neutral
equivalent for each of the following nouns
Two past sentence connectors
These are conjunctions that are
used in pairs. Usually some sentence material comes between the two parts.
They are sometimes called correlatives
Either – or
We use Either —– or when we
want to give a choice from two alternatives.
1. Either the teachers or the
prefects will supervisor the preparations
2. You can either do your homework
now or wash the clothes
3. Either you can join the army or
the prison services
4. She is either a teacher or
We use to disqualify or reject two
1. Neither the watchman nor the
residents were hurt in the attack 2. Neither the author nor the editor knows
what to do with manuscript. 3.
Not only——–but also and both————and
We used them to relate two things
or actions where one is an addition to the other.
1. He wrote a song .he sang it
He not only wrote a song but also
1. Shufaa can not only compose a
play but also act upon it 2. He need both clothing and food 3.
1 Amina was fat. She could not run
Amina was fat so that she could
1. Hardly had abdul sat down when
his rival stood to speak 2. Hardly had i started close eyes when the bell
1. Abul had scarcely sad down when
his rival stood to speak 2. I had scarcely closed my eyes when the bell rang
1. No sooner had Juma sat down
than his rival stool to speaker
2. No sooner had he arrived than
We use No sooner———than,
Hardly—— when and scarcely —-when, when we suggest that one event and
happen very soon after another
Simple subordinating Conjunctions
Consist of one word eg although,
since, that, unless, until, while, whereas, whereby, as, because, however
Although / though
The weather is bad, we are
Although / though the weather is
bad, we are enjoying ourselves
The weather was bad, however we enjoyed
Since it was raining, I took a tax
Because it was raining I took a
While he stood there, he saw two
When he comes, tell him I have
gone to Tanga
I have lived here for five years
Complex subordinating conjunctions
Consist of more than one word
In order that, such that, expect
that, so that, as far as, as long as, as soon as, in so far, in case, as if,
as though, sooner than
A possessive nouns show ownership
and is formed by adding an apostrophe and ‘S’ to the nouns, or only an
apostrophe if the word ends with an s. the possessive form of a nouns shows
that the person named owns something.
a) One girl’s bicycle was pink
(The bicycle belongs to the girl)
For the possessive is plural nouns
that ends with ‘S’ like boys, houses, the apostrophe follows the plural (s)
and possessive ‘S’ is left out,
1) This is a boys’ school
2) The teachers’ visitors are here
3) Please collect the student’s
assignments before lunch.
Topic 6: WRITING FORMAL LETTERS
Major Parts of Formal/Official
Sender’s address and date
Addressee’s address below the reference number U.F.S, if it has to be signed
by a certain officer/Person, for forwarding. Formal salutation i.e. Sir/Madam
The introductory sentence e.g a reference to a former announcement, letter,
or newspaper. Curriculum Vitae (CV) Purpose of your application i.e. for
national building. Referees (at least 3) i.e. someone who can furnish
personal information about you. Closing remarks like your faithfully
Signature. Full name and title.
Example of Request Letter
A REQUEST LETTER
Order Letters: (The Full Block
P. O. BOX 420,
REF: ORDER FOR 20 DOZEN OF BATIK
I shall be grateful if you will
send me by Kilimanjaro Express Bus Service, 20 Dozen of Batik made in
Tanzania particularly by China and Tanzania Friendship Textile Industry,
“URAFIKI” as early as Possible.
Customer have created trust on me
and I hope you shall do your best for the betterment of both sided. Sending
this month will be more appropriated and appreciable.