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TOPIC TOPIC 7: MEASUREMENT OF THERMAL ENERGY
Heat capacity is the amount of heat required
to raise the temperature of an object or substance by one degree. The
temperature change is the difference between the final temperature ( Tf) and the initial temperature ( Ti).
The Factors which Determine Heat Quality of a Substance
Explain the factors which determine heat quality of a substance
is a form of energy transferred between bodies due to difference in
temperature between them. The energy possessed by the body due to its
temperature is called the internal thermal energy. The heat content is
due to the random motion of the particles that make up the body. The
heat content is determined by its mass, temperature change and the
specific heat capacity of the substance.
The Heat Capacity
Determine the heat capacity
Heat capacity is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a substance by one degree Celsius.
Heat capacity = mass of the substance X specific heat capacity
Find the heat capacity of a lump of copper of mass 50kg. The specific heat capacity of copper is 420 J/ Kg ºc.
The specific heat capacity of copper, C = 420J/KgºC
Required: To calculate heat capacity, H.C.
Calculating a quantity of heat
- The quantity of heat required to change the temperature of a body with mass, M Kg by Q degree Celsius is MCQ joules.
- In order to raise the temperature of a body, heat must be supplied to it.
- In order to lower its temperature, heat must be removed from it.
The Heat Equation is therefore written:
Heat Gained or Heat Lost = Mass X specific heat capacity X change in temperature
Q= change (Rise or fall) In Temperature of the body.
of mass 3kg is heated from 26ºc to 96ºC. Find the amount of heat
supplied to the water given that the specific heat capacity of water is
4.2 x 103 J / Kg ºc
Specific Heat capacity, C = 4.2 X 103 j / Kgº C
Initial temperature, Qi= 26 ºC
Final Temperature, Qf = 96ºC
H = 3Kg x 4.2 x103 (96-26) ºC
The Specific Heat Capacity
Determine the specific heat capacity
heat capacity is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature
of a unit mass of a substance by one degree Celsius.
The quantity of heat supplied to or taken away from a body depends on:
- The mass of the body, M
- The temperature different, ΔT
- The thermal properties of the body.
Determining specific Heat capacity
- Calorimeter – Is the special instrument or vessel used for measurement of Heat.
- Calorimeter is highly polished metal can usually made of copper or aluminium.
- It is flitted with an insulating cover in which there are two holes.
- Two holes allow a thermometer and a stirrer to be inserted.
- The stirrer is made of the same metal as that of the calorimeter.
Demonstration of the specific Heat capacity of a solid
Determining specific Heat capacity by Method of Calculation.
Heat lost by solid, Hs = Ms x Cs (Qs – Qf)
Heat Gained by Calorimeterand stirrer, Hc = Mc x Cc (Qf – Qi)
Heat Gained by Water, HW = Mw x Cw (Qf – Qi)
the heat lost by the solid is equal to heat gained by the calorimeter
and stirrer plus the heat gained by the water in the calorimeter.
Heat gained by a calorimeter and content equal to heat lost by the solid.
Mc Cc (Qf – Qi) + Mi Ci ( Qf-Qi) = Ms Cs ( Qs-Qs)
piece of metal with a mass of 200g at a temperature of 100ºC is quickly
transferred into 50g of water at 20ºC find the final temperature of the
system ( specific Heat capacity of water Cw = 4200J/ Kg ºC specific
Heat capacity of the metal Cm = 400J/KgºC.
Ms Cs (Qs-Qf) = Mc Cc (Qf-Q) Mm Cw (Qf-Ql)
Cs. Is the specific Heat capacity of the solids.
Determining the specific heat capacity of liquid, Cl
Heat Gained by calorimeter and stirrer
Q be the final Temperature of the system
If there are no heat Losses to the surroundings, then.
(Heat gained by water) = (Heat lost by metal)
TOPIC 8: VAPOUR AND HUMIDITY
The Process of Evaporation of Liquid
Explain the process of evaporation of liquid
- These are molecules which escape into the atmosphere after liquids are heated.
- When a liquid is heated strongly then molecules tends to escape ( those molecules are called vapour).
- Most liquids evaporates at any temperature however liquids may vary in the rate at which they evaporate at ordinary temperature.
- Alcohol and ether evaporate rapidly but lubricating oil and mercury hardly evaporate.
- Evaporation of a liquids result in the formation of vapour.
Factors Affecting Evaporation of a Liquid
Identify factors affecting evaporation of a liquid
There are several factors which affect evaporation of liquids when heated which include the following:
- Nature of the liquid:
Normally liquids evaporation differs depending on the nature of liquid.
Example; Volatile liquids evaporate faster than non-volatile liquids,
which evaporate slowly. Alcohol evaporates faster than other liquids
like water. The boiling point of alcohol is 780C while that of water is 100oC.
- Pressure above the liquid (atmospheric pressure): When the atmospheric pressure is high, the rate of evaporation may be reduced.
- Surface energy of the liquid:
This forms a boundary or skin between the liquid and the atmosphere.
The surface energy prevents molecules with lower kinetic energy from
escaping into the atmosphere. Some liquids such as alcohol have low
surface energy , hence they evaporate rapidly.
Question Time 1
Why do molecules escapes when the liquid is heated?
When the liquid is heated, the molecules tend to gain (absorb) kinetic energy hence the random speed of the moleculesincreases.
process of evaporation of liquid can be explained using Kinetic
Theory.When a liquid is left to evaporate in a closed container, the
pressure of the vapour in the container gradually increases.
Difference between Saturated and Evaporation of a Liquid
Distinguish between saturated and evaporation of a liquid
The Effect of Temperature on Saturated Vapour Pressure (S.V.P) of a Liquid
Explain the effect of temperature on saturated vapour pressure (S.V.P) of a liquid
Saturated vapour pressure (S.V.P):Is
the pressure exerted by vapour when a liquid is heated and reaches a
state of Equilibrium where eventually the rate at which the molecules
leave the liquid is equal to the rate at which others return to it.
Height, of mercury represents the saturated vapour pressure of the
liquid in the flask. Saturated vapour pressure increases with the
increase in Temperature (Ti) and the increased with decrease in
The graph of saturated vapour pressure (svp) against Temperature
graph shows as saturated vapour pressure (s.v.p) increases then the
temperature will increase and vice versa for decrease of temperature.
point (B.P):Is the temperature reached where the saturated vapour
pressure (S.V.P) is equal to external atmospheric pressure.
The Boiling point of alcohol is 78OC water is 100OC
and pressure of the atmosphere as 76cm of mercury.The intersection of
the normal atmosphere pressure line with the liquids S.V.P curve.