BIOLOGY FORM THREE TOPIC 1: CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS, TOPIC 2: MOVEMENT

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TOPIC 1: CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS

Kingdom Plantae, Division Coniferophyta (Conifers )
General and Distinctive Features of the Division Coniferophyta
Explain general and distinctive features of the division coniferophyta
Division
Coniferophyta or the conifers belong to Kingdom Plantae. These plants
are gymnosperms meaning non-flowering. They are non-flowering but seed
bearing plants. They have vascular tissues. They are woody plants
majority being evergreen trees. Few varieties are shrubs
What are the general and distinctive features of the Division Coniferophyta?
General characteristics
  1. They
    have secondary growth whose thickening can be observed in cross section
    of a stem revealing annual rings. Secondary Growth is the result of
    growth Lateral Meristems (Vascular Cambium & Cork Cambium).
  2. Most of the members of Coniferophyta live in cool climates where they form evergreen forests. They keep their leaves year-round.
  3. They have a large amount of internodal elongation which allows them to grow faster than the other higher plants.
  4. They
    are Xeromorphic, a characteristic that help to protect them from
    excessive loss of water and therefore adapt survival in extreme
    habitats.
  5. Most are large trees while a few are shrubs and other small plants.
  6. Most of them have hard barks which protect inner softwood.
Distinctive characteristics
  1. Conifers are non-flowering but seed producing plants.
  2. They have seeds born in cones shaped structures rather than in fruits.
  3. They are gymnosperms which mean naked-seed plants because they produce seeds in cones rather than inside an embryo.
  4. The leaves are needle-shaped and have a thick cuticle for protection and to decrease water loss.
The Structure of Pinus
Describe the structure of pinus
Pines
are evergreen, coniferous resinous trees growing 3–80 m tall. The
bark of most pines is thick and scaly. They have needle like leaves.
Pines
are among the most well- known coniferous trees in the world. They
thrive in temperate mountainous regions, but can also survive in
tropical spots in the northern hemisphere. Pines live relatively long
time than other coniferous plants. They may live between 100 and 1,000
years
  • The Stem:The
    bark of most pines is thick and scaly, but some species have thin,
    flaking bark. The branches are produced in regular whorls appearing like
    a ring of branches arising from the same point.
  • Leaves:A
    cross-section of pine stem has several concentric rings with distinct
    borders between each ring. The center of the stem is called pith. These
    rings are called annual rings because they grow seasonally and they help
    a plant to undergo secondary thickening. Generally adult pines have
    needle-shaped leaves which are green and photosynthetic. The leaves are
    in bundles or clusters. The leaves (cotyledons) on seedlings are borne
    in a whorl of 4–24. Juvenile leaves, which follow immediately after
    seedlings, have single, green leaves arranged spirally on the shoot.
    They also have non- photosynthetic scale leaves, similar to bud scales.
    They are arranged spirally like the juvenile leaves.
  • Cones:A
    cone is an organ of pines that contains the reproductive structures.
    The woody cone is the female cone, which produces seeds. The male cones,
    which produce pollen, are usually herbaceous and much less conspicuous.
    Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the Division Coniferophyta
    The advantages and disadvantages of the Division Coniferophyta
The Advantages and Disadvantages of the Division Coniferophyta
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the division coniferophyta
Advantages of Conifers
  1. Conifers
    are very important for our economy because of their softwood, which is
    used for paper and timber, as well as cedar which many people use for
    their homes because of its beauty and resistance to insects. They have a
    large economic use as softwood in furniture. In temperate and tropical
    regions, they are fast-growing softwoods that will allow harvesting in
    close succession.
  2. Decoration and ceremony Many pine species make
    attractive ornamentals. They are planted in parks and larger gardens.
    Some varieties are suitable for smaller spaces. Pines are also
    commercially grown and harvested for Christmas trees.
  3. As
    medicine, Pines and cypress are rich in vitamin; their branches cones
    and oils can be extracted and used as nutrient supplements.
  4. Due to its soft texture conifers are widely used to manufacture Play wood.
  5. As other higher plants conifers are source of heat energy, used as firewood and charcoal.
  6. Thick forests of conifers form green belts that modify the climate.
  7. Conifers form a large arena for Biological research Ecological studies.
  8. Food
    uses: Some species have large seeds, called pine nuts that are
    harvested and sold for cooking and baking. The soft, moist, white inner
    bark (cambium) found clinging to the woody outer bark is edible and very
    high in vitamins A and C. It can be eaten raw in slices as a snack or
    dried and ground up into a powder for use as bread flour. Also White
    Pines are rich in Vitamin A and C; flour can be made from the Pine
    tree’s inner bark. By chewing bark of pine you can eliminate bad breath.
    Pines can reduce the pain of skin infections by applying warm pine sap.

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