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EDUCATIONAL MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY: MODULE 5:

Module
5

Media selection
This
is the process that teachers use to identify the media mostly likely to support
the classroom instruction based on their analysis of learners’ characteristics,
lesson objectives and learning activities.
In
teaching diverse classroom, there are two main principles which guide selection
of media:-
•        
The first is universal design for learning (multiple representation, engagement
and expression) a concept that publishers and teachers can use in design of
instructional materials and learning activities.
•        
The second is accessibility, a concept supported by law to ensure the rights
individuals with disabilities to be able to use instructional materials
Media selection under transmission
approach
Transmission
approach assumes knowledge as being out there to be acquired or transmitted,
learners as passive receivers of information or empty vessels to be filled with
knowledge, ideas, numbers, values and skills. The teacher spends most of the
time talking, elaborating and engaging learners in activities. Methods are such
as lecture, storytelling, guest speaker, etc
Factors to consider in media selection
under transmission approach
A
teacher’s voice itself is a medium (oral), so clarity of voice, pausing, and
repeating important points are important + audio visual materials are
preferable + realia and locally available materials which are familiar to the learners
are best
Media selection under transmission
approach serves the purpose of
: helping the
teacher to emphasize the points that he/she thinks they need more clarification
+ enabling the teacher to pause and change teaching styles from all time talking
to showing the visual materials on the board + using the media as the way to
help the learners who cannot hear well the teacher’s voice + awaking the
learners who lose interest due to prolonged teachers’ talk
Media selection under
transaction/interaction approach
Under
this perspective, knowledge is said to be generated or consolidated or shared
during transaction process. Methods are such as discussions, seminars, debates,
buzz groups and other methods that emphasize sharing of information
Factors to consider in media selection
under transaction approach:
A
teacher has to provide materials which will engage learners in discussions and
other tasks + media are usually introduced as the lesson commences + audio,
visual, audio-visual materials such as globe, maps, games, video tapes, video
disks and digital video disks are preferable + media which follow the principle
of universal design for learning (multiple means of representation, expression
and engagement)
Usefulness of media in transaction
approach
: a teacher’s lesson is guided by those media,
since the media is displayed from the beginning and hence it will guide the
lesson development + groups have to share understanding among themselves under
the guidance of the teacher + enhances learners to achieve their tasks through
cooperative and collaborative fashion + the media are well distributed or
positioned in groups depending on the class size
Media selection under transformation
approach
This
approach changes the learner’s belief system and attitudes or view of reality
from one form into another. Assumes that during the process of teaching, the
learner and content interact in such a way that learner’s beliefs and attitudes
are being transformed. Methods are such as role play, simulation games, field visits
to relevant places, invitation of key speakers.
Factors to consider in media selection
under transformation approach:
The
use of realia or locally made materials, teacher to prepare or choose T/L media
by utilizing the naturally available materials such as tree leaves, soil, drum,
etc + learner’s characteristics. Teachers have to choose media which fit to the
ages and mental capability of the learners of the learners during the T/L
process + the media which offers multiple means of engagement, expression and
representation + media which are participatory in the process of making and
consider prior experiences of the learners
Usefulness of media in transformation
approach
Learners
require meaningful or permanent learning (changes in attitudes and beliefs) +
promotes learner’s interest and motivation + promotes independent thinking and
curiosity
Criteria (models) for media selection
Romiszowski, A.J (1989):
classified the criterion of media selection into four main concerns which are:
1.  effective communication which can be
related to content, objectives and learners. 2. Reasonable or affordable cost
which can be related to objectives, market and availability. 3. Practical tool
which can be related to availability, time and facilities. 4. Human factors
which can be related to facilities, teachers and learners
Barnes, Mosgrove and Rassoli (1982)
lists the following media selection criteria: 1. Define objectives. 2.
Availability of the media in the target area. 3. Uncontrollable factors such s
governmental restrictions. 4. The behavioural aspects of target
customer-learner + 5. Appropriate media to affectively convey the message + 6. Considering the cost factors of
candidate media
Tony Bate’s ACTIONS model (1995):
access (how accessible is a particular technology for a learner)+ costs(what is
the unit cost per student) +teaching and learning (what are the best
technologies for supporting this teaching and learning) + interactivity and
user friendliness (what kind of interaction does this kind of technology
enable)+ organizational issues(what changes in organization need to be done) +
Novelty (how new is this technology)+ speed (how quickly can course be adapted
with this technology)
Coulter and sarkis (2005):1.
Quality +time +flexibility+ coverage+ cost
ADDIE: analysis +
design + development + implementation + evaluation
Improvisation
collection, preparation and use for teaching and learning materials from
locally available materials on behalf of commercial equipments or products.
Advantages of improvisation
it slashes the cost of apparatus/equipments and is a quite helpful in making
school self reliant + it has instructional value as well as we also learn by
doing + it helps develop the dignity of labor and also satisfies the urge of
creative production + it helps develop the habit of cooperation and
coordination + it provides training in thinking skills through the process of
looking for low cost substitutes or alternatives

Steps in improvisation:
making a careful study of the conventional apparatus or equipments + thinking
of some low cost substitute that may be available in the local environment +
collection of materials required for improvisation


FULL MODULE


EDUCATIONAL MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY:MODULE 1.

EDUCATIONAL MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY:MODULE 2.

EDUCATIONAL MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY:MODULE 3.

EDUCATIONAL MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY:MODULE 4.

EDUCATIONAL MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY:MODULE 5:
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