Module 3
Contributions of Media in Education
          Support the sensory organs to maximize effective communication. E.g.
          Use of an amplifier and a microphone supports effective hearing.
          Enlarged images of small objects help the learner to see details otherwise impossible to be seen with naked eyes.
          Enhance retention.
          Stimulate and sustain interest in learning.
          Provide first-hand experience with the realities of the physical and social environment.
          Encourage active participation by learners.
          Save time (ie: explaining concepts etc).
          Discourage rote learning.
          Make abstract ideas more concrete.
          Develop the power of imagination, observation, reasoning and creativity.
          The content of a topic can be carefully selected and organized.
          Delivery of instruction becomes systematic and standardized.
          Improve the quality of learning (ie:  involve more senses)
          Teachers’ instruction can be accessed at any convenient time and  place
          Change chalk and talk instruction to interactive instruction.

Meaning of Speech
          It is an oral communication, a medium in which valuable information (skills, knowledge, values and experiences) are passed from one person/authority to others.

          It is in the form of songs, proverbs, sayings, face-to-face story telling.
          It dominated a time before the discovery of print and electronic media
          Currently with modern media, it can be taped, stored, retrieved and reach many people via teleconferencing, radio and TV.

Effectiveness of speech depends on
          The presenter’s ability to present (ie: never talk while moving fast, maintain eye contact with students etc )
          Learners’ ability to comprehend
          Power of memory
          Both (teacher & learners) to be in the same place and same time (in previous time)
          Commonly used in teaching and learning situations

Group Activity
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using speech as a medium in teaching and learning process.

Traditional Visual Media in Education
Traditional visual media include:
          Three dimensional materials: realia, models and specimens.
          Printed materials: textbooks, workbooks, newspaper, journals, handouts etc.
          Graphics: charts, graphs, maps, posters, etc.

           Refer real things/objects.
          Teachers use them in T/L situation to bring in reality of what he/she presents.
          Examples: cheques, Bank statements on financial management lesson, a tree, house, a hoe, cooking utensils, soil, live animals and plants, equipment and apparatus for Science, musical instruments, shells etc.

Advantages of Using Realia
          Learners can easily relate them.
          They provide a clear and true experience.
          They capture the learners’ interests, thus making learning more effective.
          They are readily available and their use encourages the teacher to refer to the immediate environment.
          Their use motivates and stimulates learners.
          They enhance development of manipulative skills.

Disadvantages of Using Realia
          Bringing things to class may be difficult especially if they are very big or dangerous.
          Living things may amplify the learners’ excitement and cause disruption of their learning in the same lesson or another lesson.
          Some objects may not be safe for the learners to handle (ie: dangerous chemical & animals)
          Collecting some types of realia may have a negative effect on the environment.

Refer to objects which are representative of a group or a class of similar objects. Can be a whole thing  E.g. flower, leaf, fish, frog, and insect OR a part of an object (e.g.: wing of a butterfly, the head of a grasshopper, the bark of a tree etc.) Specimens are usually preserved.

Advantages of Using Specimens
          Learners can easily relate them.
          They provide a clear and true experience.
          They capture the learners’ interests, thus making learning more effective.
          Their use motivates and stimulates learners.
          They enhance development of manipulative skills.
          They are portable.
          They can be used for a long time of properly handled and stored.
Disadvantages of using Specimens
          With time, depending on the method of preservation, some parts or characteristics that the specimen represents, such as colour, may be distorted.
          As they are to be handled with great care learners may not be able to manipulate them as they study them.
          Some of the liquid preservatives have an offensive smell which may make the learning environment uncomfortable.

A model is a three dimensional recognizable representation of a real thing.
It may be reduced or enlarged reproduction but it is made into size convenient for detailed study.
Models are used if the real thing is not available, too large to take to the class, or too small for the naked eye to see, or too dangerous for the students to manipulate. E.g. the skeletal system of man, the human eye and motors of machines.

Advantages of Using the Models
          When learners are involved in making the models, they internalize the concepts.
          Models can be assembled or dissembled when the need arises.
          Concepts and special features can be easily explained.
          Being the 3-dimentional, models give the feeling of substance and depth of the real object.
          Models can be manipulated by learners.

Disadvantages of Using Models
          Since models are not always made to size, they may give the wrong impression of the real thing.
          It is difficult to involve learners in making models of things they have never seen.
          They may be oversimplified which may cause misinterpretation of the real situation.

Group Activity
Three dimensional objects are very useful in T/L situation. Basing on this fact; explore six precautions a teacher should consider for using them effectively.

Print Materials
          Print established around fifty century BC
          It came in to facilitate the function of speech and not to replace the speech
          Speech and print supplement each other
          Enabled spread of knowledge, skills, information, events, attitudes and experiences via notes, books, journals, varieties of documents to a much wider public.
          Has made teacher’s notes available to students
          Printed materials are publications. They Include: Textbooks, worksheets, teachers notes, maps, photographs, posters, newspaper, journals, handouts etc.
          Are instructional materials mostly accessible and easy to use in most schools

Comments of some scholars on Print as a medium
          Print will continue to dominate in the teaching and learning situations (Careen, 1984).
          Print is an intellectual superior medium as it provides foundation for intellectuals and scientific thought

Group Activity:
            Briefly discuss the above two statements via your groups.

Merits of Print Materials
          Present words, numbers, musical notation, diagrams and signs.
          Easy interpretation and imagination of issues and situations if  literate persons
          Bring up interaction between the text and reader(s)
          Have made teacher’s notes, books etc available to students at their home, schools or a wider public.
          Easy to read, search, scan and cheap to deliver
          Are the most found instructional materials in many schools (ie: duplicated copies, the predecessors materials, textbooks etc)
          Easy materials to use by teachers and students.
          Convey information quickly.
          Provide learners with the opportunity for independent study.
          Save valuable time for teachers as they contain recommended activities, readings and review question.
          Provide the necessary basic knowledge for a particular topic.
          Provide a common experience for the whole class.
          Ensure continuity of learning in case there is a change of teachers.
          Last long if properly cared for.
          Easy to store.
          Can be conveniently used at the learners’ pace.
          Can be used by learners of all ages.
          Review questions enable learners to do self-evaluation.

Group Activity
Examine at least ten disadvantages of using print materials in T/L situations.

Factors to Think About when Choosing Print Materials for your Students
          Who are my learners? (ie: age, level, interests).
          What is the material about/content? (ie: appropriateness, up-to-date etc)
          Is the material well structured? (ie: logical arrangement, clarity of message, completeness of the material etc)
          Language used (ie: easy to understand? Difficult? etc)
          Is it readable? (will student  enjoy reading it?)
          Font size and spacing (small /big words? Closeness of words?, lots of space between rows? A lot of pictures?)
          Layout (ie: page attractive? Will you be able to photocopy it?)
          Number of illustrative materials such as photographs, charts, diagrams and drawings
                        -Use captions and explanatory notes for diagrams           and pictures.
                        -Often a few large diagrams and pictures are better than many small ones.
                        - Consider the visual literacy competencies of the             readers.
          Durability ( Is the material durable?)

Are materials that communicate facts and ideas clearly and vividly through the combination of drawings, words and pictures.
Examples are
- charts
              - posters
              - pictures
              - graphs
              - diagrams
              - maps and globes.

Points to note when a teacher plan to use graphics
      - graphics present facts in summary
        - displayed information should be mistakes free
               - should be removed after they have served their purpose and replaced with new ones

          are used to display summaries of data using histograms, pie charts, graphs, maps and other concept maps, diagrams.
          Building charts’ materials: sugar paper, thin card, manila paper, cloth, or wrapping paper.

Characteristics of Good Charts
          Big and clear print that can be seen by all the learners.
          Labeling that is horizontal and in straight lines.
          Accurate and if there are maps, drawn to scale.
          Attractive enough to capture and hold attention and interest of the learners.
          Accurate and authentic use of colors in its representation of people, events and things. (i.e: water masses should be blue and not any other color.
          A neat layout with margins that makes important information stand out.
          Suitable for the age and level of maturity of the learners.

Group Activity
Examine pros and corns of using charts as a T/L  resource in classroom context (at least five each)
Discuss the position of charts in the current teaching and learning in Tanzanian schools.

A poster
           is a symbolic design or picture
          tells a story or convey information attractively to people or learners.
          Highlights subject matters and/or stimulate interest

Effectiveness of Posters in T/L Process
Depends on these factors:
           Must be placed at a straight point
           Must be dramatic and simple
           it carries few words as possible
           Visually attractive in terms of color, design and letters used.
           Must be clear and simple for message
           Must aim at one main purpose
           Must be large enough.

Group Activity
          Assess why use of posters in teaching and learning in our classes are too minimal?
          Suggest the best ways a teacher can employ posters in his/her lesson ( at least four)
          Do posters have advantages and disadvantages? Make your comments.

Picture and Photographs

          Does not need a certain language in order to interpret message of a picture
          Easy to understand
          Can have different interpretations depending on past experiences of learners.
          Can be used to:
                        - introduce a lesson
            - develop vocabularies
            - conclude a lesson

Group Activity
Outline at least three points a teacher needs to focus on when choosing a picture for use in her/his lesson
Discuss not less than five merits and three demerits of using pictures in the teaching and learning process
Pinpoint four areas in your subject specialization in which pictures can be applied and briefly suggest good way on how could be applied? 
 as T/L resources, discuss briefly what  contributions can be obtained from using  photographs in lesson

Maps and Globes
A Globe
It is a spherical representation of the earth’s surface

A Map
          Is a visual scaled-down representation of  a flat surface or some portion of the earth on paper
          Both have symbols (to easy read, use and interpret)
          Globes are more accurate than maps as represent the true shape of the earth

          Are used as teaching and learning resources
Examples of boards are:
        - chalkboards
        - Flannel boards
        - bulletin boards

Two types/categories of boards are:
 - Wallboards
 - Portable boards

i) Chalkboards
A chalkboard is a reusable writing surface on which the teacher writes and draws using chalk.
          Colors of chalkboards (ie: black, blue, grey, green or any        other color that provide good legibility).
          Often called a blackboard
          A traditional, most frequently medium available in classrooms

Types of chalkboards:-
          Fixed chalkboard
          Portable chalkboard
          Horizontal sliding boards
          Vertical sliding boards.

Effective use of Chalkboard
          Write the date, class, subject and topic at the start of the lesson.
          Divide the blackboard into 2 or 3 more fields which are each similar in size.
          Erase any written material on the chalkboard after each use.
          Always keep the chalkboard clean.
          Write horizontally and straight.
          Keep the handwriting neat, legible and uniform.
          Make sure that all the learners can see the chalkboard.
          Use underlining, encircling or framing to focus   attention on important details.
          Leave the space around diagrams
          Avoid overcrowding the board to avoid confusion.
          When the teacher needs to talk while writing, he/she should make sure he/she talks to the class and not to the chalkboard.
          When pointing or explaining something, always stand at the side and use a pointer to avoid obstructing the learners’ view.
          Organize work systematically on the chalkboard.
          Develop the summary on the chalkboard as the lesson develops.
          Develop illustrations as you teach. Prepare complicated ones before lesson to avoid time wastage and indiscipline

Uses of the Chalkboard
          For introducing a lesson
          For presenting a skeleton plan for the lesson
          For recording the main points of a lesson.
          For writing questions to be worked out
          For defining technical terms, keywords or concepts.
          For developing sketch maps or drawings.
          For writing a lesson summary.
          For mounting charts and other T/L resources.

Group Activity
Discuss at least four materials that are likely to be used with the chalkboard

ii) Flannel/Cloth boards
          A board covered with cloth such as flannel/felt.
          Cloth need to be plain to allow material displayed on it.
          Information is prepared and then fixed using masking tape.

Construction of Flannel Board
          Take either a plywood or hardboard and cut it into required dimensions.
          Cover one side of the board with flannel or felt, stretching it tightly as you pin it on the other side of the board with drawing pins. If flannel is not available, an old blanket tacked very tightly will do the trick.
          Materials for use on the flannel board can be cut out from magazines or they could be drawn by you. By backing these materials with flannel, sandpaper, ink blotters, paint, felt pens, sponges or sacking, they will adhere readily to flannel or felt.

Group Activity
          Critically assess the environment that likely can support use of flannel/cloth boards
          Survey the merits and demerits of flannel boards in the process of teaching and learning
          What seem to be the importance of flannel boards in T/L process?
Have a look on bulletin boards and its uses
A bulletin board (pinboard, pin board, noticeboard, or notice board in British English) is a surface intended for the posting of public messages, for example, to advertise items wanted or for sale, announce events, or provide information. Bulletin boards are often made of a material such as cork to facilitate addition and removal of messages, or they can be placed on computer networks so people can leave and erase messages for other people to read and see.

are classified building(s) or room(s)
 Aim: update people with information, data, knowledge, research findings, reports or new technologies      (Mwakyikyeli, 2003)

Channels of communication facilities:
 - technicians, coordinators and experts
  - textual, visual, audio-visual media       

Is made up of two terms: resource and centre
Resources means resource persons and non-resource persons.

Resource persons:
Include subject experts, teachers,             coordinator, technicians, researchers, program developers etc
A person becomes a resource only if she/he is flexible to assist learners in learning difficulties.
Non-resources persons:
Comprise of aids, technologies and other media.
They are used by teachers, educators and students

-refers to a gathering place (ie: room, building etc) for learning purpose.
 - also a place where resources are kept.

Major types of resource centers:
RC that favour different disciplines
    - they cater general needs of people
    - examples: libraries and historical buildings
RC that favour specific discipline purposes
    - they are professionals ones
    - examples: Teacher Resource Centres (TRCs), Resource centre design (RCD),etc 

Goal of Resource Centre (RC)
To make valuable knowledge, information and technologies available to people (ie: scholars)

Functions of RC:
          Provision of facilities/guidance for production of materials.
          Guiding application of learning materials
          Ensuring systematic arrangement of resources
                         -to attract users of the centre
                                     -to easy the retrieving system.
          Procuring and storing educational materials/resources (suitable ones & cater different disciplines) 

          Collect books, research reports, useful documents, data and information as well as non-textual media for users of the centre
          Coordinate activities of different users/institutions to ensure optimal use of available resources
          To run seminars/workshops
          To advertise and motivate individuals, groups, organizations and institutions maximize use of the centre

TRC is a community of well trained people, adequately equipped with educational facilities located in attractive places to encourage and help students and teachers communicate, investigate and learn together as a team (Henderson, 1972).

Essence of TRC
Is traced back in1950s-UK (Mushi, 2003) and in Britain-1960 (Khaisa, 2011).
          In UK- aimed to make a vital contribution to curriculum development
          to identify teachers’ training needs after they met together to share ideas and experiences

On-going hindrances were:
          Top-down programmes in its running How? – lack of collegiality among teachers

In Britain- aimed to enable teachers come  together to exchange ideas and experiences among themselves focusing on their subjects
Issues addressed by TRCs were:
    - lack of resources
    - limited access to materials & equipments (teachers and rural schools)

Roles of TRC
          Major role: to enhance professional development (conducting seminar/workshop; tackling difficult topics, designing modules and aids for T/L; promoting innovation & improvisation-in methods)
           raise academic qualification of teachers
    -upgrading teachers ie: 3B/C into 3A; 3A into             diploma etc
          Serves as a deports for educational materials and distribution
          Serves as teachers’ meeting places and also with their management.
          Link positively the school and community
          Centre for qualitative improvement of education
          Provider of useful update library services for teachers (ie: data bank of education performance records)
          Training of teachers (refresher training, to exposure teachers to training possibilities like distance learning; reference books)
          Encourage action research by teachers
          To build and sustain professionalism

Group Activity
Reflecting of TRCs in Tanzania, assess their weaknesses.

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