Module 2
Communication-a process by which people create and share information with one another to reach a common understanding.
Communication theories- statements or prepositions of facts which serves to explain the general principles of human interactions. They explain whys and hows of communication. They attempt to describe and explain as well as predicting the behaviours that take place in communication

Properties of communication
There are four properties
          Communication has structure. This structure can be shared or developed in two levels:
          One way structure-linear mode (source-message-media-receiver)
          Two way structure-multiple structure. Here the receiver responds to the source (source-message-media- receiver-feedback)
          Communication is dynamic. It is a process of relation of parts that may influence each other
          There are factors that account for communication to occur. E.g status of the sender and receiver and level of knowledge between the two.
          Communication uses common language or signals and sometimes physical or abstract medium

According to Makyikeli (2003), scholars have come up with some views or beliefs which eventually brought about communication theories. These beliefs or views or perspectives are as follows:
          Behaviour perspectives
          Transitional perspectives
          Interactive perspectives

Behaviour perspectives
This belief is held by behaviorists’ school of thought which stresses on stimulus-response (S-R). The school of thought believes that, the behavioral change is direct result of the response from a stimulus. That is, communication involves stimulus (message), originating from one source and response coming from the other source.

Transitional perspectives
This perspective views communication as the transfer of information from the sender (source) to receiver (destination).
Using this perspective, communication is linear as opposed to behavioural perspectives because the perspective believes in transfer of information from one point to the next. The perspective indicates that communication is in a straight line.

Interactive perspectives
This acknowledges that communication involves reciprocal exchange of information.
Communication here is believed to be two sided, allowing chance for feedback and mutual effect.
In the Teaching and learning situation, interactive approaches are always emphasized.

The Theories
Functional theory (FT) - Talcoty persons
The theory states that all communicative acts serve potential functions in a group/society depending on the context in which communication occurs.
This means that communication cannot be without a purpose. It serves certain function.

Rule theory (RT)
The theory states that, communication that occurs every day follows the explicit and implicit rules which are acceptable in social situations.
So, in order to communicate properly, people have to observe rules that apply in their social situations.

Social exchange theory (SET)
This theory stipulates that communication between people is give and take process such that people enter into conversations with others with expectations of getting something out of it. In other words, people enter into communication relationship just like they enter into business relationship where each one aims at gaining not losing

Structuration theory- Antony Gidden
The theory maintains that, communication depends on existence of institutionalized social practices, that is, actions that are recognized as coherent whole by a group (binding people together)
Social actions such as courtship, weddings, which eventually constitute an institution (marriage club, bachelor club, sprinters club) occur as a result of institutionalization of such activities.
So, against the functional theory, this theory claims that it is not possible to have the same communicative act doing the same function all over. It depends on institutionalized practices of society/group/community of the people.

Communication models
The communication specialists developed perspectives on the process of communication and later theorized the communication process. Other scholars went further to the extent of developing models.
By communication models, we refer to graphical representation of the process of communication. Rather than exploring about the process, scholars have simplified by drawing the graphs/diagrams which tell by themselves what would be expected in any communication process.
The communication models from various specializations are then accommodated in the classroom teaching and learning situations

Why learning Communication models?
          To illustrate how communication takes place.
          To be aware and able to plan for communication in teaching and learning process. Eg. Avoid noises/barriers of communication.
          They help a teacher to be an effective communicator in classroom.

 They include:
          Aristotle’s communication model
          Shannon and Weaver’s communication model
          Berlo’s communication model
          Schramms’s communication model
          Laswell & Braddock model

Aristotle’s communication model
The model is among the oldest models, developed by the Greek philosopher Aristotle
The model shows that communication is one-way traffic agreeing with the transitional perspectives that the communication acts/serves as the transfer of information from the source to the destination.
Implication to classroom situation:
When the model is applied in normal classroom teaching and learning, it implies that;
          A teacher applies the transmission approach using teacher centered or lecture method
          Learners assume the role of listening, noting down the teachers’ points
          The classroom assumes passivity-this is education that maintains the culture of silence
          Education in such a situation provides greater authority of the teacher

          The sender becomes the teacher
          The message becomes the subject content (lesson) and the receivers as learners (pupils/students)

Shannon and Weaver’s communication model
Shannon was a telephone engineer working for Bell, a famous company in the limited strokes (N. America). Thus, the model reflects features of telephone technology.
The information source produces message which is later transmitted through relevant signals depending on the medium used.
The message transmitted passes through relevant signals depending on the medium used.
The message transmitted passes through signals but sometimes is interrupted by noise. Eventually the message reaches the receiver who finally keeps it or gives it to the last destination

Implications to classroom T/L (applicability)
Information source
This can be any authority from which the materials (notice, information, skills, knowledge, ideas are obtained). These include:
        The library from which the teacher prepares notice
        The specific book, dictionary, newspaper, journals containing the specific information to be delivered in classroom
        Computer/electronic sources-webpage from the internet
        The church/mosque where one learner new information, relevant
        Museum and archives where specific records are kept
        Sites where people visit to observe and obtain information

Message 1
From the source of information, teachers obtain what to teach in classroom. This knowledge that teacher gathers becomes the message. The lesson that is planned (lesson plan) is the tool that enables the teacher to be equipped and to be confident before entering the class.

The transmitter
In the teaching and learning, the transmitter refers to the teacher. The teacher plays the role of transmitting the message that is the teacher has to teach the lesson. Thus, a teacher cannot transmit values, knowledge, skills or attitudes without preparing himself/herself first.

The signal
Signals refer to the approaches, methods, strategies and techniques a teacher applies to make the lesson clear. A teacher in such situations needs to decide what approaches can make learners pay attention to the lesson. Some approaches are interactive while others are non-interactive.

Message 2
This is the actual lesson being presented using the approaches a teacher has selected. It differs from the message a teacher obtained from the source, in that ninth later case a teacher delivers the screened message and not the totality of the message he/she picked from information source. There is possibility of other unnecessary things to be left out though the theme remains unchanged

The receivers in the classroom situation are learners.
They receive the message/lesson from the teacher.

The receiver receiving the message (the lesson, they have to keep the knowledge in a safe place so that it is easier to retrieve the information whenever needed)
Destination can therefore be:
          Received mind
          Computer facilities

In the teaching and learning situation, noise refers to the interruptions that course learners to fail grasping the lesson delivered
The noise source may be:
          Physical noise
          Psychological noise
          Sociological noise

Berlo’s communication model
Another famous communication model is Berlo's model. In this model, he stresses on the relationship between the person sending the message and the receiver.
According to this model, for the message to be properly encoded and decoded, the communication skills of both the source and the receiver should be at best. The communication will be at its best only if the two points are skilled.
Berlo's model has four main components and each component has its own sub components describing the assisting factors for each.
While the Aristotle model of communication puts the speaker in the central position and suggests that the speaker is the one who drives the entire communication, the Berlo’s model of communication takes into account the emotional aspect of the message. Berlo’s model of communication operates on the SMCR model.
In the SMCR model
         S - Stands for Source
         M - Message
         C - Channel
         R - Receiver

S - Source
The source in other words also called the sender is the one from whom the thought originates. He is the one who transfers the information to the receiver after carefully putting his thoughts into words.
How does the source or the sender transfer his information to the recipient ?
It is done with the help of communication skills, Attitude, Knowledge, Social System and Culture.
         Communication Skills
An individual must possess excellent communication skills to make his communication effective and create an impact among the listeners. The speaker must know where to take pauses, where to repeat the sentences, how to speak a particular sentence, how to pronounce a word and so on. The speaker must not go on and on. He should also make a point to cross check with the recipients and listen to their queries as well. An individual must take care of his accent while communicating. A bad accent leads to a boring conversation.
It is rightly said that if one has the right attitude, the whole world is at his feet. There is actually no stopping for the person if he has the right attitude. A person might be a very good speaker but if he doesn’t have the right attitude, he would never emerge as a winner. The sender must have the right attitude to create a long lasting impression on the listeners. An individual must be an MBA from a reputed institute, but he would be lost in the crowd without the right attitude.
Here knowledge is not related to the educational qualification of the speaker or the number of degrees he has in his portfolio. Knowledge is actually the clarity of the information which the speaker wants to convey to the second party. One must be thorough in what he is speaking with complete in-depth knowledge of the subject. Remember questions can pop up anytime and you have to be ready with your answers. You need to be totally familiar with what you are speaking. Before delivering any speech, read as much you can and prepare the subject completely without ignoring even the smallest detail.
         Social System
Imagine a politician delivering a speech where he proposes to construct a temple in a Muslim dominated area. What would be the reaction of the listeners ? They would obviously be not interested. Was there any problem in the communication skills of the leader or he didn’t have the right attitude ? The displeasure of the listeners was simply because the speaker ignored the social set up of the place where he was communicating. He forgot the sentiments, cultural beliefs, religious feelings of the second party. Had it been a Hindu dominated society, his speech would have been very impressive.
Culture refers to the cultural background of the community or the listeners where the speaker is communicating or delivering his speech.
M - Message
When an individual converts his thoughts into words, a message is created. The process is also called as Encoding.
Any message further comprises of the following elements:
One cannot show his grey matter to others to let him know what he is thinking. A thought has to be put into words and content has to be prepared. Content is actually the matter or the script of the conversation. It is in simpler words, the backbone of any communication.
Ted to Jenny -“I am really exhausted today, let’s plan for the movie tomorrow evening”.
Whatever Ted has communicated with Jenny is actually the content of the message. It is very important for the speaker to carefully choose the words and take good care of the content of the speech. The content has to be sensible, accurate, crisp, related to the thought to hit the listeners bang on and create an immediate impact.
It has been observed that speech alone cannot bring a difference in the communication. Keep on constantly speaking and the listeners will definitely lose interest after some time. The speech must be coupled with lots of hand movements, gestures, postures, facial expressions, body movements to capture the attention of the listeners and make the speech impressive. Hand movements, gestures, postures, facial expressions, body movements, gestures all come under the elements of the message.
Treatment is actually the way one treats his message and is conveys to the listeners. One must understand the importance of the message and must know how to handle it. If a boss wants to fire any of his employees, he has to be authoritative and can’t express his message in a casual way. This is referred to as the treatment of the message. One must understand how to present his message so that the message is conveyed in the most accurate form.
A message cannot be expressed in one go. It has to be properly structured in order to convey the message in the most desired form.
Enter a wrong code and the locks will never open. Enter a wrong password, you will not be able to open your email account. In the same way the code has to be correct in the communication. Your body movements, your language, your expressions, your gestures are actually the codes of the message and have to be accurate otherwise the message gets distorted and the recipient will never be able to decode the correct information.
C - Channel
Channel - Channel actually refers to the medium how the information flows from the sender to the receiver.
How does one know what the other person is speaking ? - Through Hearing.
How does one know whether the pasta he has ordered is made in white sauce or not ? - Through Tasting.
How does one know that there is a diversion ahead or it’s a no parking zone? - Through Seeing.
How will an individual come to know that the food is fresh or stale ? How do we find out the fragrance of a perfume ? - Through Smelling.
How will you find out whether the milk is hot or not ? - Through Touching.
All the five senses are the channels which help human beings to communicate with each other.
R - Receiver
When the message reaches the receiver, he tries to understand what the listener actually wants to convey and then responds accordingly. This is also called as decoding.
The receiver should be on the same platform as the speaker for smooth flow of information and better understanding of the message. He should possess good communication skills to understand what the speaker is trying to convey. He should have the right attitude to understand the message in a positive way. His knowledge should also be at par with the listener and must know about the subject. He should also be from the same social and cultural background just like the speaker.
There are several loopholes in the Berlo’s model of communication. According to the berlo’s model of communication, the speaker and the listener must be on a common ground for smooth conversion which is sometimes not practical in the real scenario.

Criticism of Berlo’s smcr model of communication:
         No feedback / don’t know about the effect
         Does not mention barriers to communication
         No room for noise
         Complex model
         It is a linear model of communication
         Needs people to be on same level for communication to occur but not true in real life
         Main drawback of the model is that the model omits the usage of sixth sense as a channel which is actually a gift to the human beings (thinking, understanding, analyzing etc).

Schramm’s communication model
Schramm and Osgood attempted to criticize and modify previous linear models. They argued that the models were misleading to think of communication process being a linear process starting from somewhere and ending somewhere.
They argued that the models were useful in describing interpersonal communication in which someone was working in the bell telephone laboratory. However, it is important to look for how to improve effective communication in situations that necessitate us to use one way communication.
These scholars pointed out that for effective communication to occur there must be a feedback.
So, they proposed a two way communication model in circular form.
Whereas Schramm and Weaver’s main emphasis was on the media/channel, Schramm and Osgood’s main focus was on the behaviuor of the main actors in the communication process, the sender and the receiver.
These scholars describe the acting parties as equals, performing identical function of encoding, decoding and interpreting the messages.

Implication in the classroom situation
          The model matches with the views that the teaching and learning should be friendly, collaborative and cooperative between the teacher and learners.
          It calls for application of interactive teaching and learning methods
          It lowers or reduces the authoritative tendencies of teachers and promotes students participation in class.
          Thus, the teaching and learning is a two way communication because both parties have equal chance of contributing ideas in the lesson.

The model lies in the argument that both the sender and the receiver are equal in communication. This may not be the case in all situations

Laswell & Braddock model
It began as the lasswell’s formula before it became a model.
Harlod Laswell was an American political scientist.
He described communication in the form of questions and since it was not in graphic form, they warned it as a formula.
Laswell’s formula lists five questions. To him, for communication to occur, it depends on:
          Who (source/sender)
          Says what (content/message)
          In which channel (media/means)
          With what effect (techniques/strategies)
At those times, Laswell’s interest was on political communication and propaganda
Other scholars criticized laswell’s formula and added other components in graphic form so that it looks like a model proper.
For example, Braddock proposed two more factors for considerations in analyzing communication process. He published an article titled “an extension of Laswell’s formula” in the journal of communication.
He added two more questions suggesting that for communication to occur effectively, it depends mainly on:
          For what purpose
          Under what circumstances
Who- teacher
Says what- content/lesson
In which channel- media/means
To whom- receiver
For what purpose- general and specific objectives
Under what circumstances- T/L approaches, methods, strategies
With what effect- reflection and on action

The contribution presented by Braddock enabled the Lasswell’s formula to become a model and to fit fully in the educational arena.






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