PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION: MODULE 1:Understanding the curriculum concept

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MODULE 1:Understanding the curriculum concept
·        
Concept
·        
Types
·        
Realization
·        
Approaches
·        
Stages in curriculum development
Concept
Etymologically,
curriculum is from Latin word ‘Currere’ which means to run and the experience
was derived from horse race.
In education system,
the word curriculum means ‘course of race’ later on came to mean ‘course of
study’
Curriculum is just
imagination which means a course of study or planning actions.
In recent years, the
word curriculum still has different explanations.
Curriculum means
different things to different people because everyone explains it according to
his/her views or experience.
Most people including
educators try to equate curriculum with the syllabus.
Various
definitions of curriculum
The
New international dictionary
defines curriculum as
the whole body of a course in educational institution or by department.
But,
curriculum
in this definition is limited to a course while curriculum is more than a
course/content
The oxford English
dictionary defined curriculum as courses taught in schools or universities.
Evaluation
of the definition
; how those courses are taught and who
teach them?
Curriculum
is the inclusion of all experiences that individual learners have in a program
of education whose purpose is to achieve broad goals and related specific
objectives, which is planned in terms of framework of theory and research or
past and present professional practice.
Curriculum -All
the social and emotional experiences a child has in school, as well as the
academic learning experiences.
Question
Explore various
definitions of ‘curriculum’ as put forward by various scholars and evaluate
their strengths and weaknesses.
All the definitions
should have common features and show that curriculum is a statement of;-
                               
i.           
What students should know.
                             
ii.           
What you what students to be able to do
(which skills should you want students to acquire).
                           
iii.           
How it taught (how should it be
instructed)
                           
iv.           
How it is measured. (assessment)
                             
v.           
How the educational system is organized
which means the context.
Types of curriculum                                    
Since the word
curriculum is an imaginary issue, there are three types of curriculum.
1.      Formal
or written curriculum.
2.      Non
formal curriculum.
3.      Hidden
or informal curriculum.
Formal or written curriculum
It is a type of
curriculum which appears in documents and teachers’ plans. It is a type of
curriculum which is agreed by the state to guide all schools and institutions.
It is common in schools throughout the country. It can be reflected in aims of
education of a country.
Non formal curriculum
This is a type of
curriculum which is specific or common within or for a given institution.
Examples are school
rules and regulations, time table, etc.
Hidden or informal curriculum
It is a type of
curriculum which is not planned or intended but it leads into production of
students’ learned behaviors
which were not openly intended. Knowledge acquired from the hidden curriculum
include:-
·        
Leadership skills.
·        
Love affairs.
·        
Theft
·        
Conflicts
·        
 
Three
(3) factors that contribute to hidden curriculum
1.      Political
understandings, e.g. Leadership.
2.      Social
implications- imply issues like economy and interactions.
3.      Cultural
implications which implies environment. E.g. theft
Other types of curriculum 
Spiral curriculum – Certain
concepts and skills are taught every year, but in an upward spiral of
difficulty.  
     
In math, each year begins with
a review of skills from previous years, and then new skills and concepts are
introduced.  
     
For this reason, the topics of
math units are likely to be similar from year to year, but the way these topics
are addressed and the complexity of the concepts vary greatly.
Horizontal curriculum – Basic
curriculum taught within a year or a semester.
Vertical curriculum – Curriculum
taught from year to year.
Intended curriculum
     
 is the
explicit and approved one and is usually written in the form of curriculum
guides or lesson plans.
Hidden curriculum is not
written anywhere but is still pervasive.  
     
It varies from teacher to
teacher, depending on individual values and interests.  
     
Teachers can teach the same
lesson plans but teach very different lessons depending on their values,
subject knowledge and interests.
Experienced curriculum
     
 Is what the
children receive and differs with each child due to differences in aptitude,
interests, and preexisting knowledge.
Null curriculum
     
is whatever the teacher
deletes or omits because of lack of time, interest or knowledge.
Delivered curriculum
     
May differ greatly from the
intended, planned curriculum.  
Each teacher plans different lessons and delivers the intended
curriculum in a unique way.
Realization
of curriculum
There
are three realizations of the curriculum.
1.      Intended
curriculum realization.
          
i.    
Ideal
curriculum sub realization-
it includes vision of education/rational which
is guided by underlying philosophy of the country.
        
ii.    
Written
curriculum sub realization-
it includes intensions as specified in
curriculum documents such as syllabus, teachers’ and students’ guides.
2.      Implemented
curriculum realization.
          
i.    
Perceived
curriculum sub realization-
refers to a curriculum as interpreted by its
users especially teachers. How teachers perceive the curriculum can affect
students.
        
ii.    
Operational
curriculum sub realization
– is the actual process of teaching and
learning. It is also called ‘curriculum in action’ or ‘enacted curriculum’
3.      Attained
curriculum realization.
          
i.    
Experiential
curriculum sub realization-
refers to learning experiences as perceived by
students in a classroom.
        
ii.    
Learned
curriculum sub realization-
learning outcomes of students as a result of
classroom learning experiences.
Curriculum
Approaches
There
are three curriculum approaches. Whatever curriculum you are providing should
be in three approaches which consider curriculum as;-
1.      Content
2.      Product
(experience)
3.      Process
(framework)
Curriculum as content
*     
It is a body of knowledge to be
transmitted.
*     
It is quite common to most people to
equate it with syllabus.
*     
Just refers to a list of topics you want
your students to learn. That’s why in curriculum we have written documents.
*     
In this approach, the task of a teacher
or task of implementer is to consider the curriculum documents.
Curriculum
as a product
*     
Refers to experience.
*     
Under this approach, the target will be on
looking what desires/experiences do you want students to acquire at the end.
*     
Curriculum is not the result of armchair
speculation but it is a product.
*     
Knowledge, skills, values that are
transmitted to students need to be effective.
*     
Students have to bring changes about
their behaviour.
Treating
Curriculum as a process
*     
Refers to ‘frame work’ or ‘course of
study’ or ‘plan of action’
*     
Curriculum is imaginary issue hence it
is the process. This can be seen in interaction of teachers, students and
knowledge. Also through the interaction between teachers and students.
*     
It is based on the implementation of the
curriculum especially in the teaching practice.
Levels of
curriculum
There
are about four levels of curriculum
1.      System,
society, nation or state level (macro)
2.      School,
institutional level (meso level)
3.      Classroom
level (micro)
4.      Individual
or personal level (non-level)
Different
presentation of curriculum
There
are three forms of curriculum presentation:-
a)      Intended
curriculum
b)      Implemented
curriculum
c)      Attained
curriculum
A.  
Intended curriculum
B.  
Implemented curriculum
C.  
Attained curriculum
Curriculum
development (curriculum improvement)
Curriculum development
is the process of providing the plan and keeping it running smoothly. Since it
implies change and betterment, curriculum improvement is often used
synonymously with Curriculum development
Stages
in curriculum development
1.      Curriculum
planning.
2.      Curriculum
design.
3.      Curriculum
implementation.
4.      Curriculum
evaluation.
Curriculum planning
*     Involves
the decision about the philosophy of education and aims of education.
*     How
you want education to be.
*     This
will guide towards developing by;-
                               
i.           
Philosophical beliefs
                             
ii.           
Curriculum goals and objectives that
will be translated to students.
Curriculum design
*     Refers
to the way curriculum is conceptualized and involves the selection and organization
of contents, and selection and organization of learning experiences or
activities.
*     In
organization of learning experiences and activities, consider the wealth and
worse.
Curriculum
implementation
*     Takes
place in the classroom. It involves getting people to practice ideas in
curriculum providing the necessary resources, training and encouragement.
Curriculum evaluation
*     This
determines the extent to which the effort in implementing the ideas of
curriculum has been successfully acquired. What factors have hindered
implementation or contributed to the success of the plan.
*     It
is the last stage but yet the first stage in curriculum development.
Curriculum
models
Model
consists of interacting parts that serves as a guide or procedures for action.
Or it is a simplified presentation of reality which is often depicted in diagrammatic
form.
A
general term gaining greater acceptance as a means of explaining curriculum
process than a model is algorithm.
Algorithm
step by step procedure for solving a problem or accomplishing some ends.
Curriculum models
these are mental pictures that are based on the body of theories about teaching
and learning.
A
continuum of models depicts three extremes of curriculum process as:
       
i.           
Rationale/objective models which are
normally sequential or linear (cause-effect)
     
ii.           
Cyclical models which normally indicate
endless process
    iii.           
Dynamic/interactive models which view
curriculum as flexible, interactive and modifiable
A. 
Rationale models
a)     
Ralph
Tyler model
He has developed a
mental picture in which he asked four questions:
                   
i.           
What educational purpose should the
school seek to attain? This focuses on changing the learner’s behavior
                 
ii.           
What educational experiences can be
provided that is likely to attain these purposes?
               
iii.           
How can these educational experiences be
effectively organized?
               
iv.           
How can we determine whether these
purposes are being attained?
In
essence, Tyler gives a sequential method of attaining the goals of curriculum
which are:
       
i.           
Identifying purposes or objectives
     
ii.           
Selecting learning experiences
   
iii.           
Organization of learning experiences
    iv.           
Evaluation of learning experiences
Advantages of
Tyler’s model
       
i.           
Avoids vague general judgment of
statement of intentions
     
ii.           
Makes assessment more preciously/exactly
   
iii.           
Helps to structure learning content
   
iv.           
It guides teaching and learning about
skills to be mastered
      v.           
It makes teachers to be aware of
different types and levels of learning involved in particular subject
Weaknesses
       
i.           
Writing objectives to satisfy learner’s
behavior is difficult and time consuming especially when we consider that each
objective has a certain statement of behavior to be attained
     
ii.           
Tyler has ignored the unpredictable behavior
or nature of teaching and learning process.
   
iii.           
Tyler does not adequately explain the
source of objective
   
iv.           
The model does not tell what next after
evaluation, particularly when we see objectives are not met
      v.           
The model does not indicate the adequate
interaction and inter-readiness and interdependence of these element or phases
b)   
Hilda Taba
She
modified the Tyler’s model by introducing other three steps so as to make sense
of curriculum. She developed seven phases but also on linear form as follows:-
       
i.           
Diagnosis of needs-
     
ii.           
Formulation of objectives-
Things to consider:
a.       Criteria-that
should base on relevance, importance and priority
b.      Slope-amount,
depth of coverage concentration
c.       Sequence-hierarchy
of difficulties
   
iii.           
Selection of content-
   
iv.           
Organization of content-
     
v.           
Selection of learning experiences-
   
vi.           
Organization of learning experiences-
  vii.           
Evaluation and means of evaluation-
Advantages of
this model
i.           
By this model, we get informed where does
objectives come from
ii.           
It is more comprehensive rather than
that of Tyler because it has included Tyler’s and hers in simplified method.
iii.           
 
Disadvantages
Not
all teachers know the curriculum content.
Time
consuming.
B.           
Cyclical models
a) 
Audrey and Howard Nicholls
This model emphasizes
the logical approach to curriculum development, particularly where the need for
new curriculum emerged from changed situations. This work refined the work of
Tyler, Taba and Wheeler by emphasizing the cyclical nature of the curriculum
process and the need for situational analysis.
Stages
                   
i.           
Situational analysis
                 
ii.           
Selection of objectives
               
iii.           
Selection and organization of content
               
iv.           
Selection and organization of methods
                 
v.           
Evaluation
Audrey and
Howard Nicholls





















  
b) 
Wheeler’s model
According to wheeler,
                   
i.           
Aims should be discussed as behaviors
referring to end product of learning which yields the ultimate goals. One can
think these ultimate goals as outcomes
                 
ii.           
Aims are formed from general to specific
in curriculum planning. This results in the formulation of objectives at both
enabling and terminal level.
               
iii.           
Content is distinguished from the
learning experiences which determine that content
Wheeler’s model



It
has two limitations:
       
i.           
Numbering elements suggests that
curriculum starts with objectives and ends with evaluation.
      ii.           
There is one to one relationship between
elements therefore the idea of cyclic is missing
C.          
Interactive/ dynamic models
      
i.           
Malcom Skilbeck model
This
model suggests that, curriculum development may commence with any curriculum
element and proceed in any sequence rather than the fixed sequence advocated by
the rationale model
However,
the model concertizes the curriculum developer to be aware of the source of
their objectives. To understand this, a situational analysis should be
undertaken
It
suggest 5 steps but not in logical order because the process can start at any
step or stage
Malcom Skilbeck
model


    
ii.           
Kerr’s model
Most
of the features in Kerr’s model resemble those in wheeler’s and Tyler’s models.
However, Kerr divided the domains into four areas:
·        
Objectives
·        
Knowledge
·        
Evaluation
·        
School learning experiences
 A simplified version of Kerr’s model of
curriculum design is shown below
















Notes:
The
four domains are interrelated directly or indirectly and objectives are derived
from school learning experiences and knowledge
In
this model, objectives are divided into three groups:
·        
Affective
·        
Cognitive
·        
psychomotor
The
model further indicates that, knowledge should be:
·        
organized
·        
integrated
·        
sequenced, and
·        
reinforced
Evaluation
in Kerr’s model is the collection of information for use in making decisions
about the curriculum
School
learning experiences are influenced by societal opportunities, the school
communities, pupils and teacher relationships, individual differences, teaching
methods, content and maturity of the learner’s. These experiences are evaluated
through tests, interviews, assessments and other reasonable methods.
In
his model, Kerr asserts that everything influences everything else and that it
is possible an analysis at any point.
Centralized curriculum
design pattern is the one in which
the content is decided upon by central national office. E.g MoEV or parastatal
organisation
Advantages
of Centralized curriculum design pattern
       
i.           
it makes easy to achieve national goals
since all schools use the same documents
     
ii.           
learners can transfer from one school to
another without being disadvantaged
   
iii.           
entry requirements for universities and
colleges can be centrally determined and parity can be ensured
   
iv.           
communication to schools regarding
academic requirements is easy since the ministry of education is directly
involved
     
v.           
learning materials can be mass-produced,
making them less expensive for both producers and consumers
    vi.           
institutions can be well staffed and
richly served because they draw from a national pool of expertise and resources
Disadvantages
of Centralized curriculum design pattern
       
i.           
the process takes long time before the
final document is produced
     
ii.           
the design is sensitive to the needs of
some groups within the country
   
iii.           
there are coordination and communication
problems when parastatals  are involved
in curriculum in curriculum design
   
iv.           
there is a limited participation by various
members of the community, resulting in little commitment during implementation
stage
     
v.           
it stifles creativity and initiatives on
the part of the teacher and other community members.
    vi.           
Generally, the centralized pattern
stresses content, mainly knowledge at the expense of the development of
attitudes and skills. There is scramble for certificates, with little regard
for the development and demonstration of productive skills.
Decentralized curriculum
design pattern- this happens when
the local authorities or individual states draft their own curriculum. This
type of designing is common in developed countries. However, some developing
countries with large populations and states such as Nigeria, use the
decentralized pattern of curriculum design
Characteristics
of decentralized curriculum design pattern:-
·        
Local communities initiate the changes
to suit their local needs
·        
Teachers work with the parents to
determine the content. The learning experiences are based on what is available.
·        
Subjects in schools could be the same,
but the content will vary from school to school, state to state or district to
district
·        
Each school, state or district has its
own syllabus that is produced locally.
·        
Generally, the textbooks may not have
been centrally approved
·        
Each school, state or district has its
own form of evaluation
·        
Very few people are involved in curriculum
designing
Advantages
of decentralized curriculum design pattern
       
i.           
It addresses the local needs
     
ii.           
The local community is directly involved
and committed to its implementation
   
iii.           
The system encourages creativity and
initiative on the part of the teacher
   
iv.           
It takes less time to produce the
curriculum than it would take when centralized pattern is used
      v.           
Students learn what is relevant to the
local community
Disadvantages
of decentralized curriculum design pattern
·        
There is no guarantee that national
goals will be achieved
·        
Learners cannot easily transfer from one
school to another when their families move.
·        
There is generally a problem in
developing or accessing teaching materials which if available are expensive to
produce
·        
There may not be adequate expertise in
the local community to develop part of the curriculum

FULL MODULE
MODULE 1:Understanding the curriculum concept

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