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PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION: MODULE 2: Interpreting the curriculum: Aims, goals and objectives

Interpreting the curriculum: Aims, goals and
objectives
Many
scholars advocated for the hierarchy of these terms to be:

                                                                                
General 

Aims                  Goals                Objectives

                                                                                  
Specific
                                                                       
Aims
A
useful way to think about education aims is to consider them as “statements of
societal expectations and desires”. More particularly, aims are broadly phrased
statements of educational intent. Aims state what is to be hopefully achieved
by the curriculum.
Aims
are purposely stated generally because they are developed for a general level
of education and by the society. Aims are long time in nature and may cover a
time span of many years even the entire school life of a child.
Eg,
Aims of Education in Tanzania are general and common throughout TZ
Aims
are therefore broader than goals and objectives
Goals
Are
more specific, precisely worded statements of curriculum intent and are derived
from aim. They are directed towards student achievements by emphasizing content
and skills.
Another
way of conceptualizing goals is to consider them as the ways institutions and
Eg.
If an aim of an education system is to make students literate and numerate, then
goals are ways by which educational institutions generally address those aims.
Goals
are medium to long term depending upon how they have been translated from aims.
Goals
are therefore narrower than aims but broader than objectives
 Objectives
These
are specific statements of curriculum intent. That is what students should
learn through interaction with this curriculum. They are expressed in terms of
changed learner behavior.
They
are derived from aims and goals. Objectives are phrased precisely using technical
language and frequently in behavioral terms.
Objectives
may also be seen as the working statements whereby educational institutions
translate goals into specific statements of education intent
Objectives
are invariably devised by teachers or group of teachers for use within the
school or groups of educators within an institution
They
are short term in nature and as such, may cover a lesson, a day, a week
A
temporal hierarchical relationship exists between aims, goals and objectives
where the first two are regarded as abstract, vaguely worded statements of
program intent while objectives are specific teacher-prepared statements of
what learners will experience.
The
aim of any curriculum may be translated into many goals and each goal in turn
may be translated into numerous unit objectives
Sources of aims,
goals and objectives of curriculum
a)      Empirical sources:
empirical data may be collected from the studies on both the learners and
society. Through studying the learners and the society, one can be able to tell
how he/she wants the learners and society to acquire intent.
b)      Philosophical sources:  these provide suggestions as to what ought to
happen to children and adolescents in our schools. Philosophical questions such
as what is a good life, value, true, real are so essential when considering
curriculum intent. The philosophical belief will be derived from the philosophy
c)      Subject matter sources:
the most common source of aims is probably the subject matter. That is, the
established body of knowledge from which school subjects are derived. The aims
of education are  general but when
applied at the level of goals, they are translated through the medium of
subject matter
d)     Curriculum concepts:
the way one conceptualizes curriculum is an influential factor in determining
how we perceive appropriate curriculum intent. These conceptions provide a
source of and influence over the selection of aims, goals and objectives.
e)      Situational analysis:
an obvious source of curriculum may be found in deliberations undertaken in
situational analysis where the data will reflect students’ interests and
abilities as well as teacher strengths, parental wishes, school resources and
so forth
f)       Educational forces:
the increased politicization of education in general and curriculum specifically
has led to the creation of numerous curriculum policy document which have
impacted upon curriculum development through formulation of aims, goals and
objectives of educational system
Hierarchy of
educational goals
The
hierarchy of educational goals identifies three levels/domains through which
goals can be hierarchically placed. These include proximal, mediate and
ultimate goals:
a)      Proximal goals:
are formulated at the regional level as one of the stages which implement the
educational aims. Proximal goals are direct from aims. Practitioners include
the DEOs and other officers at the regional level
b)      Mediate goals:
this act as bridge between the proximal and ultimate goal’s implementers. They
are useful for they help formulation of ultimate goals. Formulated at
institution level.
c)      Ultimate goals:
are formulated at class level. They are wider and broader than objective. i.e
objectives are being formulated from ultimate goals that indicate what should
students achieve as the end product and outcome
Illustration of the hierarchy of the educational
goals
Proximal goals –
mediate goals – ultimate goals
THE
BLOOM TAXONOMY:
Taxonomy of educational objectives
refers to a more sophisticated and complex classification of objectives into
three domains of learning which are cognitive, affective and psychomotor.  Bloom classified learning objectives into
three (3) categories or domains namely; cognitive, psychomotor and affective
domains.
A.   
Cognitive
domain
This domain includes those
objectives which involve intellectual tasks such as naming, solving problems in
algebra, etc. people simply call it a head
It has been
further categorized into six levels in order of increasing complexity as
follows:-
a)     
Knowledge-ability
of the learner to recall or remember issues such as specifics, methods,
structures, etc. eg. arrange, list, name, define. By the end of the period of
40’, each form IA student should be able to define the concept of curriculum
correctly without referring to their textbooks.
b)     
Comprehension-ability
of the learners to understand and grasp meaning from the learned materials. Eg.
Classify, explain, describe.
c)     
Application
ability to use learned materials, rules and generalizations in new situations.
Eg apply, rewrite, demonstrate, restructure, etc
d)     
Analysis
ability to break down the whole learned material into pieces that relate in
cause and effect. Eg. analyze, determine, compare, criticize, etc.
e)     
Synthesis
ability to put or combine together the broken learned materials into the whole
entity, eg contrast, formulate, modify,
f)      
Evaluation-ability
to make value judgments on the learned materials by identifying the wealth and
worse of the materials. Eg. Argue, assess, validate,
Affective domain
This domain includes those objectives
which deal with the feeling, attitude or value dimension, i.e. heart
The domain has five levels arranged in
sequential order from internalization of feelings on a continuum from simple
awareness to a condition in which the feelings significantly operate to control
behavior
i.           
Receiving:
sensitivity to the existence of certain phenomena or just being aware of
certain phenomenon and being willing to relate them. Eg. to differentiate,
accept, listen for, respond to, etc
ii.           
Responding:
committed in some small measure of the ideas, materials or phenomena involved
by actively responding to them. Eg. Comply with, comment, volunteer, claim, etc
iii.           
Valuing:
perception
of worth or value in phenomenon or willing to be perceived by others as valuing
certain phenomena, idea. Eg. To support, debate
iv.           
Organization:
to relate the value to those already held and bring it into a harmonious and
internally consistent philosophy. E.g. to discuss, theorize, formulate,
balance, examine, etc
v.           
Characterization:
to act consistently in accordance with the values he/she has internalized or
accepting, internalizing phenomena and making it a way of your life. E.g to
revise, require, resist, avoid, manage, resolve
Psychomotor
domain
 It concerns with skills. i.e muscular learning
and motor skills. It involves complex skills, sensory perception, responding to
stimuli picked up by the senses and the development complex skills in manual,
written and verbal forms. Focus on making learners exhibit the ability to
perform something accurately. This is the development of skills. Therefore
levels of psychomotor domain include the following.
i.           
Observing:
active
mental attending of physical event or attending to the performance of a more
experienced person.
ii.           
Imitating:
attempted copying of a physical behavior or basic rudiments (roots/origin) of
the skills acquired. The movement involved here is not automatic or smooth.
iii.           
Practicing:
trying a specific physical activity over and over
iv.           
Adapting:
perfection of the skill, although further improvement is possible. i.e. fine
tuning
Conceptualizing
instructional objectives and effective teaching
Educational
objectives can be classified into two major groups:
       
i.           
General objectives
      ii.           
Specific (instructional) objectives
General objectives
These
are written as a guide to prepare a unit or section of a curriculum covering a
term, semester or a year. They present a translation of goals into more
specific directions for action, although they are expressed more generally than
the specific/ instructional objectives
General
objectives are neither observable nor measurable because they use amorphous
term that cannot be seen or measured. Such terms include, to know, to
understand, to be aware, etc
Eg.
By the end of the lesson, students of form IA should be able to understand the
concept of curriculum.
Specific
(instructional) objectives
These
are precise statements of educational intent and relate to a small amount of
manageable time like 40 minutes or 80 minutes period/lesson. They are used to
inform students and others what the student is to achieve.
They
are observable and measurable because they use performance verbs that can be
observed and measured. Eg. Define, list, calculate, assess
Another
way of expressing specific curriculum intent is to use behavioral objectives which are specific statements of intended
learner outcome describing the change in instruction. Therefore, behavioral
objectives can be equated with specific/instructional objectives and these
terms can be used interchangeably/synonymously
In
writing instructional objectives, one should make sure that the objectives
address four elements or components: Audience (A), Behavior (B), Condition (C),
Degree of change/performance (D). Say ABCD
Eg.
By the end of the period of 40 minutes, each form IA student should be able to
define the concept of curriculum correctly without referring to their text
books
Instructional
objectives have the characteristics of being SMART
a)      Systematic:
presented in sequential order, from simple to complex task
b)      Measurable:
they use performance verbs that can be observed and measured
c)      Attainable:
they lead into acquisition of new behaviour to the audience
d)     Time:
There should be specific time that will guide acquisition of new behaviour
Teaching
documents
(syllabus, scheme of
work, lesson plan and lesson notes)
Syllabus
Syllabus
is an outline of course of study which shows a list of topics to be covered in
a certain subject. or syllabus is an official document which give guideline on
content, skills and attitudes to be taught in a given class of learners. The
principle purpose of a syllabus is to inform students in a formal and timely
way of the nature and content of the course and procedures that will apply. In
addition, it is a promise of yours that is both explicit in what it states will
be part of the course and implicit in what it infers will not be the part of
the course.
Format of the
syllabus
It
consists of two main sections:
1.      Preliminary pages section:
they include copyright page, table of contents, introduction of the competences
of the subject, general objectives of teaching the subject and structure or
organization of the syllabus
2.      Subject content and pedagogy
section:
this part consists of class level competences,
class level objectives, columns which contain columns of topics, subtopics,
specific objectives, teaching/learning strategies, teaching/ learning
materials, assessment and estimated number of periods for each subtopic.
The syllabus
analysis involves the following
:
·        
Identification of the purpose, including
the rationale/basis for why students should learn the course/subject
·        
Identification of the teaching and
learning goal or objectives
·        
Identification of topics and their
subtopics
·        
Identification of the content to be
covered under each topic/subtopic
·        
Determination of the number of periods
to cover the topic or subtopic
·        
Determination of teaching sequence for
each topic/subtopic
·        
Setting of time duration and time frame
for different topics/subtopics
Qualities of a
good syllabus
–     Its
objectives must be achievable
–     Must
be relevant to the class/subject in question
–     Must
be appropriate to the learners’ age and ability
–     It
must have a logical sequence of content
–     It
must meet the needs of education policy as set by the country government
Scheme of work
This
is the amount of coverage a teacher plans to teach in one term/one year of the
subject based on the syllabus. Or it is a series of topics picked from the
syllabuses and arranged logically to suit the teaching strategy of a certain
teacher.
Importance of
scheme of work
–     To
remind the teacher the amount of teaching load and materials ahead
–     To
present materials in logical, presentable sequence
–     To
suggest proper timing for teaching particular topic
–     To
suggest proper methods of assessment for specific topic
–     To
plan teaching for  a month, term or year
–     To
sequence the teaching areas according to the syllabus and learners’ needs.
–     To
inform administrator or another teacher on teaching plan
Format of the
reviewed scheme of work
a)      Introductory
part
(these
are written on top of the scheme of work)
–     Name
of school
–     Name
of the teacher who planned and who is going to use the scheme of work
–     Subject
which the scheme is planned for
–     Class
which the scheme is planned for
–     Term
in which the scheme is going to be implemented
–     Year
in which the scheme is going to be implemented
b)  
Main parts: this has components as shown below
Competences
+ objectives + month + week + Main topic + Sub topic + Number of periods +
Teaching activities + Learning activities+ teaching materials + references +
project + assessment + remarks
Sample
SCHEME OF WORK
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING
NG’ONG’ONA SECONDARY SCHOOL
TEACHER’S NAME:
Kakuru Choma, SUBJECT: Biology,
CLASS: Form I, TERM: First, YEAR: 2012
Competence
Objectives
M
o
n
t
h
Week
Main topic
Sub topic
Number
of periods
Teaching activities
Learning activities
Teaching/learning aids
References
Project
Assessment
Remarks
Competence:
this is the statement which specifies the skill/ability that is expected to be
attained/ exhibited by the students after studying some topics or a program.
Eg.
By the end of this topic, pupils should have developed
ability to group organisms according to their similarities and differences
Objectives: these are statements which specify
the behaviour to be exhibited by students after the topic
e.g by the end of the topic, students
should be able classify organisms in their respective kingdoms and
phyla/divisions
Teaching activities:
a list of operational/working activities which will be carried out by the
teacher in the process of teaching a particular topic/subtopic. A teacher
should guide, lead or facilitate.
Learning activities:
a list of operational/working activities which will be carried out by the
students in the process of learning a particular content area or developing a
certain competence
                                            Lesson
plan
:
 This is an instructional action plan which
prepared by reflecting the scheme of work. Or it is a short-term action plan
intended to be used in teaching one or two lesson periods.
Importance of lesson plan:
–     To
remind a teacher which class and at what time he/she is supposed to teach a
particular lesson
–     To
make a teacher have confidence because they have a sensible framework, well organized
/logical and relevant teaching and learning materials
–     Future
reference to reinforce the strength and improve in the previous plan
–     To
check whether the objectives have been achieved or not
–     To
use a very good basis for evaluation because one can know what is taught, to
what extent, questions to ask and type of reflection to make
–     To
remind the teacher on the type of activities he/she together with learners
should engage in
–     To
ensure learning occurs in well organized content and activities so that
learners will benefit
–     To
keep teachers on the right track for effective teaching
–     To
keep data about number of learners who attended the lesson
Format of a
lesson plan
a)      Introductory
part (name of school, teacher, subject)
b)      Class
details (date, class, periods, time, number of students)
c)      subject
details (competence, G.O, M.T, S.T, S.O, T/L materials, references)
d)     Lesson
development (stages-time-teaching activities, learning
activities-assessment/introduction-new
knowledge-reinforcement-reflection-consolidation). Pupil’s evaluation,
teacher’s evaluation, remarks
Lesson notes
is the summary of the subject matter that has been planned to be covered in the
lesson
Significance of the lesson notes: helps
to summarize the subject content for future use + reminds the teacher on the
subject content and builds confidence in the class + helps the learners for
further discussion with other learners
Components of good lesson notes:
introduction + Main body +summary + Reference
Characteristics of good lesson
notes
: should have introduction, main body, summary and
references) + should be short and clear to the point + should be arranged in a
way that makes findings each step easy + should indicate the content of the
lesson + should be legible and have reasonable spacing + should be well written
and arranged in such a way that point can be read at a quick glance

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