Home News PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION: MODULE 3: Course Design and Development

PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION: MODULE 3: Course Design and Development

                     Course Design
and Development

Curriculum design
refers to the arrangement of the
elements of a curriculum into a substantive entity. 
Components or
elements or parts of curriculum design are as follows:
1.     
Aims, goals, and
objectives
2.     
 Subject matter
3.     
Learning
experiences
4.     
Evaluation
approaches.
Therefore, a curriculum design provides a framework.
Sources of ideas
of curriculum design
:
1.     
Science cognitive process (thinking skills). Eg. Listening,
writing, asking questions, recording, observation, analysis.
2.     
 Societycommon for all. Eg. Views stake holders on what
children should learn
3.     
Eternal and Divine-eg original
virtue
4.     
Knowledge-academic rationalism.
What knowledge is most worth?
5.     
Learners as the source– curriculum activities.
Organization of
curriculum design
There are two
types of organization of curriculum design:
      
i.           
Horizontal organization
Horizontal organization refers side by side arrangement of curriculum
elements in which we consider scope
and integration
Scope- refers
to breadth and depth of the subject content or simply the extent of the area or
subject matter that something deals with or to which it is relevant
 Integration-
refers to the situation or process considering the dimension of the
subjects by also considering the linking of the materials. Eg. In form six
considering linking history one materials with history 2 materials.
Vertical and horizontal
integration
Vertical integration
•     
 A
topic is revisited throughout the duration of the curriculum, with further
information being added to the sum of knowledge year by year
•     
A process termed concentric spiral
learning.
Horizontal integration:
•     
 A
topic is taught by different groups of staff (perhaps departments or themes)
without undue overlap of information, also called thematic teaching.
•     
E.g: T/L physical chemistry, organic
chemistry, soil chemistry, general chemistry (at one particular year), through
teamwork (different teacher from the respective unit).
•     
Horizontal integration creates a
positive orientation towards team working amongst these professions in their
future career.
•     
Think of QT in NECTA examination system
•     
A combination of vertical and horizontal
integration has been described as a spiral curriculum.
The advantages
Ø   Topics are revisited more than once in the
programme,
Ø  There
is increasing level of difficulty or complexity on each occasion,
Ø  The
new learning is linked to the previous
    
ii.           
Vertical organisation
Vertical organization refers to arrangement of the content and
skills so that they build on one another and that they align with the general
sequence of cognitive development. Here we consider sequence and continuity.
Sequence- is
the attempt to arrange the materials in a related continuous series say from
simple to complex in regards to the level.
 Continuity-
involves the relation of subsequent learning with its predecessor,
providing for the necessary perquisites and the attempt to avoid interference
with a learner’s progress. Eg. Elementary program that follows secondary
program
Stages of
curriculum design:
1.      Rationale-ask
yourself a qn, why are they learning?
2.      Aims
and objectives towards the goals of learning.
3.      Content-what
should they learn? Eg in relation to the prevailing situation of the country or
world.
4.      Learning activities
how shall they be learning?
5.      Teacher’s role
what will they do, how will they facilitate learning.
6.      Materials and resources-what
materials are they learning?
7.       Grouping-with
whom will they be learning?
8.      Location.
Where will they be learning?
9.      Time-
when and for how long will those learners learn?
10.  Assessment and evaluation-how
far or long has the learning been achieved? What kind of tools/criteria will be
assessed?
Curriculum
development
refers to activities
such as conceptualizing, planning, implementing, field testing, and researching
that are intended to produce new curricula or improve existing ones.

Curriculum
guide
– is a teaching aid rather than a complete course of
study in itself and may include the following:
•      Introduction-subject, grade level, user information,
etc.
•     
Instructional goals and objectives
•     
Content/topics
•     
Time suggestions
•     
Activities-learning experiences
including both individual and group activities
•     
Evaluation; might include sample test
items, open ended items, performance tasks, portfolio suggestions
•     
Resources-people, books, media, software
packages, learning materials and resources to assist with the learning
activities
Basic
Curriculum Design
Concepts & Curriculum
Definitions
Scope
•     
The extent and depth of content
coverage,
•     
The coherence of the curriculum that can
be achieved by studying a set of fundamental ideas over seven, four or six
years of content.
•     
 How material to cover related to a
given topic
•     
How much to expect of learners as a
result of instruction. 
Sequence
•     
 Presentation of the material in a logical
order.  
•     
Beginning with concrete ideas and moving
toward the abstract as they advance through the grade levels.
•     
The sequence could be determined by
increasing complexity
Articulation
•     
 Relationship between
two or more elements of curriculum that is simultaneous rather than sequential.
•     
It is a correlation of the experiences a
learner has in one subject area with another.
•     
Example:  Studying political and social
history of the civil war in U.S. history while reviewing American Literature of
the same period in English class.
Coordination
•     
 is the belief that
fundamental ideas are studied over many years rather than many days or weeks.
 
•     
Also, the curriculum should provide
application of knowledge so that it is relevant to the students’ lives.
 Example:  In science, it refers to studying the four basic
disciplines each year and ensuring for continuity.
Continuity,
also called “vertical articulation.”
•     
 It involves the relation of
subsequent learning with its predecessor, providing for the necessary
prerequisites, and the attempt to avoid interference with a learner’s progress.
•     
Example: An elementary program that
flows logically into a secondary program.
Course Design
The
overall curriculum development outcomes are organized in courses, that is:
Ø  In
comprehensive entities of objectives, assessment instruments and instructional
strategies and materials.
Examining
single discipline design
•     
Kessels, J.W.M. & Plomp, Tj.
(1996):
Course
design is used for the tactical planning process
.
It is positioned between:
Ø   The macro strategic level of curriculum
development and
Ø  The
micro operational level of instructional design.
Brainstorming
Activity
Questions:
  1. Distinguish
    between macro strategic level of curriculum development and the micro
    operational level of instructional design.
  2. Give the examples
    of curriculm development in macro strategic level and the micro
    operational level of curriculum design.
  3. Is the CE 200 in
    the form of macro or micro level of curriculum design?
 
Course
design as a micro operational process involves
Involves
:
–         
Analysis of the specific needs,
–         
Favourable and inhibiting conditions for
implementation, and
–         
The selection and application of
instructional theories.
Instructional theories of learning and their
implications on curriculum decision
Psychological  theories and others beliefs:
•     
Nature of learning have potential
influence on decisions about curriculum.
Behaviourism
•     
Learning is a change of behaviour
resulting from learning experiences. (Torndike, Skinner, Cuthrie, Bandura).
•     
Trial and error in learning, the role of
reinforcement and schedule of reinforcement, social learning and modeling).
Question:
What can we learn from behaviourist  course design? Classroom presentation and
motivation? Evaluation?
Cognitivism
(cognitive theories)
Learning
as manipulation or change of mental process (cognitive structure).
  1. Ausubel:
•     
Learning as either meaningful or rote
•     
Meaningful learning as a processing
material which bears reliability
•     
Emphases is on proper sequencing and
organisation of ideas
2.
Piaget:
-Cognitive
structure has two components.
-Cognitive
structure increases systematically as you grow (sensori-motor, pre operational
and operational)
-Cognitive
structure changes by either the process of:
       
i)           
Assimilation:
Adding new knowledge/experience to existing concept structure
      ii)           
Accomodation:
re-arranging existing concept structure in order to fit new knowledge
•     
Emphasis :
       
i)           
The right content must be introduced at
the right time (age is crucial)
      ii)           
Cognitive skills can be improved through
training and practice.
3)
Bruner:
•     
Practical use of  cognitive ideas in teaching and learning
•     
Learning by doing and learning by
discovery
4)
Gagne:
•     
Conditional of learning identify a
series of stages in the mental process of learning
•     
The stages bedin with signal learning
and climate in problem solving
Humanistic
theories
•     
Human motives, self concepts and
development, aesthetics and personality development are among categories of
learning
1)
A. Maslow:
Hierarchy of developments motives, of
the self
2)
Carl Rogers
•     
Development of self learning as a
condition of relaxed learning and improve self concept/self esteem
Brainstorming
activity
•     
Is there any plausible distinction
among:
Ø  Curriculum
development;
Ø   Course design, and;
Ø  Instructional
planning?
•     
Distinction
•     
Gentry, 1994 (focuses on course design),
•     
Romiszowski, 1981 (focuses
designing instructional)
•     
van den Akker  1999/2003, Nieven 2010, etc (focus on
curriculum design).
Design
perspectives:
Ø  Curriculum
development (Level 1 design),
Ø  Course
design (level 2 design)
Ø   Instructional planning (level 3 design).
Requirements of course design
•     
A problem whose solution is sought to be
addressed or an educational answer to a question.
•     
Reason: Course
is an educational solution to a problem, or an educational answer to a question
•     
Therefore, perceptions on the learning
process that makes part of that solution/answer must be considered.
Approaches
to course design
There
are various approaches to course design: few of them are:
  1. A systematic
    approach (Tyler, 1949)
  2. A deliberative
    approach (Walker, 1971)
  3. An artistic
    approach (Esner, 1975)
  4. A cognitive
    approach (Posner, 1982)
  5. A constructivistic
    approach (Winn, 1993)
A systematic approach
Four
divisions of curriculum inquiry (Tyler, 1949)
1.
What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
2.
What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these
purposes?
3.
How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?
4.
How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?
Sources
of the objectives (Question 1)
•     
Studies of the learner (individual),
•     
Studies of contemporary life (society),
and
•     
Suggestions from subject specialists
(content),
•     
Philosophy of education and a theory of
learning.
•     
The systematic approach has led to design
procedures
that heavily rely on:
Ø  Needs
assessment,
Ø  Task
analysis,
Ø  Stating
instructional objectives,
Ø  Matching
assessment instrument and devising appropriate instructional strategies.
NB:
Programmed instruction and computer assisted instruction probably would not
have come to development without the founding work of Tyler.

A deliberative approach
(Walker)
Three
basic planning phases:
Ø  Platform,
Ø  Deliberation,
and
Ø  Design.
•     
On the basis of these findings he
developed a framework known as ‘Naturalistic Model’.
•     
This model is not on how course design
should take place, but how it occurs in reality when planners meet and try to
put together the elements for successful learning events.
Participants:
Ø   Talk,
Ø  Discuss,
and
Ø  Argue
about
their beliefs, ‘conceptions’, theories, aims, images and potential
procedures
.
NB: Clarity and
consensus enable to move into the phase of deliberation
•     
Identifying relevant facts,
•     
Generating alternative courses of action
in light of precedents,
•     
Considering the costs and consequences
of all alternatives, and
•     
Choosing the most defensible
alternative.
NB:
The platform and deliberative phase involve intensive exchange of
ideas and beliefs.
•     
 Consensus lead to the design phase.
•     
This is extremely difficult task,
Ø  Participants
hold their adversive/difficult beliefs,
Ø   Do not survive the frustration of emerging
chaos (complete disorder and confusion).
Design
phase
Decision
making about:
Ø   specific subjects,
Ø  instructions,
Ø  teaching
materials, and
Ø  other
activities that the planners advice.
•     
Participants make their individual
beliefs and values explicit as well as their perceptions of the instructional
task and their assertions about how to proceed.
•     
NB: According to deliberate model, the
process of arriving at better decisions is not a process of optimization (best
or most effective), rather.
Ø  Negotiation
among those with different points to find a satisfying solution.
Ø  This
is the area where major stakeholders are involved
Deliberate
model emphasizes
:
Ø   An iterative and spiralistic
design process
Ø  The
process passes several times through the various phases of the design cycle
•     
Advocate prototyping as a vehicle
for course design.
•     
According to Gentry (1994, p. 160):
Ø  A
prototype is a functional version of an instructional unit usually in an
unfinished state, whose effectiveness and efficiency can be tested.
Ø  It
offers users an opportunity to find out what they do not like about the
proposed unit
Ø  Prototyping
can be regarded as a practical way of organizing deliberation among relevant
stakeholders
An
artistic approach
•     
Various participants become involved in
dialogue and discourse.
•     
It favours selection of content where
wide variety of learning opportunities are provided to students.
•     
It strongly consider teachers as
important in transforming the planned curriculum into varied, meaningful and
satisfying learning opportunities
•     
Teachers are the decision makers about
curriculum implementation
Ø   teachers enacts the curr.
Ø   They observes how students experience it
A
cognitive approach
•     
Posner (1982) introduces the concept of
the ‘curricular task’ that forms the core of an approach to curriculum
development and course design based on a cognitive psychology
•     
An important characteristic in this
cognitive approach is that:
Ø   The students’ interpretation of the curricular
tasks and their subsequent task engagement determine what and how much they learn.
Ø  It
emphases on cognitive operations instead of on instructional
Ø  Greater
interest in student’s problem solving processes than in achievement-testing.
•     
Students shape their tasks or construct
problem spaces on the basis of:
Ø   Their interpretations of the task environment
against the background of past experience,
Ø  The
availability of internal and external resources,
Ø  The
costs and benefits of engagements, and
Ø  Their
purpose of being in the situation.
•     
The cognitive approach is based on a
thorough understanding of:
Ø  How
knowledge is organized to permit storage, retrieval,
Ø  Utilization
of knowledge, and
Ø  How
a person’s previous experience and existing knowledge affect perceptions,
communication, learning, and performance of tasks

A constructivist approach
•     
A central idea:
Ø  Students
construct knowledge for themselves.
•     
Radical point of view:
Ø   Knowledge construction implies that each
person knows the world in a different way,
Ø  There
is therefore no shared objective knowledge to teach about, and that consequently
instructional analysis and prescription make no difference to what students
learn.
•     
From an extreme perspective:
Ø   There is nothing that instructional designers
can do to affect students’ understanding and behaviour, if knowledge is
entirely constructed by students and hence it is pointless to design courses.
•     
But not all constructivists take this
radical position.
Constructivism
holds
•     
Learning is a process of building up
structures of experiences
•     
Learners do not transfer knowledge from
the external world into their memories,
•     
They create interpretations of the world
based upon past experiences and their interactions in the actual world.
•     
In the constructivist view:
Ø  A
course should provide contexts and assistance that will aid the individual in
making sense of the environment
Ø  Rearrangement
of instructional sequences, multiple dimensions of knowledge representation,
and multiple interconnections across knowledge components.
Ø  People,
through communication with each other, share concepts/world around.
•     
Deciding what concepts mean becomes a
social activity.
NB:
Course
design should stress the process of making meaning rather than the end of
arriving at a particular understanding

Summary
•     
Typology of curriculum
representations
THE
VULNERABLE CURRICULUM SPIDERWEB (van den Akker, 2003)
Rationale
Why are they
learning?
Aims & Objectves
Toward which goals
are they learning?
Content
What are they
learning?
Learning activities
How are they
learning?
Teacher role
How is the teacher
facilitating learning?
Materials &
Resources
With what are they
learning?
Grouping
With whom are they
learning?
Location
Where are they
learning?
Time
When are they
learning?
Assessment
How far has learning
progressed?
Curricular spider web
Planning
Your Course
•     
Planning a course typically involves
five stages:
–    
Determining the relationship of the
course to the curriculum
–    
Identifying course objectives
–    
Dividing the course into logical units
or segments
–    
Identifying learning experiences and
methods appropriate to help students achieve course goals
–    
Determining how best to evaluate student
performance
Where
Does Your Course Fit In?
•     
Determine where the course fits into the
curriculum of the college, department, schools, etc
•     
The place your course occupies in the
curriculum will influence a number of things as you design your plans for
teaching:
–    
Course objectives and content
–    
Assignments and other class activities
–    
Preparation, motivation, and
expectations of students
–    
The amount of freedom you may have in
selecting content, materials, and techniques.
Determining
Your Instructional Objectives
•     
Instructional objectives are expressions
of what a student should be able to do as a result of instruction in your
course.
Ø  What
students are to learn, do to enable them to learn, and how they will know they
have attained the objectives.
Determining
Your Instructional Objectives
•     
Use these questions to guide goal
setting:
–    
What kinds of skills and levels of
knowledge can you expect of students who register for the course?
–    
What level of performance can you expect
of them? (competencies)
–    
In what ways will students be
“different” when they finish the course?
–    
What should students be able to DO with
the knowledge and skills gained in the course?
–    
What do students need to KNOW in order
to do the things they should be able to do when they finish the course?
–    
What kinds of tasks should students
perform to help them acquire the knowledge they need to achieve their learning
goals?
–    
How will you measure students’ level of
“difference” when the course is finished? 
Dividing
the Course  Into Logical Units
•     
Identify the appropriate material to
cover
•     
The best structure for presenting the
material.
•     
It is important to break your course
into chunks so students can more easily assimilate it.
Selecting
Activities that Support the Goals
Now,
you have the course objectives and work structure:
•     
Ask what kinds of learning experiences
seem appropriate for students to master the course goals and objectives. 
•     
How best you can help your students
learn.
•     
What textbooks, monographs, or other
reading materials are available, at what level are they written, and how
closely do they match your conception of the course goals and objectives?
•     
Would a film or videotape explain some topics
better than a lecture?
•     
Would individuals with expertise in
certain areas make ideal guest speakers?
•     
Would your students learn some things
better if they took a field trip to a local site?
•     
How will you involve students actively
in their learning, both in and out of the classroom?
Choosing
a Textbook and Other Material
•     
In most college courses, readings carry
the burden of conveying content.
•     
Read all material you plan to assign to
judge relevance and identify potential problems of interpretation or elements
of controversy.
•     
Consider reading level of texts.
•     
The average undergraduate enters the
University reading at below the twelfth-grade level.
•     
Determine readability.
•     
Evaluate the author’s approach to the
subject, layout of the chapters, and the text’s pedagogical features
•     
Consider whether or not the content of
the book is correct, precise, and accurate
•     
Look for clear explanations of complex
ideas and for a variety of concrete examples to illustrate concepts
•     
Check for logical organization within
chapters and throughout the book
•     
Determine readability.
•     
Determine whether or not chapters or
units are of manageable length for students to master in the time allowed.
•     
Look for pedagogical features that will
help students read and understand the content: chapter outlines, summaries,
thought questions, lists of important terms and definitions, colored or
bold-faced type, etc.
•     
Designing Strategies to Evaluate
Student Learning
Find
the best way of assessing how well each student or the class as whole achieved
the instructional goals of the course.
–    
Multiple choice exams
–    
Essay exams
–    
Project assignments
–    
Weekly quizzes
–    
Writing assignments
–    
Oral reports
–    
Others
•     
Evaluation methods should be appropriate
to the objectives and need to be planned when you design the course.

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