Module 2: Orientations/paradigm to teacher development

Orientation is a cluster of ideas about the goals of the teacher preparation and the means of achieving those goals.
Any orientation is grounded or based on three things:
1.      Psychological assumption
2.      Physiological assumption
3.      Political assumption
When we have similar goals/ideas about teacher preparation, and then form orientation to teacher education.
Any orientation changes overtime, any orientation is not static but it is dynamic
We have three reasons for orientation:
1.      Social pressure
2.      Economic development
3.      Political preferences

Roles of orientation to teacher education
There are two roles any orientation should play:
1.      Any orientation should highlight different issues that must be considered in the learning to teach (teacher preparation)
2.      Should reveal goals and expected results of teacher education

There are 8 orientations to teacher education:
1.      Personal characteristics of teacher orientation
2.      Traditional craft orientation
3.      Behavioral orientation
4.      Academic rationalism orientation
5.      Discovering learning orientation
6.      Personalistic to orientation
7.      Inquiry orientation
8.      Technological orientation

Why do we have many orientations/paradigms to teacher education?
Answer (reasons):
                                i.            There are many goals to achieve than one orientation can achieve at one time
                              ii.            There are many choices to make in the society
                            iii.            There is rapid scientific and technological development

1.    Personal characteristics of teacher orientation
As the name suggests, it targets on the teacher attributes.
It is the oldest orientation since the teaching became the professional.

2.    Traditional craft orientation
Is another oldest orientation based on the concept of teaching as crafting. In this orientation, knowledge is found in the wisdom of experienced people (expertise).
Under this knowledge tacit is implicitly which means knowledge is under without subjected to many expressions.

3.    Behavioral orientation
This orientation is rooted on the behavioural psychology founded by B.F.Skinner. This psychology introduced and advocated teaching machines and programmed instructions.
Underlying aim of behavioural intention is behaviour control and behaviour modification
Teaching machines- are all means of teaching aids/ teaching media
Programmed instruction- structuring of the lesson
In this orientation, teaching is a method of controlling students’ behaviour and conditioning f learning process through stimulus-response relationship.
Teaching aid-response
Response-change of learner’s behaviour
In this orientation, objectives must be stated in behavioural terms. That are:
        i.            Overt
      ii.            Measurable
    iii.            Observable actions of learners
Covert, immeasurable and non-behavioral behaviors are unpredicted because the performance implied is in interior state
Action verbs that may be used includes: draw, list down, define, examine, determine, assess, label, etc

Behaviorist argumentation on teaching and learning (3 arguments)
       i.            Learning is a permanent change in learners’ behavior
     ii.            Learning is determined by observation of some aspects of learner’s performances
    iii.            Good teaching is a result of attainment of intended competences as performed by learner

Planning of teaching should start with identification of behavioral observation

Three important things should be considered in this orientation
        i.            Objectivity-observable, overt and measurable behaviours
      ii.            Precision-attainment of intended objectives
    iii.            Economy- facing learning costs through the use of teaching aids and improvisation technique

Concluding to this orientation
        i.            This orientation cherishes automation and mechanistic thinking
      ii.            Relationship between teacher and students base on processing and production of output
    iii.            Learners are seen as objects of society
    iv.            Decision making, critical thinking and creative reflection are ignored in this orientation
      v.            Teaching emphasizes rote learning or recalling/ cramming learning

Reflection on Tanzania Educational system
In some aspects, Tanzania Education system seems to follow this orientation since:
*      Passing of examination (e.g. FTSEE, CSEE, ACSEE, UEs) is seen as the only criteria of school/college/university achievements
*      Teachers’ lesson objectives are insisted to be achievable and measurable
*      Coverage of syllabus before final examination is a great point of emphasis
*      School inspectors inspect teachers’ use of teaching aids
*      Curriculum developers insist students’ demonstration of competences and skills in classroom

4.    Academic rationalism orientation
This focuses on academic.
In this orientation, teaching is about transmission of knowledge and developing understandings
This orientation emphasizes teachers’ roles:
        i.            As one intellectual leaders
      ii.            Scholar
    iii.            Subject matter specialists/experts

Eisner and Valence (1974)
Systematized this orientation basing on knowledge of subject matter. Knowledge of subject matter is a way of disseminating facts and skills through it thoughts/ideas acquires precisions, acquire power and generality

Two types of knowledge with regard to this orientation;
        i.            Funded knowledge
*     It is founded in books, journals, computers, researches, articles and other scientific sources
      ii.            Unfunded knowledge
*     Indigenous
*     Not found in books but found in real life environment
*     Not yet transformed

Academic rationalism orientation favors funded knowledge. It is bookish
They advocate development of mind through theorization and practical experience while rejecting vocational education
They said, vocational education is meaningless with two reasons:
                    i.            Vocational education lacks intellectual content but their content bases on procedural content
                  ii.            Vocational training is thoughtless

Conclusion and remarks:
Methods of teaching in this orientation is banking rather than inquiring learning
Knowledge comes from books so no opportunity to think more
Learners are prepared to cope and fit in the society but are not allowed to ask questions
The orientation sees education and society as unchanging and unproblematic

Aspects which show that we implement this orientation:
*     Preparation of teachers to be subjects specialists
*     Our teacher training colleges, are organized into academic disciplines (nature of subjects)
*     T.I.E assumes the role of rationalists by having different subject experts therefore teachers are prepared to become academic rationalists

5.    Discovering learning orientation
Began between 1950s and 1970s under Jerome Brunner, an American psychologist
This orientation has different names sometimes called discovering method, discovering names, inductive method
Jerome Brunner systemized the work done by john Dew, Maria Montessori, Benjamin Bloom, Hilda Taba.
This orientation is based on scientific discovering hence if there is a scientific discovering, there were a problem
Teachers are required to structure the learning environment so that a child could be ready to new discovery
The orientation was featured by the subject project based on discovering learning.
The project include mathematics project, physics, biology, and social science projects
Therefore, its implementation is based on subject projects.
Examples of projects under discovering orientation:
                   I.            East Africa and Entebbe Mathematics
                II.            School mathematics project for East Africa
             III.            African primary science projects
             IV.            Science education programme for Africa
All the projects were academic rationalistic in nature
This orientation is based on academic because it bases on academic disciplines. However, it departed from academic rationalism orientation as learners were left to find out the problems in problematic situations.
Those answers were to be founded in unfunded knowledge and real life situations
Weakness of the projects
1.      The projects were highly structured around disciplines of knowledge, making knowledge rigid to acquire
2.      The projects considered behavioural terms when stating objectives leaving aside other domains
3.      The projects were purely scientific leaving social methods that applied deductive thinking
4.      The projects based on top down approaches (means, issues regarding teaching- MOEVT-top while teachers and students bottom/down
5.      Teachers and students were passive as they consume materials they do not produce
NB: all the above five orientations are regarded as traditional orientations because of the following reasons:
       I.            They view teachers as ready made
    II.            They view teacher education is unchanged
 III.            They view teacher education is unproblematic contrary to what exists in real life

Alternative orientation
1.    Personalistic orientation
It is about a personal (a teacher)
In this orientation, teachers are active learners. A central focus of this orientation is on teachers personal growth and psychological maturity
Teachers should be helped to develop growth and teacher psychological maturity
This orientation is rooted on developmental humanistic and perceptual psychology
Developmental psychology- we want learners to develop
Humanistic- we use ideas from humanistic psychology
Perceptual- beliefs
In this orientation, teachers’ perceptions and beliefs are recognised and cherished/incorporated
It is based on down-top
Teachers were not required or encouraged to master specific skills, but learn them progressively.
Learning to teach was a transformative process and not acquisition of new knowledge.
This orientation allocated themed experiences for student teachers to discover their new teaching style and gain new knowledge of learners
Teacher’s role is a facilitator who creates coordination that supports students’ learning
The curriculum reflected pupils’ needs and their interests therefore it is down top.

In summary,
In this orientation, teachers’ education is viewed as:
a.       A form of adult learning / development
b.      As a process of becoming someone rather than a process of educating someone (because, teachers’ interests are incorporated)
c.       As a process where someone learn continuously

2.    Inquiry oriented orientation
This orientation values teacher trainee as active participant in the teacher education
In this way, student teachers are engaged/involve in the variety of learning activities including becoming critical consumers of knowledge
The orientation prepares someone who is a teacher

Features of teacher education according to this orientation
        i.            Based on notion of social construction: economy, political, educational and cultural phenomena are social constructions created by human being. Therefore, even teacher education programmes are social constructed which can be constructed, deconstructed and reconstructed
      ii.            Key elements of enquiry: in the process of enquiry, there are two elements of thinking process
1.      Basic or micro thinking process: small thinking process that combine together to bringing about complex or macro thinking process. E.g. what is your name or gender?
2.      Complex or macro thinking process include the following:
                                            i.            Critical thinking
                                          ii.            Decision making
                                        iii.            Reflective thinking
                                        iv.            Objectivity
                                          v.            Creative thinking
                                        vi.            Meta cognition
                                      vii.            Epistemic cognition
                                    viii.            Problem solving
It demands high order thinking. E.g. why are you here?
    iii.            Based on collaboration. Enquiry oriented orientation is more advanced on:
a.       Collaboration between tutors and teacher trainees
b.      Valuing, caring, being just, fair and sympathetic
c.       More advanced on discouraging on individuality
    iv.            Based on quantative and qualitative research approaches: teacher education should combine or should use both approaches in order to improve T/L processes.
      v.            Based on frequent use of open ended or unstructured challenging questions (like essay questions)
    vi.            Basing on teaching practices or field experiences

Attitudes or dispositions of inquiry
        i.            Skepticism-is an attitude of doubting about an issue
      ii.            Curiosity-is an attitude of wanting  to know better
    iii.            Respect (for reasoning)- an attitude of making rational investigation about an issue
    iv.            Objectivity-
      v.            Willingness to suspend judgment if truth is yet to be revealed about an issue
    vi.            Tolerance for ambiguity-this is an attitude looking for more evidences about an issue
  vii.            Open mindedness-an attitude of looking an issue at both sides which are positively or negatively

Indicators of inquiry in classroom
          i.            It assumes everything is problematic. Learners are given opportunities to find out answers.
        ii.            It has open, thoughtful and democratic dialogue/conservation
      iii.            There is always cognition, support and promotion of new ideas
      iv.            There is collaborative planning for inquiry activities between the teacher and student. Determining what to learn, how to learn and where to learn is determined by both teachers and students.
        v.            There is active participation of students, teachers in teaching and solving structured challenging questions
      vi.            Teacher education educators are encouraged to do research on teaching and learning process

3.    Technological orientation
This orientation focuses attention on knowledge derived from scientific study of teaching
Primary goal of this orientation, to prepare teachers who can apply knowledge to the task of the teacher.
Learning to teach means acquiring and using research based principles.
The practices and competences are measured in performance terms, (performances assessment)
Performance assessment: is an assessment in which learners perform a certain task or demonstrate certain tasks.
Good teaching in this orientation comes from the accumulation and application of scientific knowledge.
Teaching is regarded as a rule governed and instrument practices.

Rule governed-means scientific methods. Instrumental practices

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