1.0 Conceptualization of Key Terms
Sociology can be defined as the systematic study of human society and social interaction. It can also be defined as a systematic study of social behavior in human groups. Sociology focuses primarily on the influence of social relationship on peoples’ attitudes and behavior and on how societies are established and changed. It helps us understand the structure and dynamics of a society and their complex connections to patterns of human behavior and individual life changes. The components of sociology are culture, society’s structure, mobility of society, politics and ideology.
Society can be defined as a large social group of people that share the same geographical territory and are subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
According to Aggrawal (), the concept of education is like a diamond which appears of different colours when seen from different angles.
Dewey, J (1859 1952) defines education as the development of all those capacities in the individual which enable him/her to control his/her environment and fulfil his/her responsibilities. It is aimed at increasing social efficiency.
Thomson (n.d) defines education as the influence of the environment upon the individual to produce a permanent change in his habits of behaviour, of thought and of his attitude. Education facilitates the task of adaptation of the child to his/her environment. 2

According to Ottaway (n.d), sociology of education is the study of the relationships between education and society. It can also be defined as the study of how public institutions and individuals experiences affect education and its outcomes. It is most concerned with public schooling systems of the modern society including expansion of educational opportunities. Education is perceived as the place where children develop their unique potentials related to human nature. Sociology of education deals with what goes on in schools and classrooms in relation to the wider society. The systematic sociology of education began with Emile Durkheim’s work on moral education as the basis for organic solidarity. Educational sociology is concerned with the relationship between the society and the learning process. It explains how education influences changes in a society.
1.2 The Social Sciences and their Socio- historical Antecedents of Sociology/ Historical Origins of Sociology
1.2.1 August Comte (1798 – 1857)
 He is a French philosopher.
 He is considered to be the father of sociology.
 He defined sociology as a fact and programme of the science of society.
 He believed that theoretical science of the society and systematic investigation of behaviour are needed to improve society.
 He coined the term sociology to apply to the science of human behaviour.
 In his hierarchy of sciences, sociology was at the top and he called it the queen and its practitioners scientists.
 He emphasized that the study of society must be scientific and he urged sociologists to use systematic observation, experimentation and comparative historical analysis as their methods of investigation.
 He divided the study of society into two groups which are social statics and social dynamics.

Social Statics
These are aspects of social life that have to do with order and stability and that allow societies to hold together and endure. It is the unchanging nature of the society which tries to maintain the social equilibrium.
Social Dynamics
Refer to those aspects of social life that have to do with social change and that which pattern the institutional development. They are elements of change in a society. They are observable and manifested cause of change in a society. They can explain conflicts and crises that the society experiences.
1.2.2 Harriet Martineau (1802 – 1876)
 She is the British philosopher.
 Like Comte, she insisted that the study of society represents a separate scientific field.
 She translated large works of Comte into English.
 She contributed to insightful customs and social practices of her nation England and the United States of America.
 She formulated a comparative method for studying societies and analysed the new American culture b measuring it against stated principles.
 She facilitated the introduction of sociology and positivism into the United States of America.

1.2.3 Emile Durkheim (1857 – 1917)
 He is a French sociologist.
 He conducted a research on suicide.
 He argued that the behaviour must be understood within a larger social context.
 His major concern was to discover values and principles that guide or govern the conduct of education on secular basis.
 He focused on how societies hold together and endure.

For him, social integration is necessary for the maintenance of the social order and for the happiness of individuals.
 He suggested that happiness depends on individual finding a sense of meaning outside them that occurs within the context of group involvement.
 Destruction of social bond has always negative impacts and can lead individuals to commit suicide.
 He concentrated much on educational acts of teaching and learning where his concept was social solidarity.
 He defined social evolution in terms of progression from mechanical solidarity to organic solidarity.

Mechanical Solidarity
It is a kind of solidarity in which the society’s cohesion and integration comes from the homogeneity of individuals. People feel connected through similar tasks, educational and religious training and lifestyle. It operates in traditional and small scale societies like tribe or a family. People develop a sense of oneness because they are alike i.e it is based on resemblance. It is characterised by little interdependence (weak social bonds), relatively low population and relatively low volume of material and moral density.
Organic Solidarity
It is a social cohesion or integration fostered by the interdependence among people. It comes from the interdependence that arises from specialization of work and the complementarities between people; a development that occurs in modern and industrial societies. It is a social cohesion based upon the dependence the individuals have on each other in more advanced societies. eg. Farmers produce food to feed the factory workers who produce tractors that allow the farmers to produce food. It is based on division of labour in more advanced societies. It is characterised by relatively high volume of population and relatively high materials and moral density. 5

1.2.4 Herbert Spencer (1820 – 1903)
 He is an English sociologist.
 He viewed society as having important similarities with a biological organism and depicted it as a system – a whole made up of interrelated parts. Just as the human body is made up of organs like kidneys, lungs and heart, so the society is made up of institutions like family, religion, state, school and others.
 He applied the concept of the survival of the fittest to the social world, an approach called Social Darwinism.
 With Social Darwinism, he sought to demonstrate that government should not interfere with the natural process going on in a society. Only in this manner would people who are fit survive and those who were unfit die out. If this principle is applied, human beings, plants, and animals would progressively adapt themselves to their environment and reach higher levels of historical development.
 His Darwinist outlook suggests that the ideas we hold about ourselves and the universe are shaped by the social age in which we live.
 He observed similarities between biological organism and social organism in the following ways:
o Both societies and organisms are distinguished from inorganic matter by visible growth – a child grows up to a man, a small community becomes a great city, a small state and an empire.

o Both social and biological organisms grow in size and this growth is accomplished by increasing complexity of structure.
o In both social and biological organism, there is an interdependence of parts. The progressive differentiation in both is accomplished by progressive differentiation of functions.

o In both social and biological organisms, the differentiation of structure is followed by a similar differentiation of function.

o The life of a society like the life of an organism is far larger than the life of any of the units of parts.

1.2.5 Max Weber (1864 – 1920)
 He is a German sociologist.
 He believed that sociologists can derive an understanding of their subject in a manner that is unavailable to chemists and physicists.
 He contended that a crucial aspect of the sociological enterprise is the study of the intentions, values, beliefs and attitudes that underlie people’s behaviour.
 Sociologists should examine the definitions people use in shaping their behaviour.
 He developed and ideal type model that serve as a measuring rod against which actual cases can be evaluated. It is a tool that allows sociologists to generalize and simplify data by ignoring minor differences in order to accentuate the major similarities.
 He insisted on a value free sociology meaning that sociologists must not allow their personal biases to affect the conduct of scientific research.
 He observed that objectivity is not neutrality. By neutrality, he meant that a person does not take sides on an issue. Objectivity, on the other side, has to do with the pursuit of scientifically verifiable knowledge.

1.2.6 Karl Max (1818 – 1883)
 He viewed society not only as a vehicle for understanding society but also for transforming it.
 He believed that society is divided into those who own the means of producing wealth and those who do not. This gave rise into class conflict.
 He viewed this system in a systematic term that is on the way the entire system of economic, social and political relationships maintain the power and dominance of the owners over the workers.
 Influenced by Georg Hegel (1770 – 1831), he adapted the perspective of Dialectical Materialism – the notion that development depends on the clash of contradictions and the creation of new and more advanced structures out of such clashes.

He argues that in every society, economic and social order grow to a state of maximum efficiency at the same time it develops internal contradictions or weaknesses that contribute to its decay. In the same manner, society is propelled from one historical stage to another as each new order triumphs over the old. For example, slavery was displaced by feudalism, feudalism was displaced by capitalism, capitalism was displaced by socialism and ultimately socialism by communism (the highest stage of society).

1.3 Theories of Social Change and Societal Development
1.3.1 Conceptualizations Theory
According to Kerling (1986), a theory is a set of interrelated constructs/concepts, definitions and propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables with the purpose of explaining or predicting a phenomenon. It is any generalisation concerning a phenomenon that scientifically deals with methods of a discipline. It is a presupposition to explain facts and methods of a discipline. Theorem
A theorem is a statement showing that something is true. It is a factual statement of what always happen in a certain circumstance with certain amount of irregularity with nature. For example, a Pythagoras/Pythagorean theorem states that in any right angled triangle, the area of the square whose sides is the hypotenuse(the area opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares whose sides are the two legs (the two sides that meet at a right angle). 8
a2 + b2 = c2 Principle
A principle is a fundamental truth or proposition that serves as the foundation for a system or behaviour or a chain of reasoning. It is based on basic truth. It is a general law of cause and effect. It is a guiding rule of behaviour. It is a rule that has to be followed. For example, Archimedes principle states that the upward buoyant force exerted on a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid the body displaces. Law
A law is a factual statement with regard to certain regularities. For example, the law of floatation states that a floating body displaces its own weight of the fluid in which it floats. Social Change
Social change is a set of variation or modification in any social form and such variation is usually dichotomous. It might be progressive or retrogressive, permanent or temporary, planned or unplanned, intended or unintended, unidirectional or multidirectional, beneficial or harmful. Any society is in constant change. Verification of change is done by the assistance of the theory since there are different manners and approaches of change with different results and directions. Societies pass through different stages in their life. The stages through which societies pass differ from one scholar or perspective to the other. The following are some of scholars who tried to establish stages through which societies pass. 9

August Comte (1798 – 1857)
According to him change may be evolutionary or revolutionary. According to him, a society undergoes a three mentally conceived stages of social change called law of three stages.
a) Theological/Primitive Stage

At this stage, people were inanimate since they mostly feared physical objects. Man believed that all the phenomena of nature are the creation of the divine or supernatural. Men and children failed to discover the natural causes of various phenomena and hence attributed them to supernatural or divine power. The theological stage is divided into three parts:
i. Fetishism

Fetishism is a primary stage of the theological stage of thinking. The primitive people had a belief that inanimate objects had a living spirit in them. That is why this stage is sometimes referred to as animism. People worshiped inanimate objects like stones and trees.
ii. Polytheism

Polytheism is an account on the existence of many gods. Primitive people believed that each natural force is controlled by different gods like god of rain, god of water, god of air, god of death, and god of birth.
iii. Monotheism

At monotheism stage, people believed in one God. Therefore, they attributed all phenomena to a single supreme deity.
b) Metaphysical Stage

This was a transitional stage where people were changing from inanimate to animate beliefs e.g believing in witchcraft. The people believed that God is an abstract being who guides and determines the events in the world.
c) Positivity/Scientific Stage

It is the stage grounded in scientific explanations based on observation and experiment. Societies began to be governed by rules and principles. During this stage, people tried to 10

establish cause and effect kind of relationship. This stage looks at the world intellectually. It puts emphasis on observation and classification of data and facts.
Lewis Morgan
According to him, societies pass through three phases.
a) Savagery Stage

At this stage, a human being was cruel, violent and animal like. He was very brutal.
b) Barbarism Stage

At this stage, man was uneducated and socially backward. He was uncivilized.
c) Civilization Stage

At this stage, man was well organized. There were developed societies with comfortable life.
Karl Max (1818 – 1883)
He believed that society developed through a series of contradictions. According to him, societies developed through:
i. Primitive Communalism
ii. Slavery
iii. Feudalism
iv. Capitalism
v. Socialism
vi. Communism

Charles Darwin
He argued that social change is both evolutionary and revolutionary. He put forward the following major assumptions:
i. The Law of Natural Selection

Natural selection is the process by which environmental effects leads to varying degrees of reproductive success among individuals of a population of organisms with different hereditary characters or traits. The traits that inhibit reproductive success decrease in frequency from generation to generation. 11

ii. Principle of Adaptation

It asserts that environmental changes may force organisms to develop adaptation mechanisms. The principle suggested that in Great Britain, for example, the giraffe evolved from their ancestors with short neck surviving on bushes and short grasses. Long necks developed gradually due to changes on environment when they started feeding on tall trees and grasses.
iii. The Principle of the Struggle for Existence

According to Darwin, struggle for existence is crucial when organisms produce many offspring than the available resources can support. As a result, competition for the resources is inevitable although it is likely to favour the stronger against the weak in the struggle for survival for the fittest.
iv. The Law of Variation

The law of variation asserts that all populations contain some variations in traits. In interbreeding populations, genes are randomly shuffled among members of the population through sexual reproduction – the process that produces genetically unique offspring. This brings genetic diversity/variation and the greater a population’s genetic diversity the more likely it is to evolve specific traits that enable it to adapt to new environmental pressures such as climate change and disease.
1.3.2 Theories of Social Change and Societal Development
This subsection presents different theories which explain issues related to social change. It covers economic theory, cultural theory and technological theory. Economic Theory
The economic theory assumes that changes in economic structures are the prime movers of social change. In other words, changes in economic systems trigger changes in the society. The economic theory is attributed to historical materialism by Karl Max. In view of this theory, Karl Max holds that:
 History is the series of contradictions. It is these contradictions in economic structure that subsequently lead to changes in the society.

Conflict is necessary for social change and better society.
 Economic infrastructure is the result of change of economic forces and change of social relations. These two changes lead to different modes of production which explain social changes.
 The changes include legal system, ideology, and socialization process which all explain the social structure.
 There are phases through which any society develops. According to him, these phases are Primitive communalism, slavery, feudalism, capitalism, socialism and communism. The contradictions in one phase lead to its decay and emergency of the subsequent one.
 According to Karl Max, education is the tool of those who have power against those without power.

Walter Rostow
 He developed Karl Max’s theory and agreed with him that changes in the society are inevitable. They are the result of struggles and contradictions between the two major camps of the haves and have nots.
 According to him, stages of social development include:

i. Pre industrial Society (Traditional Society)
 At this stage, an economy of a society has a limited production function.
 The members of the society produce minimum level of potential output.
 There exist technological innovations but on ad hoc basis. Lacking science and technology, such innovations spread slowly and inconsistently and is sometimes lost.
 Trade is predominantly regional and local largely done through batter system and the monetary system is not developed.

ii. Pre condition to take off Society
 The economy undergoes a process of change and lays a foundation for its growth and takes off.
At this stage, there is no need for change in socio political structure because the economy is not deeply caught up in traditional, social and political structures.
 There is a shift from agrarian to industrial economy.
 Trade and other commercial activities expand not only to neighbouring areas but also for flung regions creating international markets.

iii. Take Off
 There is dynamic economic growth fostered by political and technological change.
 There is a rapid and sustained economic growth.
 Take off occurs when a society is driven more by economic processes rather than traditions.
 Norms of economic growth are well established and growth becomes a nation’s vision and shared goal.
 According to Rostow, there three requirements for take off:
o The rate of productive investment should rise from 5% to over 10% of national income or net national product.
o The development of one or more substantial manufacturing sectors with a high level of growth.
o The existence or quick emergency of political, social and manufacturing framework which exploits the impulses to the expansion of the modern sector and the potential external economy effects of the take off i.e the needed capital is mobilized from domestic resources and is steered into the economy and not into domestic or state consumption.
 Industrialization becomes necessary.
 A society, at this stage, is characterised by the existence of enlarged and sustained demand for the product of key sectors.
 There is introduction of new productive technologies and techniques.
 The society increases the capacity to generate or earn enough capital to complete the take off transaction.
 Activities in the key sectors induce a chain of growth in other sectors of the economy.

iv. Drive to Maturity.

 It is a period when a society has effectively applied the range of modern technology to the bulk of its resources.
 The growing economy triggers needs for the expansion of modern science and technology.
 The leading sectors in an economy are determined by not only technology but also available resources.

v. The Age of High Mass Consumption

 It is the period of comfort.
 Consumers concentrate on durable goods.
 Rostow viewed education as a tool in a society that help it achieve better services i.e it is not in conflict terms as argued by Karl Max. Cultural Theory
According to this theory, culture is the prime mover of social changes. Changes in culture trigger changes in a society. The cultural theory is divided into three theories which include diffusion of innovation theory, internal evolution of ideas theory, and a core – periphery value interchange theory. Diffusion of Innovation Theory
 It is a theory that seeks to explain how, why, and at what rate the new ideas and technologies spread through cultures.
 It was propounded by Everett Rogers in 1962.
 Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of the social system.
 The elements that influence the spread of ideas include innovation, communication channels, exploration, military conquest, tourism, internet, and missionary works.

The theory assumes that innovation and changes in a society are always exogenous i.e are due to external influences. For example it is mistakenly believed that culture and civilization in Africa came from outside the continent.
 All practices and values in the society are imported from outside. Internal Cultural Evolution of Ideas Theory
 According to this theory, all changes in the society result from long time experiences practised in the society.
 Any society, given the internal forces and experiences, is capable of influencing its cultures or changes.
 Scholars in this theory include Basil Davidson, Jon Vansina, Isaria Kimambo (studies the Pare society) and Bethwell O’got ( a Kenyan who studied the history of Luo). The Core – Periphery Value Interchange Theory
 The theory assumes that in any society, there are two values which are core values and periphery values.
o The Core Values are values that are shared by all individuals in the society and are unquestionable.
o The Periphery Values are values which are shared by few and are not rigid as they might change to be core.
 The concept of interchange here occurs when either of the said values change to the other, that is core values may change to periphery and the periphery may change to core as well, that is to say as the new ideas comes in, the old ideas goes out or disappear.
 The scholars in this theory include Ralph Linton. Technological Theory
 According to this theory, changes are the result of development of science and technology.

It provides the basis for verification and such verification can be done through research.

1.4 The Interface between Education and Social Change
Educational and social changes are mutually reinforcing and complementary. Educational change leads overtime, to a corresponding social change and social change in turn, intensifies the need for and strengthen the educational change. It may be in the reverse, that social change leading to educational change and educational change intensifying the need for and strengthening social change. The role of education in steering social change includes:
 To conserve the worthy points of cultural and social heritage.
 To adjust to the changing situation.
 To create a new system of education for social progress.
 Education helps in reconstructing and reorganizing the experiences of the needs of the society and thus eliminates the unworthy practices of the society and builds up the happier and better society.

1.4.1 Broad Areas of Social Transformation through Education
 Education is important in realizing the ideals of democracy, secularism, national integration and industrialization.
 Education is expected to change the values and attitudes of the people to crate in them an urge for the necessary motivation for social change.
 Education provides competent personnel needed in industrial, business, educational, agricultural and research fields.
 Education provides necessary skills and knowledge necessary for the systematic and consistence progress of the society.
 The agencies of social change include family, school, organisation and mass media.

1.4.2 Teacher as an Agent of Social Change
A teacher can conveys, disseminates and develops knowledge, attitudes, skills and values to the students in the following ways: 17

Direct teaching.
 Providing opportunities to the students to practise the values of democracy, secularism and socialism.
 The teacher himself/herself is a model embodying the desired values.

1.5 Research Methods in Social and Educational Issues
1.5.1 Conceptualization of Key Concepts Research
Research is a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic (Kothari, 2004). It is a scholarly or scientific process of investigation or inquiry in the society. Research is conducted in order to:
 gain familiarity of a social phenomenon
 portray characteristics of a particular situation
 determine the frequency with which something occurs
 test hypothesis

Why People Undertake Research?
 desire to be of service to the society
 desire for respectability
 desire for intellectual joy
 desire for personal satisfaction

Importance of Research
 It solves problems in the society
 It solves the pressure of the institution
 It is for personal satisfaction
 It disseminates knowledge to the wider society Social Research
Social research is the application to any social situation of any exact procedures for the purpose of solving a problem or testing hypothesis. 18

1.5.2 Different Types of Research (adopted from Kothari, 2004)
a) Descriptive vs. Analytical Research

Descriptive researches is the survey and fact finding inquiry of any kind. They only describe the state of affairs of the existing phenomenon. The descriptive researcher has no control over the variables – he/she just reports what happened or what is going on like preference of people, frequency of shopping etc.
Analytical Research is the kind of research in which the researcher uses the available facts or information to analyse and evaluate the phenomenon.
b) Applied vs. Fundamental Research

Applied research/action research is a kind of research aiming at finding a solution for the problem at hand.
Fundamental research/pure/basic research is a kind of research aiming at making generalizations or formulating a theory.
c) Conceptual vs. Empirical Research

Conceptual research is the research that relies on some abstract ideas or theory. It is used by philosophers and thinkers to develop anew concepts or reinterpret the existing one.
Empirical Research is the kind of research that relies on experience and observation. It depends on the data collected, and is capable of being verified by observation and experimentation.
d) Quantitative vs. Qualitative research

Quantitative research is the kind of research that is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity.
Qualitative research is the kind of research that is based on the measurement of quality. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quality.
Generally, research can be categorized into either qualitative or quantitative basing on the following criteria:
 Data collection and field work strategies.

This involves the techniques of data collection and the instruments used. Qualitative approach uses a highly structured instruments aimed at quantifying the information elicited while a qualitative uses unstructured instruments aimed at expressing a phenomenon.
 Types and forms of data which may be produced.

Quantitative produces statistical data while the qualitative produces textual ones.
 The degree of flexibility built in the study design.

Quantitative is very rigid while the qualitative is flexible in terms of hypotheses, objectives, ways of collecting and analysing data.
 Data analysis strategies.

The quantitative analyzes data statistically while the qualitative one analyzes descriptively. Both may, however, use the data analysis programs like SPSS, R’BUL, R, GOLD VARBs.
1.5.3 Characteristics of Research
Any research is characterized by the following:
 It is systematic. Any research should follow certain procedures.
 It is logical. This means that research is guided by the rules of logical reasoning though induction or deduction.
 It is based on empirical data. Any research should be related to real life situation and deals with concrete data (gathered from the five senses of organs – hearing, seeing, touching, tasting and smelling).
 It is replicable. Its results can be verified by conducting a similar research using the same methodology.
 It carefully checks for validity and reliability of data. The validity means accuracy and meaningfulness of inferences based on the research results (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2003). The reliability, on the other hand, means the degree to which research instruments yield consistent results (ibid).
 It is objective. This means that it draws conclusion from the data collected and not from personal preferences.

1.5.4 Research Approaches
Generally, there are two research approaches. These are:
a) Qualitative Approach

It is the kind of research design which is concerned with generation of data in qualitative form like opinion, behaviours etc.
b) Quantitative Approach

It is the kind of research approach which is concerned with generation of data in quantitative form.
1.5.5 Research Designs
Kothari, (2004) defines a research design as the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. It is a conceptual structure within which research is conducted. It constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. It is an outline of what the researcher will do from writing hypothesis and its operational implications to the final analysis of data. The choice of a research design depends on:
 The nature of the study
 The purpose of the study
 The location of the study
 The type of data to be gathered
 The time allocated for conducting the study
 The nature and kinds of sample to be taken
 The techniques of data collection
 Data analysis procedures

There are different research designs. Among them are:
a) Social Survey Design

It is used in areas where there is a need to look for new data than to analyse the existing ones. It is important in social administration especially in the government. It is aimed at 21

studying social phenomena like overcrowding in towns, poor services etc. The following are the types of social surveys:
i. Exploratory Survey

Ii is a kind of research design which is meant to reveal community attitudes, values or group experiences. It is dedicated to exploration of certain trends in a society.
ii. Longitudinal Survey

It is undertaken on a group of people over a long period of time. It is used in areas are affected by certain events like war, famine, drought etc.
iii. Cross Sectional Survey

It is based on a representative sample cutting across the population whose findings will establish generalizations that apply to the whole population. It does not take long time to accomplish as the longitudinal survey does.
b) Experimental Design
 It investigates both dependent and independent variables. The dependent variable depends on the other variable. It changes when the other variable (independent) changes. The independent variables are characteristics which influence other variables (dependent variables).
 It is usually concerned with laboratory works.
 It involves random assigning of subjects to treatment and control groups.
 It yields valid results.

c) Documentation Design
 It includes reviewing the already existing documents in order to discover the missing themes.
 It involves taking information from the text e.g books, news papers, slogans, picking paragraphs of interest from a written source etc.

d) Observational Design
 It involves seeing and recording in schedules what is being observed or what is to be observed.
 Observation can be participant or non participant. In participant observation the researcher becomes a member of the group he/she is observing so as to share experiences at the same time collecting information. It may include attending political rallies; participating in religious ceremony etc. In non participant the researcher is not part and parcel of the community he/she is observing. It is conducted by a researcher in a relatively separated situation.

e) Case Study Design
 It involves an in depth study of a social unit or phenomenon that is purposefully selected.
 It deals with the processes that take place and their interrelationship.
 It takes a long time to accomplish.
 It describes experiences of phenomena as they occur (and not with a theoretical ground).

1.5.6 The Interactive Process of Research.
Research is not a stand alone phenomenon. It is the result of certain components which mutually interact each other to make a meaningful whole. The diagram below illustrates the interactive process of a research.


3 2 23

Source: Wallace (1969)
1. Logical deduction to the hypothesis. Giving plausible explanations.
2. Operationalization and Instrumentalization. In collecting data, there should be instruments necessary for the exercise.
3. Number of facts obtained from the field. It includes scaling and measurements of data.
4. Logical induction. Giving the summary from specific to general terms.

The Relationship between Theory, Research and Practice
Having defined the term research in and theory in and theory in, the new term to be defined at this juncture is practice. According to Kerling (1992), practice is the process whereby certain theoretical assumptions and ideas or theories are put into actions. It is assumed that all human actions are already presupposed in certain theoretical framework. However, the three concepts are related to each other in the following ways:
 Theory establishes the basis and basic assumptions which research studies and it is the practice that demonstrates all the assumptions in the real life.
 Research is used to test or verify the existing theories (through deductive approach) or develop new theories (through inductive approach).
 Theories guide the conduct of research through which tentative ideas/hypotheses can be formulated in order to be tested. They form a frame of reference for the practitioner and practice in general.
 Practice plays major roles in putting the theories on the ground. It is through practice that the theoretical assumptions are tested. So, theories guide actions while the actions confirm the assumptions on the ground.
 Theories guide and facilitate decision making during practices.

1.5.7 Stages of Research
Generally, sociologists follow the following steps in conducting research:
i. Defining a problem
ii. Review of Literature
iii. Formulating hypothesis
iv. Selecting research design
v. Collecting data
vi. Developing a conclusion

Kothari (2004:12-19), identifies the following stages of conducting research:
i. Formulating the research problem
ii. Extensive literature review
iii. Development of working hypotheses
iv. Preparing the research design (the conceptual structure within which the research will be conducted)
v. Determining sample design
vi. Collecting data
vii. Execution of the project
viii. Analysis of data
ix. Hypothesis testing
x. Generalizations and interpretation
xi. Preparation of the report

Fox D.J (1969) identifies the following 13 stages involved in designing a research:
i. Initiating an idea or need or problem area
ii. Initial review of literature
iii. Defining the specific research problem
iv. Estimating the success potential of the contemplated research
v. The second review of literature (it is more selective, purposive and focused)

vi. Selecting the research approach
vii. Stating the hypotheses of the research
viii. Selecting data gathering methods and techniques
ix. Selecting and developing data gathering instruments
x. Defining the data gathering plan
xi. Defining the data analysis plan
xii. Identifying the population and invited sample
xiii. Pilot study on the data gathering approach, methods, instruments and the data analysis plan

Population: Includes all the items in the field under study
A sample: A group of individuals selected from a large population. Or is the fraction of the population to be studied.
Sample Size: Is the number of items drawn from a population for study.
Sampling: Is the process of selecting items from the universe to constitute a sample.
Sampling Technique: Is the procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting items for the sample.
Issues to Consider when Sampling
There are number of things to be considered when sampling. Such things include:
 The number of informants needed for research
 The topic of research
 Target population
 Budget

The nature of the population – whether the population is homogenous or heterogeneous.
 Time to accomplish the study.

Sampling Techniques
The sampling techniques are categorized into two categories:
a. Probability Sampling
b. Non – probability Sampling

a. Probability Sampling (for more details on this aspect, read Kothari, 2004)
 A probability sampling is also known as random sampling or chance sampling.
 According to this technique, every item of the universe has an equal chance of being included in the sample. The probability sampling techniques include:

i. Systematic Sampling
 The systematic sampling technique involves a selection of nth item on the list.
 The element of randomness emanates from the fact that the point with which to start the sampling process is selected randomly – only the first unit is selected randomly and the remaining units of the sample are selected at a fixed interval.

ii. Stratified Sampling
 It is used in heterogeneous population
 It is the kind of sampling technique in which the population is divided into several sub populations that are individually more homogeneous than the total population and then selecting the item from each sub population (stratum) to constitute a sample.

The strata formed are homogeneous within themselves and heterogeneous between them.
 The strata are purposively formed basing on the experience or judgment of the researcher.
 Sometimes, a pilot study may be conducted to ensure appropriate stratification.

iii. Cluster Sampling
 With cluster sampling, the population is divided into smaller non overlapping areas and some of these areas (in this case, clusters) are randomly selected to constitute the desired sample.
 The clusters are randomly selected with their constituents.
iv. Area Sampling
 If the clusters, as stated in (iii) above, happen to be geographical sub divisions, the cluster sampling is known as area sampling.

v. Multistage Sampling
 It is a further development of the idea of clusters.
 It is used when a sample is to be drawn from a considerable big geographical area like an entire country. Suppose we want to interview secondary school students in Tanzania, a sample could be drawn in the following way: Tanzania could be divided into regions, districts, wards and from the selected wards; students could be randomly selected to constitute the sample.

vi. Sequential Sampling
 With sequential sampling, the ultimate number of the sample is not fixed in advance, but it is determined according to mathematical rules on the basis of information yielded as a survey progresses.
 Generally, one can go on taking samples so long as he/she desires to do so.

b. Non Probability Sampling
 Non probability sampling is a sampling procedure which does not afford for estimating the probability that each item in the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample.
 It is sometimes known as purposive sampling, deliberate sampling or judgmental sampling.
 The items for the sample are selected deliberately by the researcher. His/her choice concerning the items remains supreme.
 The logic behind purposive sampling is based on a sample of information rich cases that is studied in-depth.
 There is no assumption that all members of the population are equivalent data sources, but the selected ones are believed to be information rich cases. The non probability sampling techniques include the following:

i. Snow ball /chain/network/referral Sampling
 It is a process by which individuals initially selected suggest the names of others who might be appropriate for the sample.

ii. Convenience Sampling/ Accidental Sampling
 This method is based on using people who are a captive audience; the people the researcher meets accidentally and happen to be information rich.
 Respondents are people who happen to be walking by, or show a special interest in ones research.
 The sample is drawn from that part of the population which is close to hand. That is, a sample population selected because it is readily available and convenient.

iii. Volunteer Sampling
 It is a type of non probability sampling in which research participants offer to participate.
 It is a kind of sampling which is used when every member of the sample can not comply with the demands of the study to be conducted. Only willing or volunteering individuals are included in the study.

iv. Quota Sampling

Quota sampling is a kind of sampling in which a population is first segmented into mutually exclusive sub-groups and then judgment is used to select the subjects or units from each segment based on a specified proportion. For example, an interviewer may be told to sample 200 females and 300 males between the age of 45 and 60. The researcher has a judgement of who is to be selected to constitute a sample provided that he/she does not do this outside the preset proportion. With quota sampling, the actual selection of items for sample is left to the researcher’s judgement.

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