2.0 “Education” and “Development”: The Concepts, their Inter-relationships and the Conceptual Models (Input-Process –Output Model)
2.1 The Concept of Development
There are three approaches of conceptualizing the term development which are:
a) Economic Approach

It is the first and earliest approach that was used to define development. It defines development in terms of income. The scholars who made some insightful contributions in this approach include:
i. Adam Smith (1723 – 1790)
 He is a first classical economist. 
 He is a Scottish economist and a moral philosopher.
 He is the author of the book ‘An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations’ generally shortened as ‘The Wealth of Nations’.
 He argued that the wealth of nations is affected by three things: Internal division of labor (specialization in specific circumscribed tasks and roles within an institution or a society), growth of towns and annual labor (the fund that a nation supplies to cater for all necessities that its people consumes annually).
 He argued that the distribution of wealth – which can be broken down into the basic forms of wages, rent, and profits – is most efficiently accomplished through free trade without government interference.
 The annual labor should be controlled by the population between the number of those who are employed in useful labor and that of those who are not employed.
 According to him, no society can feel happy while the majority of its population lives in poverty and misery.

ii. Thomas Malthus (1766 – 1834)
 The author of the book ‘ An Essay on the Principles of Population’.
 He is famous for his theories about population.
 He linked population to the available resources when discussing the concept of development.
 He argued that population increases overwhelmingly such that the available resource is not enough to cater for its needs (population increases to the extent of overstretching the available resources). This situation leads to social distress.
 Food is necessary for human life and survival.
 The passion between sexes is permanent that is there is a close relationship between men and women. This relationship leads procreation which in turn leads to population increase.
 The procreation (reproduction) is higher than the production of food (men reproduce more offspring than they produce food).
 In order to realize development in a society, we need to apply some checks and balances of population.
 He proposed two types of checks that hold the population within the resource limit. Positive checks are kinds of checks which raises the death rate. They include hunger, diseases and war. The preventive checks are those kinds of checks which are responsible for lowering the birth rate. They include abortion, birth control, postponement of marriage, and celibacy.
 Generally, he argues that population control is a factor for the development of a society.

iii. David Ricardo (1772 – 1823)
 He is a British political economist and a stock trader.
 He recognized the fact that all the resources we have are scarce.
 The wealth of the society, nation, or world should be equally distributed.
 At his time, land was in the hands of the land lords at the expense of the minority.

He argued that land should be publicly owned through nationalism and socialism or communism.

b) Social Psychological Orientation

According to this approach, the social psychological factors are very important in defining development. The prominent figures in this approach include:
i. Abraham Maslow (1908 – 1970)
 He is an American psychologist.
 He talked of hierarchy of needs.
 According to him, people get satisfied of the higher needs because they are satisfied of the lower ones first.
 The hierarchy of needs can be presented as follows:

o Physiological Needs

They are usually biological. They include hunger, thirsty, breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion, shelter, and air.
o Safety Needs

They include need for the security of body, employment, resources, morality, health, property, psychological and physical comfortability.
o Affiliation Needs

All normal people usually want to belong to social units, be loved, accepted, sexual intimacy, family and friendship.
o Esteem Needs

They are values of being valued. They include the need to be competent in something, gain approval of others, to be recognized and appreciated by others, and the need for achievement. 4

o Cognitive Needs

They include the need to know, understand and explore things.
o Aesthetic Needs

They include need for beauty, orderliness, symmetry, general cleanliness of one’s body and environment.
o Self Actualization Needs

They include needs to realize one’s full potential to things or to become somebody, usually beyond ordinary circumstance like becoming a doctor or professor, or a problem solver.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self Actualization Needs
Aesthetic Needs
Cognitive Needs
Esteem Needs
Affiliation Needs
Safety Needs
Physiological Needs
Source: Omari, I (2006:178)
c) Social Anthropological Approach

It focuses much on quality of life lived by a community/society living in a certain context as measured by indices/conditions. The prominent scholars in this approach include:
i. Adam Curle (1916 – 2006)
 He is a British Academician and a peace maker.
 His full name was Charles Thomas William Curle. He was known as ‘Adam’ after the town where he was born – Llisle Adam – north of Paris.

He suggested 4 conditions for development: Security, sufficiency, satisfaction and stimulus.
o Security

It refers to a social order that is characterised by a minimum absence of violence whether physical or administrative in which the individual is safeguarded by several dimensions like laws and regulations.
o Sufficiency

It refers to availability of necessary minimum conditions or material provisions characterised by absence of wants (desire for something). A human being must feel sufficed.
o Satisfaction

It refers to an authentic enjoyment of life that unfolds as the result of security and sufficiency.
o Stimulus

Any community or individual should feel challenged or stimulated to do something so that it enhances creativity and innovation and therefore making contribution to others.
2.2 The Relationship between Education and Development
 Education can be identified with the common indices of development: Gross national Product (GDP), technological advancement, rate of industrialization, and improved living standards.
 Education develops a skilled and competent human resource which is needed in the development of the society.
 The level of education has a causal relationship to economic development (consider the role of pre primary, primary, secondary, tertiary and university education to the development of a country).
 Education facilitates the fulfilment of each person’s material, spiritual and societal needs.
 Education provides knowledge and information which, in turn, brings about desirable changes in the way people think, feel, and act.
 Education builds a strong sense of self – esteem and self confidence that contributes to the realization of one’s potential.

Education is considered as a social instrument for developing human resources and for human capital formation.
 People with reasonable literacy and numeracy skills (the educated ones) tend to produce more, say farm crops, have a limited number of children, and enjoy a relatively better life than uneducated families.
 Generally, the impact of education on development depends largely on what we teach, how we teach, and how much learners learn. It is the educational contents and teaching methods that make the difference in the society. Thus, education is meaningful only when it brings positive changes in one’s life and empowers a person to face day – to day challenges.

2.3 Education as an Industry
 Education can be compared to any system which has input, process and output. In put in the form of resources is entered into the system and after a conversion processes, an output is achieved. This came to be known as industry system model or Input – Process – output Model.
 The model was developed to account for the similarities in the functioning of such diverse phenomena as living organisms, machines, galaxies and organisations.
 The system may be open or closed. It is closed if it does not take in or eject matter. It is open if in continuously allows inputs and output of matter.
 The open system emphasizes on the interdependence between organization and its environment. The organisation imports various forms of resources from the environment and transforms such resources into other forms in the production process.

The Input – Process – Output (IPO) Model

Operators – Input to operate
Operants – Input to be operated 7

Thus education is an industry which procures raw materials (Inputs), processes them (Process) and gives product (Output) of the raw materials acquired.

Human resource like teachers, administrators, catering workers, gardeners, bus drivers etc.
Material resources like buildings, desks, books, equipment, etc
Financial resources like money.
Constraints like requirements of law and policy.
Expectations of parents, values and goals.
Existing knowledge in the society.
School mission,

The teaching and learning process.
 Internal efficient factors.
 Language like the medium of instruction.
 Teacher student ratio and relationship.
 Quality assurance mechanism.
 Pedagogy.
 Accreditation.
 Curriculum development
 Institutional governance.
 School inspection.
 School activities and programs like meetings.

Learning outcomes (cognitive, affective and psychomotor)
 Examination performances.
 School leavers (graduates).
 Internal efficiency factors
 National/community literacy.

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